University of Salah al Din

Erbil, Iraq

University of Salah al Din

Erbil, Iraq
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Farouk M.M.,Agresearch Ltd. | Al-Mazeedi H.M.,Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research | Sabow A.B.,University of Salah al Din | Sabow A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
Meat Science | Year: 2014

There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Abdulla N.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdulla N.R.,University of Salah al Din | Mohd Zamri A.N.,University Putra Malaysia | Sabow A.B.,University Putra Malaysia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2015

This study investigated the efficacy of antibiotics, probiotics and their combination on meat quality of breast muscle in broilers. A total of 480 male one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to control (without additive), antibiotic growth promoter (AGP), Bioplus® (probiotics), or AGP + Bioplus® and raised for 42 d. Each treatment was replicated six times with 20 birds per replicate. At the end of rearing period, 10 birds were randomly selected from each treatment, slaughtered and the breast muscles were excised for meat quality analyses. The results showed that all additives influenced drip and cooking loses, pH, fat content and colour attributes of breast muscle but did not affect tenderness, muscle glycogen, moisture, crude protein and ash content of breast muscle. Both drip and cooking losses were lower in treatment groups than those in the control group. Birds fed sole probiotics had the least pH, drip loss and cooking loss compared with the other treatments. Sole probiotics-fed birds had higher lightness, redness and yellowness values and lower fat value than the other treatments on day 1 post-mortem.  The results indicate that probiotics are good substitutes for antibiotics in the diet of broiler chickens for the enhancement of meat quality. © 2015 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

Kareem K.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Kareem K.Y.,University of Salah al Din | Loh T.C.,University Putra Malaysia | Foo H.L.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics | Year: 2015

The study assessed the effects of different types of postbiotics that mixed with different levels of prebiotic (inulin) on carcass, meat and bone quality. A total of 280 male Cobb broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. The treatments included basal diet (-ve control), basal diet+neomycin and Oxytetracycline (+ve control), (T1) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RI11 (T2) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RG14 (T3) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RI11+0.8% inulin, (T4) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RI11+1.0% inulin, (T5) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RG14+0.8% inulin, and (T6) basal diet+0.3% postbiotic RG14+1.0% inulin. The birds were fed the diets for 6 weeks and slaughtered. Meat quality assessment was conducted on the breast muscle while bone quality traits were assessed on tibia of right leg. Birds fed postbiotics and inulin had lower (p< 0.05) drip loss and improved (p< 0.05) lightness of breast muscle as compared to the control birds. No changes were observed in cooking loss, shear force and most carcass attributes among the treatments. Carcass attributes, bone breaking strength, tibiotarsal index and robusticity index were not significantly different (p>0.05) among the treatments. Postbiotic and inulin had beneficial effect on meat quality as compared to antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 by New Century Health Publishers, LLC.

Abdulla N.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Abdulla N.R.,University of Salah al Din | Loh T.C.,University Putra Malaysia | Akit H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 7 more authors.
South African Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of three feeds containing 6% oils: palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO) and linseed oil (LO); and three calcium levels (NRC recommendation, 1.25% and 1.50%) on the fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and cholesterol concentrations of broiler breast meat in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. A total of 378 one-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to the diets and fed for six weeks. Birds fed diet supplemented with LO, SO and PO had higher proportions of α-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. The LO diet increased the total n-3 fatty acids and decreased the n-6 : n-3 compared with the PO and SO diets. Birds fed the PO diet had higher oxidative stability and cholesterol compared with those fed the SO and LO diets. However, the level of cholesterol in all treatments was within the normal range. The level of calcium and interaction between source of oil and calcium level did not influence lipid oxidation, fatty acid profile and cholesterol level of broiler breast muscle. It can be concluded that dietary LO and SO enhanced n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively, while dietary PO enhanced the oleic acid and oxidative stability of broiler breast muscle. Thus, this study showed that PO can be used as an alternative oil source in broiler diets with a positive effect on the oxidative stability of chicken meat refrigerated at seven days when compared with vegetable oils that are rich in linoleic and α-linolenic acid.

Kareem K.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | Kareem K.Y.,University of Salah Al Din | Ling F.H.,University Putra Malaysia | Chwen L.T.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Gut Pathogens | Year: 2014

Background: The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory activity of postbiotic produced by L. plantarum using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of inulin and to select the best combination based on the modified inhibitory activity (MAU/mL) against pathogens. Methods. Postbiotics were produced by 6 strains of L. plantarum (RG11, RG14, RI11, UL4, TL1 and RS5) using reconstituted media supplemented with different levels of Inulin (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0) yielding 36 combinations. Results: The combination of postbiotic and inulin had higher inhibitory activity than postbiotic alone against all indicator organisms except Pediococcus acidilactici, and E. coli. The RI11 + 0.8% Inulin, RG14 + 0.8% Inulin and RG14 + 0% Inulin had significantly (p < 0.05) higher MAU/mL against P. acidilactici than other treatments. The RI11 + 0.8% Inulin and RG14 + 0.4% Inulin had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher MAU/mL against VRE. The MAU/mL against L. monocytogenes was greater in RI11 + 1.0% Inulin, RI11 + 0.6% Inulin and RI11 + 0.8% Inulin. The combinations of RS5 + 1.0% Inulin, RS5 + 0.8% Inulin and RS5 + 0.6% Inulin had greater MAU/mL against S. enterica; whereas in E. coli, the inhibitory activity had higher activity that can only be found in RS5 + 0.8% Inulin. Conclusion: Combination of postbiotics and inulin which had higher optical density tends to have lower pH which corresponds to increased inhibitory activity against indicator organisms. The results of this study show that postbiotics and inulin supplementation enable to inhibit proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. © 2014 Kareem et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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