Cebu City, Philippines
Cebu City, Philippines

The University of San Carlos is a private Catholic university in Cebu City which is administered and managed by the Society of the Divine Word since 1935. It offers a Montessori preparatory academy, Basic Education, 80 Undergraduate, and 85 Graduate programs, with a broad spectrum of academic disciplines through its 8 colleges and 27 departments. The premier university in Cebu and one of the top 10 leading universities in the country ranked by the International / World QS rating among the top 300 universities in Asia .It consists of five campuses in different areas of Metro Cebu – the Downtown Campus along P. del Rosario St., the Talamban Campus along Gov. M. Cuenco Ave., the North Campus along Gen. Maxilom Ave., the South Campus along corners J. Alcantara St. and V. Rama Avenue and the newest is the Montessori Academy along F. Sotto Drive . Wikipedia.


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Garcia-Feijoo J.,University of San Carlos | Sampaolesi J.R.,Centro Oftalmologico Sampaolesi
Clinical Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Background: Glaucoma can be associated with an increase in the occurrence of ocular surface disease (OSD) symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of ocular surface complaints in patients with glaucoma who used topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering therapies. Methods: In this multicenter, international, noninterventional study, adults with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were using 1 or more topical IOP-lowering medications completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire during a regularly scheduled clinic visit. OSDI scores (ranging from 0 to 100) were calculated for each patient. An OSDI score $13 indicated a clinically relevant presence of OSD. Results: Of the 448 patients who were evaluated, 53.3% were women, 61.6% had a diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma, and the mean age was 63 years. The overall OSD prevalence rate in the evaluable population was 59.2%, with 25.7%, 13.2%, and 20.3% of the patients reporting mild, moderate, or severe OSD symptoms, respectively. Patients with glaucoma diagnoses of less than 6 years had a significantly lower mean OSDI score relative to patients with glaucoma diagnoses of 6 years or more (18 [mild OSD] versus 23 [moderate OSD], respectively; P = 0.03). As the number of IOP-lowering treatments increased from one or two medications to three or four medications, the mean OSDI score increased from mild to moderate, though the difference in scores was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). Conclusions: OSD was highly prevalent in this population of glaucoma patients who were using IOP-lowering medications. Longer duration since diagnosis was significantly correlated with worsening of OSD symptoms. Increases in the number of medications applied also showed a clinically relevant increase in OSD symptom severity. © 2012 Garcia-Feijoo and Sampaolesi, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Vano E.,University of San Carlos | Vano E.,Complutense University of Madrid
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2011

When planning good management of ionising radiation in medicine, key factors such as ensuring that health professionals work together and convincing them that radiation protection (RP) represents a substantial part of the quality management system in their clinical practice are of utmost importance. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation has decided that one of the thematic priorities will be medical radiation exposure of patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has recently updated the report on RP in medicine and continues to work on focused documents centred on specific areas where advice is needed. The roles of the International Atomic Energy Agency, World Health Organization and the European Commission, in the area of RP in medicine, are described in the present document. The industry, the standardisation organisations as well as many scientific and professional societies are also dedicating significant effort to radiation safety aspects in medicine. Some of the efforts and priorities contemplated in RP in medicine over the coming years are suggested. The best outcome will be accomplished when all the actors, i.e. medical doctors, other health professionals, regulators, health authorities and the industry manage to work together. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.


Klein-Nulend J.,VU University Amsterdam | Bakker A.D.,VU University Amsterdam | Bacabac R.G.,University of San Carlos | Vatsa A.,Suffolk University | Weinbaum S.,City College of New York
Bone | Year: 2013

The human skeleton is a miracle of engineering, combining both toughness and light weight. It does so because bones possess cellular mechanisms wherein external mechanical loads are sensed. These mechanical loads are transformed into biological signals, which ultimately direct bone formation and/or bone resorption. Osteocytes, since they are ubiquitous in the mineralized matrix, are the cells that sense mechanical loads and transduce the mechanical signals into a chemical response. The osteocytes then release signaling molecules, which orchestrate the recruitment and activity of osteoblasts or osteoclasts, resulting in the adaptation of bone mass and structure. In this review, we highlight current insights in bone adaptation to external mechanical loading, with an emphasis on how a mechanical load placed on whole bones is translated and amplified into a mechanical signal that is subsequently sensed by the osteocytes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "The Osteocyte". © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Gilbert J.J.,Dartmouth College | DieGuez M.C.,University of San Carlos
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2010

This study investigates the basis and ecological significance of the extremely high propensity for mixis (sexual reproduction) observed in laboratory populations of Brachionus calyciflorus from a temporary pond in Patagonia. Experiments with stem females hatched from resting eggs showed that these females were exclusively amictic but produced mictic daughters even at very low population densities. In six experiments, newly hatched stem females were cultured individually in different volumes (1.5, 12, 40 and 150 mL). The percentage of mictic daughters (mixis ratio) was high in the smaller volumes (e.g. 44-83% in 1.5 mL) and lower in the largest volume (6-21% in 150 mL). A regression analysis combining the data from these experiments showed a highly significant decrease in mixis ratio with volume and indicated that the lowest population density at which mixis still occurs (mixis threshold) would be 3.4 females L-1 (95% CL 2.9-4.0 females L-1). This value is considerably lower than mixis thresholds for other rotifers (25-250 females L-1 for many species and 9000-477 000 females L-1 for some Spanish Brachionus plicatilis). In three additional experiments, stem females and their amictic daughters were cultured individually in 150 mL. The percentage of mictic daughters produced by these two generations of females was not significantly different, showing that the mixis response to crowding is not inhibited in the stem-female generation. Laboratory experiments showed that two common predators of the Patagonian B. calyciflorus (the calanoid copepod Parabroteas sarsi and the backswimmer Notonecta vereertbruggheni) each ate 60-70 B. calyciflorus predator-1 per day and cleared all rotifers from c. 250 mL per day. Thus, a very low mixis threshold and high maximal mixis ratio may ensure production of some resting eggs soon after colonisation of the pond and before complete removal from the plankton. Two laboratory experiments showed that resting eggs of the Patagonian B. calyciflorus hatched at variable rates (28 and 81%) after a brief diapause when kept in the conditions under which they were produced and oviposited (20-21 °C; L: D 16: 8). Early hatching of resting eggs from pond sediment may allow multiple periods of colonisation and resting egg production in a season. This may offset the fitness cost of limited population growth through female parthenogenesis in the face of unpredictable and abrupt risk of extinction because of predators. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Gold R.,Ruhr University Bochum | Oreja-Guevara C.,University of San Carlos
Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics | Year: 2013

Symptomatic therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) is an important part of a comprehensive treatment plan that aims to improve patients' quality of life. In the current era of medical progress, several factors have led to the development of guidelines for MS management. There is continued need for an evidence-based approach supported by high-quality data from controlled clinical trials. Most healthcare systems require this approach and include it in the reimbursement process. Guidelines are usually committed by national or continental neurological societies. The Spanish Society of Neurology demyelinating diseases working group has developed a consensus document on spasticity in patients with MS. MS experts from the group used the metaplan method to sum up the most important recommendations about spasticity for inclusion in the guidance. Recommendations were classified according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network system and approved by all members of the group. In Germany, the guideline panel of the German Neurological Society endorsed the national competence network for multiple sclerosis (Krankheitsbezogenes Kompetenznetz Multiple Sklerose) to update the existing recommendations. The most recent fifth edition of the guidelines (dated April 2012) now also includes recommendations for treatment of key symptoms such as spasticity. More than 30 MS neurologists contributed to the new edition reflecting the need for broad expertise. After a first round in which key topics were defined, a web-based decision process was undertaken to further develop individual topics such as symptomatic therapy. The draft manuscript was reviewed once again by the group prior to submission to the official review process. The aims of spasticity treatment are to improve mobility and dexterity, achieve physiological movement patterns, reduce pain, facilitate nursing measures and avoid complications such as contractures. Representative antispasticity medications include baclofen, tizanidine, gabapentin, dantrolene, tolperisone, benzodiazepines and Sativex® oromucosal spray. Botulinum toxin and intrathecal baclofen may also be required in selected cases. Plans are currently in motion to develop next-level European guidelines through a concerted approach coordinated by the European Federation of Neurological Societies. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Pascual J.M.,University of León | Prieto R.,University of San Carlos | Carrasco R.,Ramony Cajal University Hospital | Barrios L.,Computing Center
Journal of Neurosurgery | Year: 2013

Object. Accurate diagnosis of the topographical relationships of craniopharyngiomas (CPs) involving the third ventricle and/or hypothalamus remains a challenging issue that critically influences the prediction of risks associated with their radical surgical removal. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of MRI to define the precise topographical relationships between intraventricular CPs, the third ventricle, and the hypothalamus. Methods. An extensive retrospective review of well-described CPs reported in the MRI era between 1990 and 2009 yielded 875 lesions largely or wholly involving the third ventricle. Craniopharyngiomas with midsagittal and coronal preoperative and postoperative MRI studies, in addition to detailed descriptions of clinical and surgical findings, were selected from this database (n = 130). The position of the CP and the morphological distortions caused by the tumor on the sella turcica, suprasellar cistern, optic chiasm, pituitary stalk, and third ventricle floor, including the infundibulum, tuber cinereum, and mammillary bodies (MBs), were analyzed on both preoperative and postoperative MRI studies. These changes were correlated with the definitive CP topography and type of third ventricle involvement by the lesion, as confirmed surgically. Results. The mammillary body angle (MBA) is the angle formed by the intersection of a plane tangential to the base of the MBs and a plane parallel to the floor of the fourth ventricle in midsagittal MRI studies. Measurement of the MBA represented a reliable neuroradiological sign that could be used to discriminate the type of intraventricular involvement by the CP in 83% of cases in this series (n = 109). An acute MBA (< 60°) was indicative of a primary tuberal-intraventricular topography, whereas an obtuse MBA (> 90°) denoted a primary suprasellar CP position, causing either an invagination of the third ventricle (pseudointraventricular lesion) or its invasion (secondarily intraventricular lesion; p < 0.01). A multivariate model including a combination of 5 variables (the MBA, position of the hypothalamus, presence of hydrocephalus, psychiatric symptoms, and patient age) allowed an accurate definition of the CP topography preoperatively in 74%-90% of lesions, depending on the specific type of relationship between the tumor and third ventricle. Conclusions. The type of mammillary body displacement caused by CPs represents a valuable clue for ascertaining the topographical relationships between these lesions and the third ventricle on preoperative MRI studies. The MBA provides a useful sign to preoperatively differentiate a primary intraventricular CP originating at the infundibulotuberal area from a primary suprasellar CP, which either invaginated or secondarily invaded the third ventricle. © AANS, 2013.


Kuzawa C.W.,Northwestern University | McDade T.W.,Northwestern University | Adair L.S.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Lee N.,University of San Carlos
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Ecological cues during prenatal and postnatal development may allow organisms to adjust reproductive strategy. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a prime candidate for adaptive plasticity as a result of its critical period of birth to 6 mo (B6M) in humans and the role of testosterone in the development and maintenance of costly sexually dimorphic somatic and behavioral traits. We hypothesized that weight velocity specific to B6M would predict male life history characteristics, including maturational timing, reproductive hormones, adult size, strength, and sexual activity. Data come from 770 Filipino men (age 20.5-22.5 y) followed since birth, with predictor variables including birth weight and weight velocities calculated at 6-mo intervals during the first 2 y of life. As expected, infants who were breastfed experienced less diarrhea, lived in wealthier households with better hygiene, and grew faster from B6M. Males with rapid B6M growth reached puberty earlier and, as young adults, had higher testosterone levels, were taller, more muscular, and had higher grip strength. They also had sex earlier and were more likely to report having had sex in the past month, resulting in more lifetime sex partners. Relationships between B6M weight gain and physical outcomes were generally not present or weaker in female subjects. We conclude that rapid weight gain specific to the brief postnatal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal critical period predicts early maturation and sexual activity, elevated hormone production, and more costly adult somatic characteristics among the male subjects in this sample. These findings provide evidence for early life developmental plasticity in male life history and reproductive strategy in humans.


Garcia E.,University of San Carlos
EuroIntervention : journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology | Year: 2012

To understand the incidence, aetiology and mechanisms of paravalvular aortic and mitral leaks after valvular surgery; reviewing the best methods for diagnosis, procedural guidance and result assessment of these leaks, as well as describing the different approaches to their treatment. A literature search was undertaken as well as an in-depth analysis of our own experience concerning different imaging modalities and various therapeutic strategies for aortic and mitral paravalvular leaks. The majority of patients were diagnosed using two- or three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography, useful in both guiding the procedure as well as assessing the procedural results. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, LDH and haptoglobin values were analysed to assess haemolysis. Procedural success for percutaneous closure of paravalvular aortic leaks are around 90% in the different series, with low complication rates. Mitral leaks have been approached by transfemoral and transapical access; the reported success of this procedure ranges from 75% to more than 90% in different reports. Complication rates at 30 days average 10% and mortality related to the procedure is around 1%. Late follow-up results depend on the initial anatomy, baseline clinical class and procedure results. Paravalvular leaks after surgical valve implantation have a multifactorial aetiology, but are mainly related to specific anatomic characteristics of the valvular ring. Mitral leaks are three times more common than aortic leaks and the incidence increases after reoperation. Different percutaneous techniques with several devices have been explored for leak closure, but we are still lacking devices specifically designed to treat this pathology more effectively.


Gutierrez-Gonzalez R.,University of San Carlos | Boto G.R.,University of San Carlos | Perez-Zamarron A.,University of San Carlos
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2012

Hydrocephalus is a common neurosurgical disease affecting approximately 40 per 100,000 people. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion devices are essential in the management of this pathology. These devices include internal shunts and external ventricular drains. Infection is the most significant complication resulting from the high frequency of appearance and the consequences it involves, since it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It also involves increased hospital costs (approximately 40,000 euro per episode). In the present report the authors make a comprehensive review of cerebrospinal fluid diversion devices and their most important complication: infection. The authors make special emphasis on the epidemiology, aetiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, symptoms and signs, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infection. © Springer-Verlag 2011.


PURPOSE:: To study the changes in the choroidal layers thickness with age in a healthy population using swept-source optical coherence tomography. METHODS:: Retrospective data analysis of a subgroup of eyes from a previous single-center, prospective, cross-sectional, noninterventional study. One hundred and sixty-nine healthy eyes were evaluated using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Inclusion criteria were best-corrected visual acuity between 20/20 and 20/25, spherical equivalent between ±3 diopters, and no systemic or ocular diseases. Two independent investigators determined the macular horizontal choroidal thickness (CT) and the Hallerʼs layer thickness across a 9 mm line centered at the fovea. Subjects were divided into five age groups. RESULTS:: Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 305.76 ± 80.59 μm (95% confidence interval: 294.85–319.33). Mean subfoveal thickness for Hallerʼs layer was 215.47 ± 67.70 μm (95% confidence interval: 207.30–227.86) and mean subfoveal thickness for choriocapillaris plus Sattlerʼs layer was 87.31 ± 40.40 μm (95% confidence interval: 83.38–95.65). No significant differences were found due to gender. Choroidal thickness profile was similar between groups with choroidal thickness and Hallerʼs layer thickness decreasing with age (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION:: Choroidal and Hallerʼs layer thickness profiles are similar between different age groups. Age-related choroidal thinning is mostly at the expense of Hallerʼs layer. © 2016 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

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