Capasso A.,University of Salerno
Molecules | Year: 2013
Allium sativum (L.) is rich in antioxidants which help destroy free radicals particles that can damage cell membranes and DNA, and may contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of conditions, including heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause over time. The antioxidant activity of fresh Allium sativum L. (garlic) is well known and is mainly due to unstable and irritating organosulphur compounds. Fresh garlic extracted over a prolonged period (up to 20 months) produces odourless aged garlic extract (AGE) containing stable and water soluble organosulphur compounds that prevent oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. The aim of this review was to understand the mechanism of antioxidant action and therapeutic efficacy of garlic. © 2013 by the authors.
Di Bartolomeo A.,University of Salerno
Physics Reports | Year: 2016
In the past decade graphene has been one of the most studied materials for several unique and excellent properties. Due to its two dimensional nature, physical and chemical properties and ease of manipulation, graphene offers the possibility of integration with the existing semiconductor technology for next-generation electronic and sensing devices. In this context, the understanding of the graphene/semiconductor interface is of great importance since it can constitute a versatile standalone device as well as the building-block of more advanced electronic systems. Since graphene was brought to the attention of the scientific community in 2004, the device research has been focused on the more complex graphene transistors, while the graphene/semiconductor junction, despite its importance, has started to be the subject of systematic investigation only recently. As a result, a thorough understanding of the physics and the potentialities of this device is still missing. The studies of the past few years have demonstrated that graphene can form junctions with 3D or 2D semiconducting materials which have rectifying characteristics and behave as excellent Schottky diodes. The main novelty of these devices is the tunable Schottky barrier height, a feature which makes the graphene/semiconductor junction a great platform for the study of interface transport mechanisms as well as for applications in photo-detection, high-speed communications, solar cells, chemical and biological sensing, etc. In this paper, we review the state-of-the art of the research on graphene/semiconductor junctions, the attempts towards a modeling and the most promising applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Lamberti G.,University of Salerno
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
This tutorial review describes the state of current research and findings on the phenomena of polymer crystallisation under processing conditions, with particular emphasis on the effects of fluid flow. Preliminarily, it is stated why the crystallisation processes are relevant in polymer science, then the motivation of the study is briefly outlined. The remaining of the paper is divided in two parts. In the first part of the review, the basics of polymer crystallisation are summarized; the main factors acting on the process are identified; and the methods to investigate and to quantify the crystallization are described. A brief summary of the modelling approaches is also proposed. In the second part of the review, a similar path was followed in order to analyse the complex framework of phenomena collectively known as flow induced crystallisation. Therefore, the experimental techniques used are listed and the main findings are reported. A reference to the modelling approaches proposed in the literature is also summarized. Throughout the review, a selection of the literature in the field is of course cited. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Rizzo L.,University of Salerno
Water Research | Year: 2011
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been widely used in water and wastewater treatment for the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants as well as to improve biodegradability of industrial wastewater. Unfortunately, the partial oxidation of organic contaminants may result in the formation of intermediates more toxic than parent compounds. In order to avoid this drawback, AOPs are expected to be carefully operated and monitored, and toxicity tests have been used to evaluate whether effluent detoxification takes place. In the present work, the effect of AOPs on the toxicity of aqueous solutions of different classes of contaminants as well as actual aqueous matrices are critically reviewed. The dualism toxicity-biodegradability when AOPs are used as pre-treatment step to improve industrial wastewater biodegradability is also discussed. The main conclusions/remarks include the followings: (i) bioassays are a really useful tool to evaluate the dangerousness of AOPs as well as to set up the proper operative conditions, (ii) target organisms for bioassays should be chosen according to the final use of the treated water matrix, (iii) acute toxicity tests may be not suitable to evaluate toxicity in the presence of low/realistic concentrations of target contaminants, so studies on chronic effects should be further developed, (iv) some toxicity tests may be not useful to evaluate biodegradability potential, in this case more suitable tests should be applied (e.g., activated sludge bioassays, respirometry). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Gentile S.,University of Salerno
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Purpose of Review: During the last few years, several researches, often showing contradictory findings, have investigated the safety of psychotropic medications used for treating mood disorders in pregnancy. Hence, the necessity exists to update this information constantly in order to ensure the safest option for the mother-infant pair. Recent Findings: The risk of fetal anomalies associated with early in-utero exposure to antidepressants seems to be increased after paroxetine and clorimipramine exposure, whereas prenatal exposure to nearly all antidepressants is linked to the potential onset of the Prenatal Antidepressant Exposure Syndrome. As regards classic mood stabilizers, the teratogenic risk historically reported with lithium should probably be softened, whereas valproate is the medication which shows the strongest association with fetal anomalies. An increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders and infant neurodevelopmental delay is also associated with valproate exposure through the placenta. No significant reproductive safety data are available on atypical antipsychotics, although such medications may indirectly increase the rate of fetal malformation by inducing gestational diabetes. Summary: Avoiding the use of clorimipramine, paroxetine, valproate, and atypical antipsychotics during pregnancy is advisable. However, when starting or continuing pharmacological treatment during pregnancy, clinicians should consider not only the intrinsic iatrogenic risk of birth defects or perinatal complications, but also the general safety profile for the expectant mother. Indeed, specific adverse reactions (such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and excessive weight gain) may aggravate the classic clinical findings of pregnancy, thus indirectly facilitating the occurrence of pregnancy complications and fetal and neonatal problems. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.