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Salamanca, Spain

Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain, the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León. Its Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. With a metropolitan population of 228,881 in 2012 according to the National Institute of Statistics , Salamanca is the second most populated urban area in Castile and León, after Valladolid , and ahead of Leon and Burgos .It is one of the most important university cities in Spain and supplies 16% of Spain's market for the teaching of the Spanish language. Salamanca attracts thousands of international students, generating a diverse environment.It is situated approximately 200 kilometres west of the Spanish capital Madrid and 80 km east of the Portuguese border. The University of Salamanca, which was founded in 1134, is the oldest university in Spain and the fourth oldest western university, but the first to be given its status by the Pope Alexander IV who gave universal validity to its degrees. With its 30,000 students, the university is, together with tourism, a primary source of income in Salamanca. Wikipedia.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The role of the HLA system in tumor antigen presentation could be involved in susceptibility and disease control. We analyzed the phenotypic frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DQB1 in 250 DLBCLs, comparing them with 1940 healthy individuals. We also evaluated the influence of HLA polymorphisms on survival in those patients treated with curative intention using cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP)-like regimen without (n = 64, 26%) or with (n = 153, 61%) rituximab. DLBCL patients have a higher phenotypic frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 (29% vs 19.5%, P = .0008, Pc = .0104) and a lower frequency of HLA-C*03 (6.4% vs 17.9%, P < .0005, Pc = .007) compared with healthy individuals. Irrespective of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index, those patients receiving a CHOP-like plus rituximab regimen and carrying the HLA-B44 supertype had worse 5-year progression-free (54% vs 71%, P = .019) and 5-year overall (71% vs 92%, P = .001) survival compared with patients without this supertype. Our data suggest that some HLA polymorphisms influence the development and outcome of DLBCL, allowing the identification of an extremely good-risk prognostic subgroup. However, these results are preliminary and need to be validated in order to exclude a possible population effect. Source

San-Miguel J.F.,University of Salamanca
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Despite advancements, prognosis for patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) is poor, and novel therapies are needed. Panobinostat is a potent deacetylase inhibitor that elicits synergistic effects on MM cells in combination with bortezomib. This phase Ib study sought to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of panobinostat plus bortezomib in patients with relapsed or relapsed and refractory MM. In the dose-escalation phase (n = 47), panobinostat was administered orally thrice weekly every week in combination with bortezomib (21-day cycles). After MTD determination, patients were evaluated in an expansion phase (n = 15) that incorporated a 1-week treatment holiday of panobinostat, with dexamethasone added in cycle 2. Additional assessments included safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy per International Myeloma Working Group criteria. The MTD was established at panobinostat 20 mg plus bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) included thrombocytopenia (85.1%), neutropenia (63.8%), and asthenia (29.8%) in the escalation phase, and thrombocytopenia (66.7%), neutropenia (46.7%), and fatigue (20.0%) in the expansion phase. At MTD in the escalation phase, eight patients (47.1%) discontinued therapy as a result of AEs, whereas five patients (33.3%) discontinued treatment in the expansion phase. Expansion phase patients demonstrated greater median treatment duration. Overall response rate (ORR) was 73.3% in the expansion phase and 52.9% at the escalation phase MTD. Among bortezomib-refractory patients, the ORR was 26.3%, and 42.1% of patients had ≥ minimal response. The MTD of panobinostat plus bortezomib was determined and demonstrated activity in patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory MM, including bortezomib-refractory patients. A phase II/III clinical trial program (Panobinostat or Placebo With Bortezomib and Dexamethasone in Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma [PANORAMA]) has been initiated. Source

Machleidt R.,University of Idaho | Entem D.R.,University of Salamanca
Physics Reports | Year: 2011

We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chen F.,Shandong University | de Aldana J.R.V.,University of Salamanca
Laser and Photonics Reviews | Year: 2014

Femtosecond-laser micromachining (also known as inscription or writing) has been developed as one of the most efficient techniques for direct three-dimensional microfabrication of transparent optical materials. In integrated photonics, by using direct writing of femtosecond/ultrafast laser pulses, optical waveguides can be produced in a wide variety of optical materials. With diverse parameters, the formed waveguides may possess different configurations. This paper focuses on crystalline dielectric materials, and is a review of the state-of-the-art in the fabrication, characterization and applications of femtosecond-laser micromachined waveguiding structures in optical crystals and ceramics. A brief outlook is presented by focusing on a few potential spotlights. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

The present invention comprises the use of metalloprotease inhibitors for the treatment of polycystic liver diseases (PLDs). The invention particularly describes the use of Marimastat as the preferred metalloprotease inhibitor for the treatment of PLDs. Treatment with Marimastat is able to inhibit liver cystogenesis by blocking metalloproteolytic hyperactivity of polycystic cholangiocytes.

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