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Independencia, Brazil

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de Oliveira Schwaickhardt R.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Machado E.L.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Lutterbeck C.A.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2017

The present research investigated the treatment of hospital laundry wastewaters by the combined use of photochemical VUV and UVC reactors. Seven different configurations were tested and the performances of each of them were evaluated based on the removal of the load parameters, detoxification and life cycle assessment (LCA). The characterization of studied wastewaters included analysis of the following parameters: COD, BOD5, TKN, total P, pH, turbidity and conductivity. Acute ecotoxicity was evaluated using Daphnia magna. Ultraviolet–Visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy was performed to determine the organic fraction and chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometer (GC–MS) was used for the qualitative characterization of priority pollutants. Characterization parameters showed the presence of drugs like lidocaine and dipyrone and a high organic load with a poor biodegradability. Wastewaters presented an extreme acute toxicity against D. magna (EC50 6.7%). The ozonation process (mainly generated by the VUV reactor) obtained the best results concerning the ratio between the consumed energy and the removed COD and the UVC process presented the lowest environmental impacts for the characterization and normalization parameters of the LCA. Normalization revealed that the highest environmental burdens were associated with human toxicity, ecotoxicity and eutrophication of surface waters as well as to the use of non-renewable resources. VUV/UVC/O3 process presented the best results considering detoxification (EC50 100%). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Ferrao M.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Viera M.D.S.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Pazos R.E.P.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Fachini D.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 2 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2011

Partial least-squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy partial least squares (siPLS) regressions were used to simultaneous determination of quality parameters of biodiesel/diesel blends. Biodiesel amount, specific gravity, sulfur content and flash point were evaluated using spectroscopic data in the mid-infrared region obtained with a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) accessory. Eighty-five binary blends were prepared using biodiesel and two types of diesel, in concentrations from 0.2 to 30% (v/v). Fifty-seven samples were used as a calibration set, whereas 28 samples were used as an external validation set. All samples were characterized using the appropriated standard methods. The specific gravity values at 20 °C were in the range of 848.2-866.2 kg/m3. Flash point values lay between 47.0 and 79.5 °C. Sulfur content values varied from 312 to 1351 mg/kg. Raw spectra of the samples were corrected by multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and were pre-processed using a mean-centered procedure. Algorithms iPLS and siPLS were able to select the most adequate spectral region for each property studied. For all the properties studied, the siPLS algorithm produced better models than the full-spectrum PLS, selecting the most important bands. The quantification of biodiesel was performed using two spectral regions between 650-1909 cm-1 and 2746-3165 cm-1, and an excellent correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9996 was obtained. The specific gravity was determined from the spectral region from 650 to 1070 cm -1, which yielded a very good correlation coefficient of R 2 = 0.9987. The sulfur content was evaluated from the spectral regions of 1070-1491 cm-1 and 2746-3165 cm-1. A very good correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9995 was obtained, regardless of whether the samples were formulated with metropolitan or countryside diesel. Finally, the flash point was determined from the spectral region between 756 and 968 cm-1 and a very good correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9982 was obtained. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Roxo-Junior P.,University of Sao Paulo | Simao H.M.L.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research | Year: 2014

Chronic granulomatous disease is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase system. Patients can present with severe, recurrent infections and noninfectious conditions. Among the latter, inflammatory manifestations are predominant, especially granulomas and colitis. In this article, we systematically review the possible mechanisms of hyperinflammation in this rare primary immunodeficiency condition and their correlations with clinical aspects. © 2014, Associacao Brasileira de Divulgacao Cientifica. All rights reserved.


Metzger I.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Ishizawa M.H.,University of Sao Paulo | Rios-Santos F.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Carvalho W.A.,San Rafael Hospital | Tanus-Santos J.E.,University of Sao Paulo
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2011

Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been associated with variations in nitric oxide (NO) formation and response to drugs in white subjects. We examined whether genetic polymorphisms (T-786C, b/a intron 4 and Glu298Asp) and haplotypes of the eNOS gene affect NO formation in 179 healthy black subjects. To assess NO formation, we measured the concentrations of nitrite in the plasma, red blood cells and whole blood. Although we found no effects of individual eNOS polymorphisms on NO formation, we found that the C-4b-Glu haplotype is significantly more common in subjects with low circulating plasma and whole blood nitrite concentrations compared with subjects with high circulating nitrite concentrations (both P<0.0007). These findings reproduce previous findings in white subjects and are consistent with the idea that defining genetic markers is more important than ethnic classification, at least in terms of NO formation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Pra D.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Pra D.,Catholic University of Pelotas | Franke S.I.R.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Henriques J.A.P.,University of Caxias do Sul | Fenech M.,CSIRO
Mutation Research - Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis | Year: 2012

Iron is an essential micronutrient which is required in a relatively narrow range for maintaining metabolic homeostasis and genome stability. Iron participates in oxygen transport and mitochondrial respiration as well as in antioxidant and nucleic acid metabolism. Iron deficiency impairs these biological pathways, leading to oxidative stress and possibly carcinogenesis. Iron overload has been linked to genome instability as well as to cancer risk increase, as seen in hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron is an extremely reactive transition metal that can interact with hydrogen peroxide to generate hydroxyl radicals that form the 8-hydroxy-guanine adduct, cause point mutations as well as DNA single and double strand breaks. Iron overload also induces DNA hypermethylation and can reduce telomere length. The current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for iron, according with Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), is based in the concept of preventing anemia, and ranges from 7. mg/day to 18. mg/day depending on life stage and gender. Pregnant women need 27. mg/day. The maximum safety level for iron intake, the Upper Level (UL), is 40-45. mg/day, based on the prevention of gastrointestinal distress associated to high iron intakes. Preliminary evidence indicates that 20. mg/day iron, an intake slightly higher than the RDA, may reduce the risk of gastrointestinal cancer in the elderly as well as increasing genome stability in lymphocytes of children and adolescents. Current dietary recommendations do not consider the concept of genome stability which is of concern because damage to the genome has been linked to the origin and progression of many diseases and is the most fundamental pathology. Given the importance of iron for homeostasis and its potential influence over genome stability and cancer it is recommended to conduct further studies that conclusively define these relationships. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Forno A.J.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Pereira F.A.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Forcellini F.A.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Kipper L.M.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2014

Value stream mapping (VSM) is an important tool of the lean approach and is used to identify value-adding activities and those considered wasteful of materials and the flow of information and people. However, when not applied correctly, VSM can complicate the identification of waste, lead to misinterpretations and assessment mistakes, and undermine the implementation of future improvements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main difficulties and limitations encountered during the construction of current state maps, analysis of the associated causes, and pointing out of guidelines to facilitate the use of VSM to map processes. To do so, a search and evaluation of papers in journals, conferences, theses, and dissertations was conducted, and the articles were categorized according to the field of application (factory floor, supply chain, product development and services) and approach (theoretical or practical). In conclusion, this paper criticizes some ways that VSM has been used, observing that important constraints created by its application must be considered and that when used incorrectly, the tool can lead to mistakes that can cause problems instead of benefits. Considering the problems identified, the paper suggests future works for improving the use of VSM for mapping processes. © 2014 Springer-Verlag London.


Pereira C.S.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul
Mutation research | Year: 2013

Prediabetes (intermediate hyperglycemia) is a high-risk state for diabetes that is defined by higher than normal glycemic levels that are below the level required for a diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes is characterized by oxidative stress, yet the associated DNA damage and cytotoxicity remain unknown to date. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between glycemic alterations, DNA damage and cytotoxicity in the lymphocytes of individuals with pre-diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels were quantified and used as inclusion criteria. Anthropometric parameters were also evaluated. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN Cyt) was used to evaluate DNA damage and cytotoxicity. FPG correlated with A1C (r=0.562, p=0.002). Because A1C is the best predictor of diabetes complications, the association between A1C and the evaluated variables was assessed. The waist-hip ratio correlated with A1C (p<0.01). Regarding DNA damage, the frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges correlated with A1C (p<0.05). Both apoptosis and necrosis correlated with A1C (p<0.05). The overall frequency of DNA damage and cytotoxicity also correlated with A1C (p<0.01). Additional studies evaluating cell cycle and cell death patterns in prediabetes are necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lutterbeck C.A.,Lüneburg University | Lutterbeck C.A.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Machado T.L.,University of Santa Cruz do Sul | Kummerer K.,Lüneburg University
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

Anticancer drugs are harmful substances that can have carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. More than 50years after its introduction, the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (CP) is still one of the most consumed anticancer drug worldwide. CP has been detected in water bodies in several studies and is known as being persistent in the aquatic environment. As the traditional water and wastewater treatment technologies are not able to remove CP from the water, different treatment options such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are under discussion to eliminate these compounds. The present study investigated the degradation of CP by three different AOPs: UV/H2O2, UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. The light source was a Hg medium-pressure lamp. Prescreening tests were carried out and afterwards experiments based on the optimized conditions were performed. The primary elimination of the parent compounds and the detection of transformation products (TPs) were monitored with LC-UV-MS/MS analysis, whereas the degree of mineralization was monitored by measuring the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Ecotoxicological assays were carried out with the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. CP was completely degraded in all treatments and UV/Fe2+/H2O2 was the fastest process, followed by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2. All the reactions obeyed pseudo-first order kinetics. Considering the mineralization UV/Fe2+/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 were the most efficient process with mineralization degrees higher than 85%, whereas UV/H2O2 achieved 72.5% of DOC removal. Five transformation products were formed during the reactions and identified. None of them showed significant toxicity against V. fischeri. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


OBJECTIVE: This article seeks to understand the experiences of transgender women in relation to the hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery that make up the Gender Reassignment Process.METHOD: It is a qualitative study inserted into the field of cultural and gender studies. Data collection used narrative interviews, conducted in 2010 and 2011, with seven transsexual women who had been undergoing the Gender Reassignment Process for at least two years. The data was submitted to a thematic analysis.RESULTS: The results show that the transformation processes for construction of the female body include behavior adaptation, posture modification, voice modulation, hormone use, vaginal canal dilation and surgical complications. Such processes subject the body to be built as idealized to fit the gender identity, infringing on pleasures and afflictions.CONCLUSION: We concluded that the discussion involving the Gender Reassignment Process brings allowances for nursing regarding body changes experienced by transgender women.


The main objective of this study was to use infrared spectroscopy to identify vegetable oils used as raw material for biodiesel production and apply multivariate analysis to the data. Six different vegetable oil sources--canola, cotton, corn, palm, sunflower and soybeans--were used to produce biodiesel batches. The spectra were acquired by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a universal attenuated total reflectance sensor (FTIR-UATR). For the multivariate analysis principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), interval principal component analysis (iPCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used. The results indicate that is possible to develop a methodology to identify vegetable oils used as raw material in the production of biodiesel by FTIR-UATR applying multivariate analysis. It was also observed that the iPCA found the best spectral range for separation of biodiesel batches using FTIR-UATR data, and with this result, the SIMCA method classified 100% of the soybean biodiesel samples.

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