The University of Salford is a public research university located in Salford, England, approximately 1.5 miles west of Manchester city centre. Its origins come from the Royal Technical Institute, Salford which was opened in 1896. This later became a College of Advanced Technology in 1956 and gained university status, following the Robbins Report into higher education, becoming the University of Salford in 1967.It has around 20,000 students and is situated in 60 acres of parkland on the banks of the River Irwell. Wikipedia.
University of Salford | Date: 2017-05-03
A method and apparatus are disclosed for measuring polarisation of electromagnetic illumination. The method includes the steps of modulating a polarisation state of illumination received from a target object to generate modulated intensity illumination, selectively measuring an intensity of the modulated intensity illumination by periodically gating an exposure of an imaging device to the modulated intensity illumination at a first gating frequency; responsive to the measured intensity, determining polarisation parameters of the received illumination, and generating image data corresponding to the target object with a plurality of the polarisation parameters, wherein the illumination from the target object is modulated in accordance with a first frequency and the first gating frequency is associated with and synchronised with at least the first frequency.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EeB-08-2015 | Award Amount: 9.14M | Year: 2015
Heating consumption in the residential sector in Europe is around 2300 TWh/y, DHW consumptions reaches 500 TWh/y, while cooling consumption is less than 100 TWh/y. The construction sector offers unique opportunities to decarbonise the European economy. However, as the replacement rate of the existing stock is very small (1-1.5 % per year), acceleration is needed. On top of this, the reorganisation of the sector poses tremendous challenges due to its extreme fragmentation: more than 50% of the residential buildings are owned by private single owners. Moreover, whilst few major industrial players are active on the market, it is largely dominated (more than 95%) by SMEs both on the manufacturers and the professionals side. BuildHEAT addresses this challenging sector by: - elaborating systemic packages for the deep rehabilitation of residential buildings - developing innovative technologies facilitating the implementation of the renovation measures - developing financial tools enabling large public and private investments - involving the construction chain from the very beginning and all along the building life cycle. A set of reliable, energy efficient and affordable retrofit solutions will be mad available, which execution is facilitated by industrialised, modular and flexible HVAC, faade and ICT systems developed. Despite the affordability, innovative solutions are more expensive compared to off the shelf ones. Therefore financing models are needed to facilitate the massive entry to market of the new technologies. BuildHEAT aims to leverage large private investments by using European structural funds, thus promoting retrofit actions at quarter level. Finally, BuildHEAT involves the entire construction chain from owners to professionals to investors in the retrofit process and all along the lifetime of the building, by addressing technical, behavioural, cultural and economic perspectives. In this way, awareness and involvement are triggered.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: LCE-02-2015 | Award Amount: 5.04M | Year: 2016
The aim of CHEOPS is to develop very low-cost but highly performing photovoltaic (PV) devices based on the emerging perovskite (PK) technology. At lab scale (<0.5cm2), PK energy conversion was rapidly advanced to efficiencies >20%. But only few attempts at upscaling have been made, yielding significantly reduced efficiencies <9% on aperture area. In addition, the very question about material stability and reliable measurement procedures are still debated. CHEOPS will now scale up the lab results to single junction modules manufactured in a pre-production environment while maintaining high efficiencies (>14% stable for aperture area in modules >15x15cm2). This will demonstrate the potential of PK as a very low-cost technology (target <0.3/Wp) well suited for building-integrated PV. In parallel, CHEOPS will develop materials and processes to achieve very high efficiency (>29% on 2x2cm2 cells) at low cost (target <0.4/Wp) using a tandem configuration with a crystalline silicon heterojunction cell. CHEOPS will also perform a sustainability assessment from a life-cycle perspective to anticipate potential risks for the technology (including business, technological, environmental, social & political risks). CHEOPS will establish a quantified future development roadmap as well as protocols for stability testing and for reliable measurements. CHEOPS partners cover the whole value added chain: key PK researchers, groups with track records of scaling up high efficiency and tandem cell developments, specialised technology and service providers as well as SMEs and industry partners with already strong IP portfolios, ready to exploit the CHEOPS results. Transferring the results to other growing industry sectors such as lighting or organic large area electronics will additionally benefit European industry. In summary, CHEOPS will decisively advance the potentially game-changing PK technology towards the market and will thus help to face the energy challenge in Europe and beyond.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-09-2016 | Award Amount: 7.06M | Year: 2016
XF-ACTORS aims to establish a multidisciplinary research program to answer the urgent need to improve prevention, early detection and control of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). Recently, Xf was introduced into Italy, where it is causing severe damage to olive crops, and in France, where so far it is limited to ornamental plants and some landscape trees. The overall goal of the research program is to assess Xf potential to spread throughout EU territory, while maximizing its impact through a multifactor approach, based on a seamless integration amongst the 29 partners involved. Proposed actions will be complementary to those carried out under the Project POnTE - 635646, thus ensuring an unbroken continuity with currently ongoing efforts. Specific objectives have been outlined following a step-by-step route, from preventing its introduction into pest-free areas to the establishment of successful eradication strategies in infected zones. Preventive measures against Xf will be strengthened by implementing EU certification programs and developing a plan for establishing a EU Clean Plant Network. EU policy makers will be supported through the development of pest risk assessment tools, focused on current outbreaks and forecasting potentially threatened regions. Surveillance will be properly implemented, supporting the development of early detection tools for field use, remote sensing technology and predictive modelling. Critical information on the pathogen biology, epidemiological traits and hosts under threat, will be gathered with the guidance of the American research groups with long-established research. At the same time, the insect-bacteria interactions will be determined, for developing strategic control measures. The final overall objective is a comprehensive integrated management strategy for diseases associated with Xf, applicable both IPM and organic farming systems, to prevent Xf spread, control its economic, environmental/social impact, when an outbreak would occur.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-09-2014 | Award Amount: 7.28M | Year: 2015
It is presently acknowledged and scientifically proven than climate related hazards have the potential to substantially affect the lifespan and effectiveness or even destroy of European Critical Infrastructures (CI), particularly the energy, transportation sectors, buildings, marine and water management infrastructure with devastating impacts in EU appraising the social and economic losses. The main strategic objective of EU-CIRCLE is to move towards infrastructure network(s) that is resilient to todays natural hazards and prepared for the future changing climate. Furthermore, modern infrastructures are inherently interconnected and interdependent systems ; thus extreme events are liable to lead to cascade failures. EU-CIRCLEs scope is to derive an innovative framework for supporting the interconnected European Infrastructures resilience to climate pressures, supported by an end-to-end modelling environment where new analyses can be added anywhere along the analysis workflow and multiple scientific disciplines can work together to understand interdependencies, validate results, and present findings in a unified manner providing an efficient Best of Breeds solution of integrating into a holistic resilience model existing modelling tools and data in a standardised fashion. It, will be open & accessible to all interested parties in the infrastructure resilience business and having a confirmed interest in creating customized and innovative solutions. It will be complemented with a webbased portal.The design principles, offering transparency and greater flexibility, will allow potential users to introduce fully tailored solutions and infrastructure data, by defining and implementing customised impact assessment models, and use climate / weather data on demand.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-RISE | Phase: MSCA-RISE-2014 | Award Amount: 1.51M | Year: 2015
The joint Exchange programme is based on a research proposal finalized to examine how smart specialization strategies (S3) to regenerate local economic areas can be implemented, according to the new agenda of Europe 2020. This can be largely achieved by incorporating a place-based dimension. The main aim is to identify and prescribe the implementation S3 in terms of spatial, social and environmental factors. The programme will map out local needs and opportunities in a variety of contexts which could drive regional policy interventions. The resulting S3 will not only emphasize Key Enable Technologies, but will also empower the local innovation process. Elements gained from the preceding CLUDs project such as tacit knowledge, embedded social networks, and innovative milieu will ensure that the proposed S3 for each area is successful. The proposal intends to apply a Multidisciplinary Approach to Plan Smart Specialization Strategies in a prospective to enhance Local Economic Development (MAPS-LED). The MAPS-LED place-based framework will include two important drivers: 1. Cluster policy, 2. Innovative milieu in terms of the local value chains based on the urban-rural linkages The MAPS-LED project will be built in order to connect three important key-factors: Governance; Localization; Territorial network. The S3 in a MAPS-LED perspective will be visualized through appropriate designated areas, overcoming the constraints determined by the locally-bounded concept of the district through the rationale of the networks and flows activated by governance dynamics. The proposal exploits and moves forward the findings of the CLUDs project (research network of four EU and two US universities) funded by IRSES 2010, by expanding the concept of social and environmental added value embedded in some innovative urban regeneration approaches to the larger regional context. The result will be to build on the strong existing CLUDs research network and its Intl Doctorate URED.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-11-2015 | Award Amount: 7.30M | Year: 2016
Starting from previous research experiences and tangible outcomes, STORM proposes a set of novel predictive models and improved non-invasive and non-destructive methods of survey and diagnosis, for effective prediction of environmental changes and for revealing threats and conditions that could damage cultural heritage sites. Moreover, STORM will determine how different vulnerable materials, structures and buildings are affected by different extreme weather events together with risks associated to climatic conditions or natural hazards, offering improved, effective adaptation and mitigation strategies, systems and technologies. An integrated system featuring novel sensors (intra fluorescent and wireless acoustic sensors), legacy systems, state of the art platforms (including LiDAR and UAVs), as well as crowdsourcing techniques will be implemented, offering applications and services over an open cloud infrastructure. An important result of STORM will be a cooperation platform for collaboratively collecting and enhancing knowledge, processes and methodologies on sustainable and effective safeguarding and management of European Cultural Heritage. The system will be capable of performing risk assessment on natural hazards taking into account environmental and anthropogenic risks, and of using Complex Events processing. Results will be tested in relevant case studies in five different countries: Italy, Greece, UK, Portugal and Turkey. The sites and consortium have been carefully selected so as to adequately represent the rich European Cultural Heritage, while associate partners that can assist with liaisons and links to other stakeholders and European sites are also included. The project will be carried out by a multidisciplinary team providing all competences needed to assure the implementation of a functional and effective solution to support all the actors involved in the management and preservation of Cultural Heritage sites.
Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 801.45K | Year: 2016
Our cities are in crisis. There are real uncertainties about issues such as austerity, economic growth, diversity and sustainability. Most people are beginning to recognise that existing ways of working arent delivering benefits for the people who need them most. Citizens and third sector organisations are often left out of the picture as formal urban partnerships spend their energies negotiating with central government. Local expertise, innovation and creativity have often not been seen as part of the answer to our urban crisis. But we can see that there are people and organisations taking action locally and coming up with different kinds of solutions. Jam and Justice is a novel project that seeks to address wicked urban problems through collaborative working on messy solutions. Jam is about trying to bring together different constituencies in the city to experiment and innovate to address our shared problems. Justice is about re-connecting with those who have been disenfranchised and excluded from the search for solutions. We want to create an Action Research Cooperative - or ARC. The ARC is a space which will allow a different way of thinking about how to work together to address 21st century urban challenges. Researchers know some of the answers, citizens have other ideas and solutions and insights, practitioners bring yet another perspective, and political leaders have visions for how they want things to be. The ARC will bring these different groups together to co-develop innovative approaches to address complex urban governance problems. The ARC is made by the people who take part in it: academics, politicians, practitioners, citizens and activists. Some of us will try and play more than one role, for example as practitioner researchers and academic-activists. We want to use the ARC to help us bridge the gap between knowledge and action and to shape the action which we can take together. First, the ARC will set the principles for how we want to work together. Then we will initiate a series of learn and do projects, which will generate the primary data needed to answer the research questions: what sorts of new ways to govern the city-region can help transform the debate? How can we include voices that have been neglected previously? Who can help mediate between different groups and interests? We will open up the opportunities to be part of the ARC not only through our projects, but also through a creative social engagement programme, including live debates, online communities, blogs and podcasts. We are going to tell people what we are up to right from the start, so they can follow, share and engage with our work. We will be holding a range of public and special interest events, where people can hear about and become part of the project. So where is this all going to happen? We are going to start in a place we know, working with people who share a commitment to urban transformation. We will build the ARC in Greater Manchester, a place right on the cusp of change, as the first English city-region to be negotiating more devolution of powers from central government. Greater Manchester is a unique test-bed for our research interests, a city-region where we can further academic knowledge and deliver high policy and practitioner relevance. We have already identified key partners across the public, voluntary and community sector in Greater Manchester who want to work with us in the ARC. We will also network with national organisations and learn from what is happening around the world through fieldtrips to Chicago, Paris, Melbourne, Cape Town and Scotland. The ARC is a unique space for social innovation to co-produce, test and learn from new ways of governing cities. This will help us critically reflect on how to organise knowledge better to make positive urban transformations happen that are inclusive and equitable.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 495.57K | Year: 2016
The design of products to achieve acceptable levels of noise and vibration is a major concern across a range of industries. In many cases there is a large trade off between cost and performance, and this means that achieving an efficient design is crucial to commercial success. In principle design optimisation can be achieved through testing and improving physical prototypes, but the production of a prototype is time consuming and costly. For this reason there is a pressing need for virtual design methodologies, in which computational models are used to produce a near-final design before a physical prototype is built. Computational models used for noise and vibration analysis must be able to predict the performance of the system over a wide frequency range, potentially ranging from low frequency vibration problems at several hertz to high frequency noise problems at several kilohertz, and this presents severe difficulties. High frequency motions require a very detailed computer model, and this leads to long run times that are not ideal for iterative design. Furthermore, the high frequency performance of a system can be very sensitive to small manufacturing imperfections, and hence the predicted performance may not match the performance of the actual system. These difficulties can be largely overcome by employing recent advances in noise and vibration modelling in which a technique known as Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is combined with more conventional analysis methods such as the finite element method (FEM) or the boundary element method (BEM); this approach is known as the Hybrid Method. The Hybrid Method leads to a very large reduction in the run time of the model, while also providing an estimate of the variance in the performance caused by manufacturing imperfections. However, this approach does not fully solve the prediction problem, as a further major difficulty remains: some components in a system can be so complex that it is not possible to produce a detailed computational model of the component, and hence some degree of physical testing is unavoidable. Frequently experimental measurements are used to validate a computational model, or to update the parameters in a computational model, but the requirement here is quite different: the measured data must be used to complete the computational model by coupling a representation of the missing complex component to the other parts of the model. This issue forms the core of the current research proposal. The aim of the present work is to add experimental components to the Hybrid Method, and one way to do this is to model a component as a grey or black box: a grey box model consists of mathematical equations with experimentally determined parameters, while a black box model is based purely on measured input-output properties. These models must be capable of being coupled to either FEM, BEM, or SEA component models, and the project will address this issue. A major challenge is to determine the appropriate experimental tests and machine learning algorithms that are required to produce such models in the context of complex vibro-acoustic components. A second major challenge is to quantify the uncertainty in such models, and to include this uncertainty in the combined system model. The model must predict outputs that are useful to the designer, and such outputs include noise and vibration levels, together with uncertainty bounds on the predictions. In some cases sound quality rather than the overall noise level is of concern, and the project will develop techniques for the auralisation of the output of the combined model. A number of case studies will be developed with industrial partners to explore the application of the proposed approach. The present research programme will produce an efficient and reliable vibro-acoustic design by science prediction tool that meets the needs of a wide range of industrial sectors.
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 94.36K | Year: 2017
The UK has an extensive network of marine protected areas (MPAs) and they form a fundamental part of the UK marine conservation and management strategy. The Marine Management Organisation (MMO) is responsible for the 77 English Marine protected areas. Of these, less than a third currently have a management plan. Management plans have been shown to be essential for effective MPA implementation; without them MPAs are less likely to meet their objectives. Lack of management plans for the UK Natura sites, a network of European protected areas, has led to the UK facing possible infraction charges from Europe for being in breach of our duties under the Habitats Directive, which could result in substantial fines. Thus there is a need for the MMO to develop a large number of robust MPA management plans, quickly. MPA management plans can have substantial consequences, not just for the marine environment they are designed to protect, but also for the coastal communities that depend on marine resources. Both ecological and socio-economic impacts must be considered alongside resourcing, feasibility, existing management provisions and the plethora of policy and legislation associated with UK MPAs. Just like the designation of MPAs, it is essential that the development of management plans is strategic, holistic, and uses the best available science. The overarching aim of this three year project is to support the development of marine protected area management plans, underpinned by cutting edge science. The project will work in close conjunction with the marine management community (MMO, DEFRA, JNCC, CEFAS and Natural England) and outputs will be tailored to maximise their utility to the ongoing work of the MMO. The project will entail a series of strategic literature reviews and an estimated nine workshops. Workshops will be attended by both members of the marine management community and researchers, and they will focus on either filling gaps in the knowledge or developing decision support tools. In years one and two, the project will develop and populate a database on English MPAs, including the features they are designated for and the socio-economics of the coastal communitys local to them. The project will also develop a classification scheme, in conjunction with the MMO, which will be used to categorise the strength of evidence contained within that database. In the third year, two workshops will be held to develop a matrix of different MPA management options. Finally, over two further workshops, a decision support framework for MPA management plans will be developed and trialled. This project will involve reviewing both completed and ongoing research and will be supported by a range of academics, including: Professor Callum Roberts, Dr Jan Hiddink, Professor Simon Jennings and Professor Hugh Possingham. The project also aims to contribute to future NERC-MMO partnerships activities. Part of this project will involve feeding back to researchers about how they can tailor their research outputs and plan future projects to increase their utility for informing marine protected area management decisions, and hence how they can increase the impact of their work. This part of the project will undertaken in collaboration with Dr Abigail McQuatters-Gallop at University of Plymouth, who is a current NERC KE Fellow undertaking a related project KE project. This project will advance the uptake of science into marine management decisions by improving availability of evidence and by providing a framework to support the incorporation of that evidence into governance. In doing so, it will contribute to increasing the impact of associated academic research. The outputs of this project will aid decision makers to simultaneously consider the complex marine environment, the diverse range of stakeholders that use it, the plethora of both national and international policy and legislation, and the realities of resource availability.