San Bernardo, Chile
San Bernardo, Chile

The University of Santiago, Chile is one of the oldest public universities in Chile. The institution was born as Escuela de Artes y Oficios in 1849, under the government of Manuel Bulnes. It became Universidad Técnica del Estado in 1947, with various campuses throughout the country. In 1981, as a consequence of a reform on higher education under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, it became what is now known as Universidad de Santiago de Chile, with all activities centered in a single 340,000 m² campus in the capital Santiago. Wikipedia.


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Method for the microbiological determination of traces of antibiotics in low volume biological samples, which comprises determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic selected from among minocycline, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria are grown in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) overnight, said cultures subsequently being diluted to 0.5 McFarland standard (1.5108 cells/mL). Said antibiotics are subsequently added to 96-well plates in a final volume of 200 L and incubated at 37 C. for 18 hours. Absorbency is determined and the results are expressed as the percentage of inhibition relative to the control containing the biological sample, in turn selected from urine, blood, synovial fluid, aqueous humour of the eye or cerebro spinal fluid (CSF), and the bacterial culture. The curve representing the percentage of inhibition of bacterial growth versus concentration of antibiotic is obtained, and is adjusted by the Four Parameter Logistic Curve (4PL), yielding the concentration values of the antibiotics in the biological sample. The method determines amounts of antibiotic in the biological sample even at ng/mL level.


Barrera N.P.,University of Santiago de Chile | Robinson C.V.,University of Oxford
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Rapid advances in structural genomics and in large-scale proteomic projects have yielded vast amounts of data on soluble proteins and their complexes. Despite these advances, progress in studying membrane proteins using mass spectrometry (MS) has been slow. This is due in part to the inherent solubility and dynamic properties of these proteins, but also to their low abundance and the absence of polar side chains in amino acid residues. Considerable progress in overcoming these challenges is, however, now being made for all levels of structural characterization. This progress includes MS studies of the primary structure of membrane proteins, wherein sophisticated enrichment and trapping procedures are allowing multiple posttranslational modifications to be defined through to the secondary structure level in which proteins and peptides have been probed using hydrogen exchange, covalent, or radiolytic labeling methods. Exciting possibilities now exist to go beyond primary and secondary structure to reveal the tertiary and quaternary interactions of soluble and membrane subunits within intact assemblies of more than 700 kDa. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


Oliva C.A.,University of Santiago de Chile
Ageing research reviews | Year: 2013

Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. The Wnt signaling pathway participates in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the function of the adult nervous system. In fact, most of the key components including Wnts and Frizzled receptors are expressed in the adult brain. Wnt ligands have been implicated in the regulation of synaptic assembly as well as in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with several pathologies, and more recently has been related to neurodegenerative diseases and to mental and mood disorders. In this review, we focus our attention on the Wnt signaling cascade in postnatal life and we review in detail the presence of Wnt signaling components in pre- and postsynaptic regions. Due to the important role of Wnt proteins in wiring neural circuits, we discuss recent findings about the role of Wnt pathways both in basal spontaneous activities as well as in activity-dependent processes that underlie synaptic plasticity. Finally, we review the role of Wnt in vivo and we finish with the most recent data in literature that involves the effect of components of the Wnt signaling pathway in neurological and mental disorders, including a special emphasis on in vivo studies that relate behavioral abnormalities to deficiencies in Wnt signaling, as well as the data that support a neuroprotective role of Wnt proteins in relation to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Moore P.M.,University of Santiago de Chile
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

This is an updated version of a review that was originally published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2004, Issue 2. People with cancer, their families and carers have a high prevalence of psychological stress which may be minimised by effective communication and support from their attending healthcare professionals (HCPs). Research suggests communication skills do not reliably improve with experience, therefore, considerable effort is dedicated to courses that may improve communication skills for HCPs involved in cancer care. A variety of communication skills training (CST) courses have been proposed and are in practice. We conducted this review to determine whether CST works and which types of CST, if any, are the most effective. To assess whether CST is effective in improving the communication skills of HCPs involved in cancer care, and in improving patient health status and satisfaction. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) Issue 2, 2012, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL to February 2012. The original search was conducted in November 2001. In addition, we handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and relevant conference proceedings for additional studies. The original review was a narrative review that included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled before-and-after studies. In this updated version, we limited our criteria to RCTs evaluating 'CST' compared with 'no CST' or other CST in HCPs working in cancer care. Primary outcomes were changes in HCP communication skills measured in interactions with real and/or simulated patients with cancer, using objective scales. We excluded studies whose focus was communication skills in encounters related to informed consent for research. Two review authors independently assessed trials and extracted data to a pre-designed data collection form. We pooled data using the random-effects model and, for continuous data, we used standardised mean differences (SMDs). We included 15 RCTs (42 records), conducted mainly in outpatient settings. Eleven studies compared CST with no CST intervention, three studies compared the effect of a follow-up CST intervention after initial CST training, and one study compared two types of CST. The types of CST courses evaluated in these trials were diverse. Study participants included oncologists (six studies), residents (one study) other doctors (one study), nurses (six studies) and a mixed team of HCPs (one study). Overall, 1147 HCPs participated (536 doctors, 522 nurses and 80 mixed HCPs).Ten studies contributed data to the meta-analyses. HCPs in the CST group were statistically significantly more likely to use open questions in the post-intervention interviews than the control group (five studies, 679 participant interviews; P = 0.04, I2 = 65%) and more likely to show empathy towards patients (six studies, 727 participant interviews; P = 0.004, I2 = 0%); we considered this evidence to be of moderate and high quality, respectively. Doctors and nurses did not perform statistically significantly differently for any HCP outcomes.There were no statistically significant differences in the other HCP communication skills except for the subgroup of participant interviews with simulated patients, where the intervention group was significantly less likely to present 'facts only' compared with the control group (four studies, 344 participant interviews; P = 0.01, I2 = 70%).There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to outcomes assessing HCP 'burnout', patient satisfaction or patient perception of the HCPs communication skills. Patients in the control group experienced a greater reduction in mean anxiety scores in a meta-analyses of two studies (169 participant interviews; P = 0.02; I2 = 8%); we considered this evidence to be of a very low quality. Various CST courses appear to be effective in improving some types of HCP communication skills related to information gathering and supportive skills. We were unable to determine whether the effects of CST are sustained over time, whether consolidation sessions are necessary, and which types of CST programs are most likely to work. We found no evidence to support a beneficial effect of CST on HCP 'burnout', patients' mental or physical health, and patient satisfaction.


Castro-Rodriguez J.A.,University of Santiago de Chile
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2010

Recurrent wheezing is a common problem in young children: approximately 40% of children wheeze in their first year of life. However, only 30% of preschoolers with recurrent wheezing still have asthma at the age of 6 years. Nevertheless, asthma, the most prevalent chronic disease in children, is difficult to diagnose in infants and preschoolers. This article reviews the importance of determining at an early age which infants/ preschoolers will have asthma later in life, analyzes the pros and cons of different predictive indices, and discusses the efficacy of the Asthma Predictive Index. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010; 126: 212-6.) © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.


The present invention thus relates to a formulation comprising St. Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts or a mixture of both, to improve survival to stressful and pathogens events, and also the feed conversion factor (greater weight gain and growth by delivered food). All of this, without affecting the fish smoltification ability.


Patent
University of Santiago de Chile | Date: 2016-08-22

The invention proposes a container further extending the shelf life of foods, particularly berries, by including an active agent having antifungal capability into the container surface so that when the fruit is packaged inside the container it is permanently exerted an antifungal effect over the surface, which is the place on the longer determinants occurs, but also contributing to preserve the general environment. Also it proposes a preparation process and its use.


A microbiological method for determining traces of antibiotics in low volume biological samples, which comprises determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antibiotic selected from a group consisting of minocycline, ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, tetracycline and oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus. The bacteria are grown overnight in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB), said cultures subsequently being diluted to 0.5 McFarland standard (1.5 x 108 cells/mL). Said antibiotics are then added to 96-well plates to a final volume of 200 L and incubated at 37C for 18 hours. Absorbency is determined and the results are expressed as the percentage of inhibition relative to the control containing the biological sample, selected in turn from urine, blood, synovial fluid, eye aqueous humour or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the bacterial culture. The curve representing the percentage of bacterial growth inhibition versus concentration of antibiotic is obtained, and fitted by Four Parameter Logistic Curve (4PL) analysis, yielding the antibiotic concentration values in the biological sample. The method allows to determine amounts of antibiotic in the biological sample even at ng/mL level.


Patent
University of Santiago de Chile | Date: 2016-02-02

A method for treating cancer. The method including administering to a subject in need thereof, a combination including an effective amount of polymyxin B in combination with an effective amount of ATP, wherein the combination is effective in treating a tumor or cancer in the subject.


The present invention thus relates to a formulation comprising St. Johns Wort (Hypericum perforatum, HP), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts or a mixture of both, to improve survival to stressful and pathogens events, and also the feed conversion factor (greater weight gain and growth by delivered food). All of this, without affecting the fish smoltification ability.

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