University of Saint Louis

Mabini, Philippines

University of Saint Louis

Mabini, Philippines
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Gonzales L.B.F.,University of Saint Louis
Spatium | Year: 2016

Urban sprawl has emerged as a striking characteristic of recent global urban development. Land use policies advocating urban expansion for residential use to the detriment of a critical environment as in the case of Baguio City, Philippines, have shaped and reinforced the urban sprawl phenomenon. Urban sprawl is characterized by discontinuous, fragmented/leapfrog development, with random population densities. There are generally few studies regarding the environmental impact of urban sprawl and it is along this vein that this study was undertaken. The purpose of the study is to gauge how extensive urban sprawl has grown in Baguio City via Shannon's entropy model and to explore its impact on the city's environment. The result of the study revealed that urban sprawl prevails over the city's physical development. The proximity of the entropy value to the maximum reference value, indicate a highly dispersed urban development attributed to the continuous increase in population, coupled with the physical constraint of topography and its limited land area. The most critical issue challenging the local government of Baguio City and its people is the creation of a Long Term Development Plan that should strike a balance between local ambitions, demographic facts, and the environmental sustainability.

Pabalan N.,University of Saint Louis | Jarjanazi H.,Environment Canada | Sung L.,Hospital for Sick Children | Li H.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute | Ozcelik H.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Breast cancer susceptibility may be modulated partly through polymorphisms in oxidative enzymes, one of which is myeloperoxidase (MPO). Association of the low transcription activity variant allele A in the G463A polymorphism has been investigated for its association with breast cancer risk, considering the modifying effects of menopausal status and antioxidant intake levels of cases and controls. Methodology/Principal Findings: To obtain a more precise estimate of association using the odds ratio (OR), we performed a meta-analysis of 2,975 cases and 3,427 controls from three published articles of Caucasian populations living in the United States. Heterogeneity among studies was tested and sensitivity analysis was applied. The lower transcriptional activity AA genotype of MPO in the pre-menopausal population showed significantly reduced risk (OR 0.56-0.57, p = 0.03) in contrast to their post-menopausal counterparts which showed non-significant increased risk (OR 1.14; p = 0.34-0.36). High intake of antioxidants (OR 0.67-0.86, p = 0.04-0.05) and carotenoids (OR 0.68-0.86, p = 0.03-0.05) conferred significant protection in the women. Stratified by menopausal status, this effect was observed in pre-menopausal women especially those whose antioxidant intake was high (OR 0.42-0.69, p = 0.04). In post-menopausal women, effect of low intake elicited susceptibility (OR 1.19-1.67, p = 0.07-0.17) to breast cancer. Conclusions/Significance: Based on a homogeneous Caucasian population, the MPO G463A polymorphism places post-menopausal women at risk for breast cancer, where this effect is modified by diet. © 2012 Pabalan et al.

Pabalan N.,University of Saint Louis | Jarjanazi H.,Environment Canada | Ozcelik H.,Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Inconsistency of reported associations between the Pro919Ser polymorphism in the BRCA1 interacting protein 1 (BRIP1) gene and breast cancer prompted us to undertake a meta-analysis. Although investigated by fewer studies, we have also studied the risk associated with the two additional BRIP1 polymorphisms, C47G and G64A, and breast cancer riskWe conducted searches of the published literature in MEDLINE through PubMed up to October 2012. Individual data on 5,122 cases and 5,735 controls from eight published case-control studies were evaluated for the Pro919Ser polymorphism. Accordingly, C47G and G64A polymorphisms were studied in 1,539 cases and 1,183 controls, and 667 and 782, respectively.In the overall analysis, association was lacking between the Pro919Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 0.98-1.02), materially unchanged when confined to subjects of European ancestry (OR 0.96-1.03) or even in the high-powered studies (OR 0.97-1.03). In the menopausal subgroups, premenopausal women followed the null pattern (OR 0.94-0.98) for the Pro and Ser allele contrasts, but not for the Pro-Ser genotype comparison where significant increased risk was observed (OR 1.39, P = 0.002). The postmenopausal women (>50 years) exhibited a range of pooled effects from protection (OR 0.83, P = 0.11) in the Pro-Ser genotype to slightly increased risk (OR 1.12-1.16, P = 0.28-0.42) in the Pro and Ser allele comparisons. The G64A polymorphism effects were essentially null (OR 0.90-0.98), but C47G was found to confer non-significantly increased risk under all genetic models (OR 1.27-1.40).Upon conclusion, overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The premenopausal findings and variable outcomes in postmenopausal women require more studies for confirmation. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Pabalan N.,University of Saint Louis | Francisco-Pabalan O.,University of Toronto | Sung L.,Hospital for Sick Children | Jarjanazi H.,Environment Canada
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

The excision repair cross-complementing group 2 gene (ERCC2) plays a key role in DNA repair. Several polymorphisms in the ERCC2 gene have been described, including the commonly occurring Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn polymorphisms. Studies investigating the association of these polymorphisms with breast cancer risk produced controversial results. To evaluate these associations presented in diverse populations, we have conducted a meta-analysis based on 40 studies from 33 publications in PubMed which included analyses of Lys751Gln (14,545 cases, 15,352 controls) and Asp312Asn polymorphisms (16,254 cases, 14,006 controls). Overall findings of both polymorphisms have implicated null effects (OR = 1.01-1.03) when the analyses were limited to the statistically powerful (-80%) studies. Although modestly increased statistically significant breast cancer risk was detected in the underpowered studies (≥80%), removal of outliers resulted in null associations. Ethnic stratification showed non-significant and relatively null associations for both polymorphisms with breast cancer risk for the overall Caucasians as well as North American and the European sub-populations. Although statistically increased and decreased risks were observed for the homogenous populations of African-Americans (Lys751Gln, OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.53, P = 0.03) and Asians (Asp312Asn, ORs: 0.53-0.55, P values: 0.02-0.03), respectively, this may be the result of small sample size. Analyses of the homogeneous adduct studies, with relatively large sample size, exhibited increased risk for Lys751Gln (OR 1.20, 95% CI (1.02-1.41), P = 0.03) and Asp312Asn (OR 1.17 95% CI 1.02-1.34, P = 0.03) under the dominant genetic model. In conclusion, our results suggest null associations of both polymorphisms in the overall and the Caucasian subgroups, although some effects can be suggested for relatively smaller minority studies. Increased risk effect was more visible when the adduct studies are considered, suggesting the role of these polymorphisms in the presence of exposure to DNA damaging agents. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Pabalan N.A.,University of Saint Louis
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

Genetic association studies report potentially conflicting findings which meta-analysis seeks to quantify and objectively summarize. Attributing cancer to a single gene variant requires large sample sizes, which may strain resources in a primary study. Properly used, meta-analysis is a powerful tool for resolving discrepancies in genetic association studies given the exponential increase in sample sizes when data are combined. The several steps involved in this methodology require careful attention to critical issues in meta-analysis, heterogeneity and publication bias, evaluation of which can be graphical or statistical. Overall summary effects of a meta-analysis may or may not reflect similar associations when the component studies are sub grouped. Overall associations and that of the subgroups are evaluated for tenability using sensitivity analysis. The low association between a polymorphism and cancer is offset by detectable changes in cancer incidence in the general population making them an important issue from a public health point of view. Asian meta-analytic publications in cancer genetics come from six countries with an output that number from one to two. The exception is China, whose publication output has increased exponentially since 2008.

Pangilinan J.M.,University of Saint Louis | Janssens G.K.,Hasselt University
Journal of Global Optimization | Year: 2011

This paper investigates the performance of evolutionary algorithms in the optimization aspects of oblique decision tree construction and describes their performance with respect to classification accuracy, tree size, and Pareto-optimality of their solution sets. The performance of the evolutionary algorithms is analyzed and compared to the performance of exhaustive (traditional) decision tree classifiers on several benchmark datasets. The results show that the classification accuracy and tree sizes generated by the evolutionary algorithms are comparable with the results generated by traditional methods in all the sample datasets and in the large datasets, the multiobjective evolutionary algorithms generate better Pareto-optimal sets than the sets generated by the exhaustive methods. The results also show that a classifier, whether exhaustive or evolutionary, that generates the most accurate trees does not necessarily generate the shortest trees or the best Pareto-optimal sets. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Culliao A.G.L.,University of Saint Louis | Barcelo J.M.,University of Saint Louis
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Coffee remains an important agricultural product in Benguet province, Philippines, but is highly susceptible to fungal and mycotoxin contamination in various stages of growth and processing and in different local climates. In this study, pre- and post-harvest coffee bean samples from temperate and warm farming areas were assessed for their fungal and mycotoxin contaminants. One hundred eighty-five fungal isolates belonging to six genera were isolated representing 88.1% of mycotoxigenic fungi. The predominant species belonged to the genus Aspergillus, which are known producers of mycotoxins. Coffee beans from the post-harvest temperate group were found to have the highest percentage mycotoxigenic contamination of 98.4%, suggesting that the risk for fungal contamination is high after drying. Determination of the mycotoxins indicated 28.6% contamination. Ochratoxin A was found to be highest in dried whole cherries which contained 97.3 μg kg–1, whilst sterigmatocystin was also highest in dried whole cherries at 193.7 μg kg–1. These results indicate that there are risks of fungal and mycotoxin contamination of Benguet coffee at the post-harvest stage. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Chambers E.,University of Saint Louis | Eppstein D.,University of California at Irvine
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2010

We study the maximum flow problem in directed H-minor-free graphs where H can be drawn in the plane with one crossing. If a structural decomposition of the graph as a clique-sum of planar graphs and graphs of constant complexity is given, we show that a maximum flow can be computed in O(nlogn) time. In particular, maximum flows in directed K 3,3-minor-free graphs and directed K 5-minor-free graphs can be computed in O(nlogn) time without additional assumptions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Buhangin J.,University of Saint Louis
WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment | Year: 2014

Spatial equity is an ambiguity. In a physical sense it can be the equitable development of land use. In a socio-economic sense it can refer to the equitable flow of goods and services from one spatial arena to another. But in both senses, this paper contends that spatial equity is a parameter for sustainable development especially in indigenous regions. Spatial equity can, therefore be defined as both a process and an outcome. As process, it involves the redistribution of the overall resources and development opportunities and/or the optimization of endemic or locally existing resources and development opportunities in an indigenous region or area by either the physical integration of all political spaces within it through a planned and rationalized system of physical infrastructure or by the social integration of the same spaces through a network of communicative devices based on indigenous socio-political structures enhanced by electronic technology. As an outcome, it envisions an indigenous region or area where such redistribution or optimization is achieved and sustained through an integrated indigenous socio-political structure, that is, through networked ethnicities such that peripheral spaces, formerly neglected or lacking prioritization, are given equal chances as the center to develop culturally, economically, and politically. This paper looks for a [re]definition of spatial equity through the lens of sustainable development. © 2013 WIT Press.

Chua-Barcelo R.T.,University of Saint Louis
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods: Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results: A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/ preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.

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