Time filter

Source Type

Salford, United Kingdom

The University of Salford is a public research university located in Salford, England, approximately 1.5 miles west of Manchester city centre. Its origins come from the Royal Technical Institute, Salford which was opened in 1896. This later became a College of Advanced Technology in 1956 and gained university status, following the Robbins Report into higher education, becoming the University of Salford in 1967.It has around 20,000 students and is situated in 60 acres of parkland on the banks of the River Irwell. Wikipedia.

Smith J.,University of Salford
Nurse researcher

Qualitative methods are invaluable for exploring the complexities of health care and patient experiences in particular. Diverse qualitative methods are available that incorporate different ontological and epistemological perspectives. One method of data management that is gaining in popularity among healthcare researchers is the framework approach. We will outline this approach, discuss its relative merits and provide a working example of its application to data management and analysis. Source

Cooper A.M.,University of Salford
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

Dental caries is one of the most common global childhood diseases and is, for the most part, entirely preventable. Good oral health is dependent on the establishment of the key behaviours of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and controlling sugar snacking. Primary schools provide a potential setting in which these behavioural interventions can support children to develop independent and habitual healthy behaviours. To assess the clinical effects of school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children (4 to 12 year olds) for caries prevention. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 18 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 18 October 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 October 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 18 October 2012) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 October 2012). Ongoing trials were searched for using Current Controlled Trials (to 18 October 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 18 October 2012). Conference proceedings were searched for using ZETOC (1993 to 18 October 2012) and Web of Science (1990 to 18 October 2012). We searched for thesis abstracts using the Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1950 to 18 October 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Non-English language papers were included and translated in full by native speakers. Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in primary schools (children aged 4 to 12 years at baseline) were selected. Included studies had to include behavioural interventions addressing both toothbrushing and consumption of cariogenic foods or drinks and have a primary school as a focus for delivery of the intervention. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data related to methods, participants, intervention design including behaviour change techniques (BCTs) utilised, outcome measures and risk of bias. Relevant statistical information was assessed by a statistician subsequently. All included studies contact authors were emailed for copies of intervention materials. Additionally, three attempts were made to contact study authors to clarify missing information. We included four studies involving 2302 children. One study was at unclear risk of bias and three were at high risk of bias. Included studies reported heterogeneity in both the intervention design and outcome measures used; this made statistical comparison difficult. Additionally this review is limited by poor reporting of intervention procedure and design. Several BCTs were identified in the trials: these included information around the consequences of twice daily brushing and controlling sugar snacking; information on consequences of adverse behaviour and instruction and demonstration regarding skill development of relevant oral health behaviours.Only one included study reported the primary outcome of development of caries. This small study at unclear risk of bias showed a prevented fraction of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 1.18) in the intervention group. However, as this is based on a single study, this finding should be interpreted with caution.Although no meta-analysis was performed with respect to plaque outcomes (due to differences in plaque reporting between studies), the three studies which reported plaque outcomes all found a statistically significant reduction in plaque in the intervention groups with respect to plaque outcomes. Two of these trials involved an 'active' home component where parents were given tasks relating to the school oral health programme (games and homework) to complete with their children. Secondary outcome measures from one study reported that the intervention had a positive impact upon children's oral health knowledge. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of primary school-based behavioural interventions for reducing caries. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions on plaque outcomes and on children's oral health knowledge acquisition. None of the included interventions were reported as being based on or derived from behavioural theory. There is a need for further high quality research to utilise theory in the design and evaluation of interventions for changing oral health related behaviours in children and their parents. Source

In order to improve the dynamical conditions for possible formation of quasi-Fermi level separation between states in the conduction band, upon external illumination of an quantum dot based solar cells, we employ methods of quantum engineering to design the type II alignment, using a GaAsSb barrier buffer underneath InAs/GaAs QD. By changing the Sb amount in the buffer region, we predict an increase of the interband radiative time to the same time scale as interband radiative time, with simultaneous increase of the Auger electron cooling to ∼ 0.1 ns. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Marsh C.E.,University of Salford
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM's) submaximal treadmill running test in predicting V̇O 2max. Twentyone moderately well-trained men aged 18-34 years performed 1 maximal treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (M V̇O 2max) and 2 submaximal treadmill tests using 4 stages of continuous submaximal exercise. Estimated V̇O 2max was predicted by extrapolation to age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) and calculated in 2 ways: using data from all submaximal stages between 110 b·min -1 and 85% HRmax (P V̇O 2max-All), and using data from the last 2 stages only (P V̇O 2max-2). The measured V̇O 2max was overestimated by 3% on average for the group but was not significantly different to predicted V̇O 2max (1-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.695; M V̇O 2max = 53.01 ± 5.38; P V̇O 2max-All = 54.27 ± 7.16; P V̇O 2max-2 = 54.99 ± 7.69 ml·kg -1·min -1), although M V̇O 2max was not overestimated in all the participants-it was underestimated in 30% of observations. Pearson's correlation, standard error of estimate (SEE), and total error (E) between measured and predicted V̇O 2max were r = 0.646, 4.35, 4.08 ml·kg -1·min -1 (P V̇O 2max-All) and r = 0.642, 4.21, 3.98 ml·kg -1·min -1 (P V̇O 2max-2) indicating that the accuracy in prediction (error) was very similar whether using P V̇O 2max-All or P V̇O 2max-2, with up to 70% of the participants predicted scores within 1 SEE (∼4 ml·kg -1·min -1) of M V̇O 2max. In conclusion, the ACSM equation provides a reasonably good estimation of V̇O 2max with no difference in predictive accuracy between P V̇O 2max-2 and P V̇O 2max-All, and hence, either approach may be equally useful in tracking an individual's aerobic fitness over time. However, if a precise knowledge of V̇O 2max is required, then it is recommended that this be measured directly. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Comfort P.,University of Salford
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

Although there has been extensive research regarding the power clean, its application to sports performance, and use as a measure of assessing changes in performance, no research has determined the reliability assessing the kinetics of the power clean across testing session. The aim of this study was to determine the within- and between-session reliability of kinetic variables during the power clean. Twelve professional rugby league players (age 24.5 ± 2.1 years; height 182.86 ± 6.97 cm; body mass 92.85 ± 5.67 kg; 1 repetition maximum [1RM] power clean 102.50 ± 10.35 kg) performed 3 sets of 3 repetitions of power cleans at 70% of their 1RM, while standing on a force plate, to determine within-session reliability and repeated on 3 separate occasions to determine reliability between sessions. Intraclass correlation coefficients revealed a high reliability within- (r ≥ 0.969) and between-sessions (r ≥ 0.988). Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in peak vertical ground reaction force, rate of force development, and peak power between sessions, with small standard error of the measurements and smallest detectable differences for each kinetic variable (3.13 and 8.68 N; 84.39 and 233.93 N·s-1; 24.54 and 68.01 W, respectively). Therefore, to identify a meaningful change in performance, the strength and conditioning coach should look for a change in peak force ≥8.68 N, rate of force development ≥24.54 N·s -1, and a change in peak power ≥68.01 W to signify an adaptive response to training, which is greater than the variance between sessions, in trained athletes proficient at performing the power clean. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association. Source

Discover hidden collaborations