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Messeni Petruzzelli A.,Polytechnic of Bari | Savino T.,University of San Marino
Long Range Planning | Year: 2014

This study investigates the impact of searching and recombining old components in the development of successful innovations. Specifically, we identify the main characteristics of old components that contribute to enhance the value of innovations, as well as the mechanisms underlying their recombination. To this aim, we conduct an in-depth case study of the innovation process, characterizing the Danish haute cuisine chef René Redzepi, whose restaurant Noma was voted the best restaurant in the world in the 2010, 2011, and 2012 San Pellegrino Awards. Our analysis reveals that searching and recombining components across time may be beneficial for the success of an innovation, especially when they are culturally close to the inventor and relatively unexploited in the specific industry. Moreover, the positive contribution of old components is enhanced when they are recombined with other geographically proximate elements and when new techniques and solutions are employed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Petroni G.,University of San Marino | Venturini K.,University of San Marino | Verbano C.,University of Padua
International Journal of Human Resource Management | Year: 2012

The steady growth of R&D costs and the increasingly widespread dissemination of information and communication technology over the past decade have resulted in the affirmation of the paradigm of open innovation, which consists in the continual expansion of access to sources of technological innovation outside the firm itself. Industrial companies are, in fact, turning more frequently to collaboration with university departments and other public and private research centers, and there is a notable increase in agreements regarding technological cooperation and the exchange of know-how between companies. In addition, recourse to highly specialized small research companies is on the rise. This is common, for example in the pharmaceutical sector and, more generally, in the area of biotechnological research. Furthermore, we are witnessing the development of the new role of innovation broker. These factors alter the traditional profile of company R&D structures, within which the role of researchers and technologists often changes. In particular, matrix and network organizational models are on the increase, and the professional figures of 'integrators of knowledge and expertise' (T-men) are assuming major importance at the expense of traditional scientists. As a consequence, the model for training and managing scientific personnel tends to change. This model, as it moves away from the prevailing pattern adopted by firms in Anglophone countries, is continually drawing closer, even from a cultural standpoint, to the R&D management approach found in the Japanese and German companies. The aim of this article is to investigate how the adoption of open innovation has changed the organizational structures of R&D and altered the methods used in managing its personnel. The results of the study are based on the analysis of four case studies of Italian multinational firms operating in the pharmaceutical, food, specialty chemical, and aerospace industries. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Forcellini D.,University of San Marino | Tarantino A.M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
The Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Soil liquefaction has been observed worldwide during recent major earthquakes with induced effects responsible for much of the damage, disruption of function, and considerable replacement expenses for structures. The phenomenon has not been documented in recent time with such damage in Italian context before the recent Emilia-Romagna Earthquake (May 2012). The main lateral spreading and vertical deformations affected the stability of many buildings and impacted social life inducing valuable lessons on liquefaction risk assessment and remediation. This paper aims first of all to reproduce soil response to liquefaction-induced lateral effects and thus to evaluate stone column mitigation technique effectiveness by gradually increasing the extension of remediation, in order to achieve a satisfactory lower level of permanent deformations. The study is based on the use of a FE computational interface able to analyse the earthquake-induced three-dimensional pore pressure generation adopting one of the most credited nonlinear theories in order to assess realistically the displacements connected to lateral spreading. © 2014 Davide Forcellini and Angelo Marcello Tarantino.

Grilli A.,University of San Marino | Bocci M.,Marche Polytechnic University | Tarantino A.M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2013

Cement treated materials (CTMs) are used as base or subbase courses for heavy-traffic highway. CTMs are characterised by high strength and stiffness ensuring a good support for the upper bituminous layers and by a uniform stress distribution on the lower layers. However, high stiffness of CTM can be self-defeating when the brittle behaviour becomes critical. In this case, CTM become typically prone to shrinkage cracking, which can lead to premature failure of the overall pavement. The use of polymer fibres, such as polypropylene fibres (PFs), can avoid the CTM weakening due to shrinkage phenomenon and it can prevent crack propagation with remarkable benefits in terms of service life of the road pavement. CTM were originally produced using natural or crushed aggregates but, currently, also recycled aggregates, such as reclaimed asphalt (RA), have been more and more used to preserve natural resources and to reduce the disposal of materials coming from the demolition of civil constructions. Although recycled aggregates could affect CTM mechanical characteristics, an accurate mix design and material selection allow appreciable performance to be reached. This paper is a part of an overall research project and it investigates the influence of PF dosage and RA content on CTM properties. In particular, 3-point bending tests and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests were carried out on CTM employing a combination of different PF dosages and RA contents. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Atkinson P.M.,University of Southampton | Massari R.,University of San Marino
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

In previous research, a logistic regression of landslide occurrence on several explanatory variables was fitted and used to map landslide susceptibility for a small area in the central Apennines, Italy. Here, the spatial dependence or spatial correlation in the residuals from the fitted regression model was accounted for by inserting an autocovariate into the model. The autocovariate was estimated by applying a Gibbs sampler to the susceptibilities for neighbouring pixels. As in any landslide susceptibility analysis, accuracy was difficult to assess because of the requirement for data on future landslides. However, by comparing the ordinary logistic model to the autologistic model obtained on the same set of data, it was possible to assess the influence of the autocovariate. The autocovariate rendered the model simpler because several variables lost their significance and were, therefore, omitted from the model. Further, areas of high landslide susceptibility estimated from the autologistic model were geographically clustered, as one would expect, and this may be advantageous in terms of (i) interpreting the model and (ii) displaying the results to non-experts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Lanzoni L.,University of San Marino | Nobili A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Tarantino A.M.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

A polypropylene-based draw-wired fibre suitable for fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) is studied and its effect on flexural behaviour, toughness and shrinkage cracking is shown. In order to assess the performance offered by such a fibre over commercially available synthetic and metallic ones, comparative tests are carried out with respect to standard four-point bending and constrained shrinkage behaviour. The experimental evidence shows that FRC reinforced with these fibres possesses interesting structural features; in particular, fibres significantly improve crack resistance while enhancing toughness and durability of FRC elements. Equally important, such behaviour is gained without significantly affecting the workability of the mixture. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bigliardi B.,University of Parma | Galati F.,University of San Marino
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Innovation in the food industry is increasingly based on the decisions and activities of the company itself but also, and in particular, of the other entities involved in the innovation system. Similar considerations hold for open innovation mechanisms: due to the wide number of players involved in the development of innovative products, innovation activities must be carefully coordinated. As such, the sector should exhibit a significant number of open innovation strategies, whose purpose may range from merely access to external sources of knowledge, to actively taking part in the creation of inter-organizational knowledge and skills. Although there is still limited empirical evidence regarding open innovation strategies in the food industry, some studies are available highlighting how different firms succeeded in overcoming some of the barriers to innovation. In this paper, we review the extant literature on open innovation practices in the food context, and specifically we analyse three main models recently proposed. Finally, we draw implications for food companies and highlight some future trends for the open innovation adoption. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bigliardi B.,University of Parma | Galati F.,University of San Marino
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The food industry is one of the most important branches of the national economy in Italy and in the European Union in general, playing a central role for the processing of agricultural raw materials and food supply. This industry is traditionally regarded as a sector with low research intensity; notwithstanding, innovations are recognized as an important instrument for companies belonging to the food industry in order to stand out from competitors and to satisfy consumer expectations. In this regard, functional foods play an outstanding role, as demonstrated by their increasing demand derived from the increasing cost of healthcare, the steady increase of life expectancy, and the desire of older people for improved quality of their later years. The main target of this paper is to analyze the state of the art on functional foods. For this purpose, a review of extant literature is presented. Specific emphasis is laid on the definition and the main examples of functional food. The paper concludes with comments on future trends. •The aim of this review is to analyze the state of the art on functional foods.•Specific emphasis is laid on the definition and the main examples of functional foods.•An overview is given about the market of functional foods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Verbano C.,University of Padua | Venturini K.,University of San Marino
Journal of Risk Research | Year: 2011

In the most recent stage of development of modern society, the growing complexity and dynamism of the contexts firms operate in has led to a relentless increase in the level of risk in all areas of firms' management and activities. For this reason, the discipline and practice of risk management (RM) has taken hold more and more in very different sectors and contexts: from nuclear to supply chain to healthcare. The evolutionary path of RM has followed distinct paths of development that have adopted specific perspectives and, backed by different cultural matrices, led to unique approaches and methods. The aim of this paper is to provide a contribution to the identification and characterization of new paths of development based on a thorough analysis of the academic and managerial literature. This taxonomy can serve as an integrated reference to the RM discipline allowing those who deal with RM to identify and characterize the most suitable paths of development for a given context, within a comprehensive framework. This study can also promote a sort of 'cross fertilization' between experts in specific areas of RM as has been the case of clinical RM which draws from the experience gained in the field of complex engineering systems. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.

Forcellini D.,University of San Marino
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2016

Bridges are lifeline structures acting as an important link in surface transportation network and their collapse under seismic excitations affects social and civil functionality. Historical bridge seismic collapses under earthquake actions have proved the significant role of soil structure interaction. The paper aims at evaluating bridge protection and seismic strengthening applying isolation technique. It is based on the application of a Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering methodology, introduced by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. The study presents a representative two—span bridge with several isolated configurations as affected by soil deformability. Isolation technique contribution is assessed in terms of costs quantities with peak ground acceleration levels. The study can be considered a first attempt to evaluate seismic effects of SSI by taking into account economic performance. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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