Guatemala City, Guatemala

University of San Carlos of Guatemala
Guatemala City, Guatemala

The Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala It is the biggest and oldest university of Guatemala, also it is the fourth founded in the Americas.The transcendence of its students and itself has been seen in many important times, since the independence of Guatemala, Guatemalan Revolution, Guatemalan Civil War, and even today.The main campus is located on University City, zone 12 of Guatemala City, being the biggest one of Central America. It also has several extension branches on every region of the country, and a metropolitan center where the Medicine and Psychology Faculties operate. Wikipedia.

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Mencos A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Mencos A.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Nourry S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Krim L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2017

Even though the N3 radical has not yet been detected in the interstellar medium, its formation still remains a challenge. For a long time, bombardments of N2 ices by energetic particles were the only way to from the azide radical as it was thought that ultraviolet (UV) photons were not strong enough to fragment the molecular nitrogen into N atoms. Consequently, it had been suggested that N3 could be used as discriminator between ice radiolysis and ice photolysis until a very recent study that has shown that photodecomposition of molecular nitrogen by UV photons might also be a source of the azide radical. In contrast to all these nitrogen ice bombarding experiments, only two laboratory studies have investigated the N3 formation where the reactants N and N2 mixed in the gas phase were co-condensed at 12 K, and this raised a new question concerning whether N + N2→N3 took place in the solid phase or in the gas phase. The experimental results of these two studies are contradictory and the problem of the characterization of N3 formation by co-condensing atomic N and molecular N2 has persisted to the present day. In this paper, we give a clear answer to this question, by investigating the kinetic rates of the N(4S) + N2 → N3 reaction in the solid phase in the temperature range of 3-35 K. We find a rate constant of 7.7 × 10-23 s-1 molecule-1 cm3 for the azide radical formation in the solid phase and we provide new information on the N3 infrared signature, which could be used to characterize the temperature and the structure of nitrogen ices. © 2017 The Authors.

McDonald H.G.,Bureau of Land Management | Davila A S.L.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala
Quaternary International | Year: 2017

The remains of the Columbian Mammoth, Mammuthus columbi, are reported from four localities in Guatemala based on seven dental records. These localities are widely separated and include one specimen from Río La Pasión, Sayaxché, Departamento de Petén in the northern part of the country, one specimen from Chinautla, Departamento de Guatemala in the southwest and four specimens from the vicinity of Estanzuela, Departamento de Zacapa and one from Teculután, Departamento de Zacapa in the southeast. Based on the known records the distribution of Mammuthus in Central America tends to be concentrated on the Pacific side of the isthmus and suggests the former presence of a savanna corridor that formed during an interval of decreased precipitation. © 2016

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: INCO-2009-1.3 | Award Amount: 1.85M | Year: 2009

ENLACE aims at supporting the bi-regional dialogue between the EU and the Central America Countries (CAC) on S&T issues, identifying common interests in research areas, setting up S&T priorities, supporting capacity building activities, and enhancing the dialogue within the region. The planned activities are: policy dialogue meetings between EU and CA stakeholders to identify research priorities of mutual interest; training activities to set up the network of FP7 National Contact Point in Central America and an Enterprise Europe Network correspondent. In addition, the project foresees a set of activities to enhance the networking among EU and CA researchers and to raise awareness on FP7 in CA. Dissemination events from one side and travel allowances for researchers from the other side will provide concrete tools to boost the participation of CA in FP7. The consortium includes 14 multi-skilled partners, 6 from the EU and 8 from the Central America, that will ensure the fulfillment of ENLACEs objectives.

De Leon Ayala I.A.,Kaohsiung Medical University | De Leon Ayala I.A.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Chen Y.-F.,Kaohsiung Medical University
Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2012

The aorta, which has a complex intrinsic biology and sophisticated mechanical properties for conducting the blood ejected from the left ventricle to the rest of the systemic arterial bed, is the largest and strongest artery in the body. It carries roughly 200 million liters of blood in an average lifetime. Any process that undermines the architecture threatens the structure, stability, and functionality of the aorta. In this regard, acute aortic dissection (AAD) requires special attention because it is the most catastrophic acute illness of the aorta; it has high morbidity and mortality because of potentially fatal complications. AAD has, therefore, become an important topic of recent research, and knowledge about this disease has improved during the past few years. Up-to-date knowledge about the natural history, epidemiology, presentation, physiopathology, evolution, management, follow-up, and long-term outcomes of AAD are summarized in this review. © 2012, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: KBBE-2009-3-1-02 | Award Amount: 4.16M | Year: 2010

Jatropha curcas shows a big promise towards sustainable and affordable biofuels. Several groups are working independently towards development of both agrosystems and high quality germplasm of Jatropha, and downstream processing and biodiesel markets. The challenges are to make the big promises come true: high oil yield, low competition with food crops, use in various agrosystems from monoculture plantations, to mixed cropping and use in hedges around agricultural fields. JATROPT aims at linking high quality research groups and companies that are now operating in different continents in order to achieve a large synergy in research and development of jatropha as a biofuel crop. In five Workpackages (Breeding, Genetic tools, Sustainable Agrosystems, Demonstrating and Dissemination), the following aims are pursued: 1) Achieve a world wide germplasm collection of Jatropha curcas, molecularly characterised in order to classify the collection into groups with similar genetic backgrounds; evaluation of elite germplasm of this collection in Asia, Africa and Latin-America; linking segregating population based on parents from different parts of the world and creating a global Jatropha linkage map. 2) Develop genetic information and marker tools (genetics of toxic/low toxic trait, branching patterns; disease resistance) to speed up the breeding process. 3) Develop agrosystems that yield sustainable and affordable biofuels - and interesting uses of the co-products (biomass/protein residues after oil extraction), with a focus on Pro Poor development and on designing systems in which competion for food and fuel can be minimised; 4) Demonstration of the potential of local/regional use of produced biofuels to increase agricultural and general economic productivity will be investigated. 5) Achieve dissemination of knowledge on quality of germplasm, on genetics and sustainable agrosystems setting up distribution of combined packages of agronomic guidelines and germplasm.

Becerril-Montekio V.,Research Center En Sistemas Of Salud | Lopez-Davila L.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala
Salud Publica de Mexico | Year: 2011

This paper describes the health conditions in Guatemala and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Guatemalan health system, including its structure en coverage, its financial sources, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health, as well as the generation of health information and the development of research activities. It also discusses the recent efforts to extend coverage of essential health services, mostly to poor rural areas. The most recent innovations also discussed in this paper include the Program for the Expansion of Coverage of Essential Services, the Program to Expand Access to Essential Drugs and the agreements between the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations to provide essential services in rural settings.

Stevens L.,University of Vermont | Monroy M.C.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Rodas A.G.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Dorn P.L.,Loyola University New Orleans
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

We determined the blood meal sources of twenty-four T. dimidiata collected from two locations in Guatemala and one in Belize where human interactions with the caves differ. Blood meal sources were determined by cloning and sequencing PCR products amplified from DNA extracted from the vector abdomen using primers specific for the vertebrate 12S mitochondrial gene. The blood meal sources were inferred by ≥99% identity with published sequences. We found 70% of cave-collected T. dimidiata positive for human DNA. The vectors had fed on 10 additional vertebrates with a variety of relationships to humans, including companion animal (dog), food animals (pig, sheep/goat), wild animals (duck, two bat, two opossum species) and commensal animals (mouse, rat). Vectors from all locations fed on humans and commensal animals. The blood meal sources differ among locations, as well as the likelihood of feeding on dog and food animals. Vectors from one location were tested for T. cruzi infection, and 30% (3/10) tested positive, including two positive for human blood meals.Triatoma dimidiata, currently the major Central American vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease, inhabits caves throughout the region. This research investigates the possibility that cave dwelling T. dimidiata might transmit the parasite to humans and links the blood meal sources of cave vectors to cultural practices that differ among locations.Cave dwelling Chagas disease vectors feed on humans and commensal animals as well as dog, food animals and wild animals. Blood meal sources were related to human uses of the caves. We caution that just as T. dimidiata in caves may pose an epidemiological risk, there may be other situations where risk is thought to be minimal, but is not. © 2014 Stevens et al.

Turcios A.E.,Institute For Botanik | Turcios A.E.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Papenbrock J.,Institute For Botanik
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Many aquaculture systems generate high amounts of wastewater containing compounds such as suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Today, aquaculture is imperative because fish demand is increasing. However, the load of waste is directly proportional to the fish production. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more intensive fish culture with efficient systems for wastewater treatment. A number of physical, chemical and biological methods used in conventional wastewater treatment have been applied in aquaculture systems. Constructed wetlands technology is becoming more and more important in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) because wetlands have proven to be well-established and a cost-effective method for treating wastewater. This review gives an overview about possibilities to avoid the pollution of water resources; it focuses initially on the use of systems combining aquaculture and plants with a historical review of aquaculture and the treatment of its effluents. It discusses the present state, taking into account the load of pollutants in wastewater such as nitrates and phosphates, and finishes with recommendations to prevent or at least reduce the pollution of water resources in the future.

Pellecer M.J.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Dorn P.L.,Loyola University New Orleans | Bustamante D.M.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Rodas A.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala | Monroy M.C.,University of San Carlos of Guatemala
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013

A novel method using vector blood meal sources to assess the impact of control efforts on the risk of transmission of Chagas disease was tested in the village of El Tule, Jutiapa, Guatemala. Control used Ecohealth interventions, where villagers ameliorated the factors identified as most important for transmission. First, after an initial insecticide application, house walls were plastered. Later, bedroom floors were improved and domestic animals were moved outdoors. Only vector blood meal sources revealed the success of the first interventions: human blood meals declined from 38% to 3% after insecticide application and wall plastering. Following all interventions both vector blood meal sources and entomological indices revealed the reduction in transmission risk. These results indicate that vector blood meals may reveal effects of control efforts early on, effects that may not be apparent using traditional entomological indices, and provide further support for the Ecohealth approach to Chagas control in Guatemala. Copyright © 2013 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for overweight and obesity in children of Imbabura province (Ecuador). In a sample with random selection 450 students 6-12 years of age were chosen. In 22 urban and rural schools we evaluated overweight and obesity with Body Mass Index (BMI) for age, arm skinfold and shoulder and abdomen circumference. We define overweight with BMI for age between 85 to 95 percentile and obesity above percentile 95 and obesity was confirmed by measurement of skinfold above percentile 90. We assessed energetic intake, physical activity and socio demographics aspects by a questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13.6% (10% overweight and 3.6 % obese). This problem was higher in children from private schools. Average daily energy ingest was 2,195 Kcal. Poor physical activity was another associated factor, 25.1% of assessed children watched over 3 hours of television daily but we didn't find association between television use and overweight and obesity. Logistic regression analysis shows risk factor for overweight and obesity the preference of drink soda (OR 2.7 IC 95% 1, 3-5.3), sons of mothers with remunerated job (OR 2.5, IC 95% 1.3-4.8), poor physical activity (OR 1.6 IC 95% 1.2-2.2) and go to school by some kind of transport (OR 2.0 IC 95% 1.4-3.0); the preference for orange juice was a factor of protection (OR0, 3 IC 95% 0.15-0.8).

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