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Perez T.,Service de Pneumologie et Immuno allergologie | Mal H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Brillet P.-Y.,Radiodiagnostic et Imagerie Medicale | Chaouat A.,Nancy University Hospital Center | And 13 more authors.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2011

Introduction. The objective of the present article is to review available data on possible links between phenotypes and inflammatory profiles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Background. Chronic bronchitis is associated with proximal bronchial inflammation and small airway inflammation with remodeling at the site of obstruction. CT scanning enables patients to be phenotyped according to the predominantly bronchial or emphysematous nature of the morphological abnormality. Exacerbations, in a context of persistently elevated baseline inflammation, are associated with increased inflammation and a poor prognosis. Long-term stu- dies have correlated inflammatory markers (and anti-inflammatory drug effects) with dynamic hyperinflation, possibly confirming that inflammation promotes hyperinflation. The inflamma- tory cell count in the pulmonary arterial walls correlates with the severity of endothelial dysfunction. The risk of developing pulmonary hypertension would seem to increase with low-grade systemic inflammation. The role of low-grade systemic inflammation in COPD co- morbidities, and in nutritional and muscular involvement in particular, remains a matter of debate. Regular physical exercise may help reduce this inflammation. Conclusions. In COPD, many aspects of the clinical phenotype are related to inflammation. Better knowledge of these relationships could help optimize current and future treatments. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of SPLF.

Loschetter A.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Baills A.,Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres | Taillandier F.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Douguet J.M.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines | And 6 more authors.
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

This work aims at developing the bases necessary for taking into account in an integrated manner the soil and sub-soil issues in urban development. The diversity of actors and of their concerns lead us to develop different tools, with dedicated uses: 1) a multi-actor debate-aid tool based on multi-criteria analysis, that makes more readable the diversity of challenges and viewpoints of actors; 2) a technical aid-tool with a database devoted to stakeholders, that makes an inventory of main issues that may be encountered during typical urban development projects and that enables to agglomerate the information from basic data in order to make it usable in the multi-actor public consultation; 3) a quantitative decision-making aid tool for enlightening the economic value of indispensable investigations. A conceptual framework is proposed, based on the expertise of the project partners in data gathering, in operational urban development or in project management. It is validated and tested on real test cases, corresponding to specific urban projects. © 2013 WIT Press.

Aubier M.,University Paris Diderot | Marthan R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Berger P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Chambellan A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2010

The present study reviews the literature on inflammation and remodelling mechanisms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The development of COPD is associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Immunity (innate or adaptive) plays a role in its onset and continuation. Airways inflammation alters bronchial structure/function relations: increased bronchial wall thickness, increased bronchial smooth muscle tone, seromucosal gland hypersecretion and loss of elastic structures. Circulating markers of pulmonary inflammation indicate its systemic dissemination. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the onset and persistence of tissue abnormalities. The determinants of extra- and intra-cellular redox control are only partially known. Susceptibility genes, antioxidant system insufficiency and reduced levels of anti-age molecules and of histone deacetylation are also involved. The molecular and cellular targets of inflammation and remodelling are numerous and complex. Currently, tools exist to limit inflammation in COPD but not to act on structural remodelling. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of SPLF.

Roche N.,University of Paris Descartes | Devillier P.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines | Aguilaniu B.,REM Hylab | Escamilla R.,Clinique des Voies Respiratoires | And 14 more authors.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2011

Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has made considerable progress over the last 15 years, with the development of pulmonary rehabilitation, new molecules to facilitate smoking cessation, and several medical treatments. Many therapeutic needs, however, remain to be met. State of the art-Several lines of research on inflammation and COPD are promising, and some will probably result in new treatments. These may target specific populations, identified by clinical phenotype or by biomarkers. The forthcoming arrival of iPDE-4s on the market illustrates how knowledge of inflammation and remodeling and of some of the underlying mechanisms finally, after many years development, has broadened the range of treatments available to help improve patients daily life and outcomes. Perspectives and conclusions.-The availability of such treatments, however, does not mean that knowledge of the disease in the general population and among healthcare workers can be neglected. Early detection (at a stage when treatment can already be effective) and patient education which promotes therapeutic compliance and lasting lifestyle change need to be developed further.© 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Halimi J.-P.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines | Pradelle B.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines | Guermouche A.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines | Jalby W.,University Of Saint Quentin En Yvelines
2014 International Green Computing Conference, IGCC 2014 | Year: 2015

Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) is commonly used to save energy in computing systems. However, when it comes to parallel programs, existing DVFS controllers only reduce frequency while or before waiting in blocking communications. As a consequence, energy savings are only possible for the program tasks out of the critical path and when the workload is imbalanced. We propose a new runtime DVFS controller, FoREST-mn. It allows to take advantage of both the low CPU usage of some program phases as well as communication slack to save more energy with parallel programs. The DVFS control then becomes more complex, but energy savings are even obtained when the workload is balanced. The resulting slowdown on programs is carefully controlled and constrained by a user-defined threshold. We implemented the presented strategies and evaluated it on 4 compute nodes totaling 64 cores. FoREST-mn is able to perform significant CPU energy savings on the NAS programs, up to 34 % on MG, while efficiently bounding the resulting slowdown. © 2014 IEEE.

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