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Salford, United Kingdom

The University of Salford is a public research university located in Salford, England, approximately 1.5 miles west of Manchester city centre. Its origins come from the Royal Technical Institute, Salford which was opened in 1896. This later became a College of Advanced Technology in 1956 and gained university status, following the Robbins Report into higher education, becoming the University of Salford in 1967.It has around 20,000 students and is situated in 60 acres of parkland on the banks of the River Irwell. Wikipedia.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: DRS-09-2014 | Award Amount: 7.28M | Year: 2015

It is presently acknowledged and scientifically proven than climate related hazards have the potential to substantially affect the lifespan and effectiveness or even destroy of European Critical Infrastructures (CI), particularly the energy, transportation sectors, buildings, marine and water management infrastructure with devastating impacts in EU appraising the social and economic losses. The main strategic objective of EU-CIRCLE is to move towards infrastructure network(s) that is resilient to todays natural hazards and prepared for the future changing climate. Furthermore, modern infrastructures are inherently interconnected and interdependent systems ; thus extreme events are liable to lead to cascade failures. EU-CIRCLEs scope is to derive an innovative framework for supporting the interconnected European Infrastructures resilience to climate pressures, supported by an end-to-end modelling environment where new analyses can be added anywhere along the analysis workflow and multiple scientific disciplines can work together to understand interdependencies, validate results, and present findings in a unified manner providing an efficient Best of Breeds solution of integrating into a holistic resilience model existing modelling tools and data in a standardised fashion. It, will be open & accessible to all interested parties in the infrastructure resilience business and having a confirmed interest in creating customized and innovative solutions. It will be complemented with a webbased portal.The design principles, offering transparency and greater flexibility, will allow potential users to introduce fully tailored solutions and infrastructure data, by defining and implementing customised impact assessment models, and use climate / weather data on demand.

Smith J.,University of Salford
Nurse researcher | Year: 2011

Qualitative methods are invaluable for exploring the complexities of health care and patient experiences in particular. Diverse qualitative methods are available that incorporate different ontological and epistemological perspectives. One method of data management that is gaining in popularity among healthcare researchers is the framework approach. We will outline this approach, discuss its relative merits and provide a working example of its application to data management and analysis.

Cooper A.M.,University of Salford
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Dental caries is one of the most common global childhood diseases and is, for the most part, entirely preventable. Good oral health is dependent on the establishment of the key behaviours of toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste and controlling sugar snacking. Primary schools provide a potential setting in which these behavioural interventions can support children to develop independent and habitual healthy behaviours. To assess the clinical effects of school-based interventions aimed at changing behaviour related to toothbrushing habits and the frequency of consumption of cariogenic food and drink in children (4 to 12 year olds) for caries prevention. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 18 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 4), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 18 October 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 18 October 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 18 October 2012) and PsycINFO via OVID (1950 to 18 October 2012). Ongoing trials were searched for using Current Controlled Trials (to 18 October 2012) and ClinicalTrials.gov (to 18 October 2012). Conference proceedings were searched for using ZETOC (1993 to 18 October 2012) and Web of Science (1990 to 18 October 2012). We searched for thesis abstracts using the Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (1950 to 18 October 2012). There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication. Non-English language papers were included and translated in full by native speakers. Randomised controlled trials of behavioural interventions in primary schools (children aged 4 to 12 years at baseline) were selected. Included studies had to include behavioural interventions addressing both toothbrushing and consumption of cariogenic foods or drinks and have a primary school as a focus for delivery of the intervention. Two pairs of review authors independently extracted data related to methods, participants, intervention design including behaviour change techniques (BCTs) utilised, outcome measures and risk of bias. Relevant statistical information was assessed by a statistician subsequently. All included studies contact authors were emailed for copies of intervention materials. Additionally, three attempts were made to contact study authors to clarify missing information. We included four studies involving 2302 children. One study was at unclear risk of bias and three were at high risk of bias. Included studies reported heterogeneity in both the intervention design and outcome measures used; this made statistical comparison difficult. Additionally this review is limited by poor reporting of intervention procedure and design. Several BCTs were identified in the trials: these included information around the consequences of twice daily brushing and controlling sugar snacking; information on consequences of adverse behaviour and instruction and demonstration regarding skill development of relevant oral health behaviours.Only one included study reported the primary outcome of development of caries. This small study at unclear risk of bias showed a prevented fraction of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 1.18) in the intervention group. However, as this is based on a single study, this finding should be interpreted with caution.Although no meta-analysis was performed with respect to plaque outcomes (due to differences in plaque reporting between studies), the three studies which reported plaque outcomes all found a statistically significant reduction in plaque in the intervention groups with respect to plaque outcomes. Two of these trials involved an 'active' home component where parents were given tasks relating to the school oral health programme (games and homework) to complete with their children. Secondary outcome measures from one study reported that the intervention had a positive impact upon children's oral health knowledge. Currently, there is insufficient evidence for the efficacy of primary school-based behavioural interventions for reducing caries. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions on plaque outcomes and on children's oral health knowledge acquisition. None of the included interventions were reported as being based on or derived from behavioural theory. There is a need for further high quality research to utilise theory in the design and evaluation of interventions for changing oral health related behaviours in children and their parents.

In order to improve the dynamical conditions for possible formation of quasi-Fermi level separation between states in the conduction band, upon external illumination of an quantum dot based solar cells, we employ methods of quantum engineering to design the type II alignment, using a GaAsSb barrier buffer underneath InAs/GaAs QD. By changing the Sb amount in the buffer region, we predict an increase of the interband radiative time to the same time scale as interband radiative time, with simultaneous increase of the Auger electron cooling to ∼ 0.1 ns. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Marsh C.E.,University of Salford
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2012

The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the American College of Sports Medicine's (ACSM's) submaximal treadmill running test in predicting V̇O 2max. Twentyone moderately well-trained men aged 18-34 years performed 1 maximal treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (M V̇O 2max) and 2 submaximal treadmill tests using 4 stages of continuous submaximal exercise. Estimated V̇O 2max was predicted by extrapolation to age-predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) and calculated in 2 ways: using data from all submaximal stages between 110 b·min -1 and 85% HRmax (P V̇O 2max-All), and using data from the last 2 stages only (P V̇O 2max-2). The measured V̇O 2max was overestimated by 3% on average for the group but was not significantly different to predicted V̇O 2max (1-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.695; M V̇O 2max = 53.01 ± 5.38; P V̇O 2max-All = 54.27 ± 7.16; P V̇O 2max-2 = 54.99 ± 7.69 ml·kg -1·min -1), although M V̇O 2max was not overestimated in all the participants-it was underestimated in 30% of observations. Pearson's correlation, standard error of estimate (SEE), and total error (E) between measured and predicted V̇O 2max were r = 0.646, 4.35, 4.08 ml·kg -1·min -1 (P V̇O 2max-All) and r = 0.642, 4.21, 3.98 ml·kg -1·min -1 (P V̇O 2max-2) indicating that the accuracy in prediction (error) was very similar whether using P V̇O 2max-All or P V̇O 2max-2, with up to 70% of the participants predicted scores within 1 SEE (∼4 ml·kg -1·min -1) of M V̇O 2max. In conclusion, the ACSM equation provides a reasonably good estimation of V̇O 2max with no difference in predictive accuracy between P V̇O 2max-2 and P V̇O 2max-All, and hence, either approach may be equally useful in tracking an individual's aerobic fitness over time. However, if a precise knowledge of V̇O 2max is required, then it is recommended that this be measured directly. © 2012 National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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