The Royal and Pontificial Major University of Saint Francis Xavier of Chuquisaca is a public university in Sucre, Bolivia. It is one of the oldest universities of the new world, ranking as the second oldest university in the Americas behind Peru's National University of San Marcos. Founded in 1624 by order of the Spanish King Philip IV, and with the support of Pope Innocent XII, the university was intended to provide an education in Law and Theology to the families and descendants of the wealthy gentry of South America.USFX is older than Harvard, for which the oldest official reference as a university occurs only in 1780.At the turn of the 19th century, Chuquisaca and its university came to constitute an center of revolutionary zeal in Bolivia. The university intellectually sustained the well-cultivated Francophile elite whose ideals led to the Bolivian War of Independence and ultimately to the independence of all the Spanish colonies. Once Republic was proclaimed by Simón Bolívar, the university became the main university of the new country. Until the first decades of the 20th century, its law faculty remained famous all across South America. Wikipedia.
Braid J.A.,Dalhousie University |
Murphy J.B.,University of Saint Francis Xavier of Bolivia |
Quesada C.,Instituto Geologico Y Minero Of Espana
Gondwana Research | Year: 2010
Models concerning the tectonic evolution of accretionary complexes typically relate outcrop-scale to plate-scale multiphase deformation as a smooth variation of strain on all scales. However, at oblique convergent margins, regional scale brittle faults in the shallow crust are commonly parallel to the main orogenic grain. These faults impose a strong structural anisotropy and can subsequently control deformation at subordinate scales. As a result, finite strain in each domain may not record local kinematics consistent with the overall orogenic-scale motion implying that structural data must be analyzed selectively from a large area in order to relate outcrop-scale kinematics to global plate-scale dynamics. Field mapping and preliminary structural analysis of the Late Devonian Pulo do Lobo (PDL) Formation, and suspect "exotic" South Portuguese Zone (SPZ) in southern Iberia indicate tectonic juxtaposition of diverse deposits such as foreland basin flysch, sedimentary and tectonic mélange, and passive margin sediments showing an overall geometry consistent with an accretionary wedge setting. Variations in finite strain, lithology and regional structure were used as proxies for defining tectonic domains for structural analysis. Numerous local kinematic indicators within the PDL suggest a complex regional deformation with several enigmatic features that can be explained by sequential compartmentalization of strain during the development of the imbricate stack followed by late-stage bulk strain imposed across the entire complex. Structural data produced by local strain partitioning reveals kinematic indicators, which contradict the overall regional structural style (e.g. spatial juxtaposition of sinistral and dextral fabrics). When viewed at larger scales (i.e. regional scale), however, these data indicate that significant sinistral strike-slip movement occurred in conjunction with both an extension and shortening. Outcrop-scale deformation in polydeformed domains is controlled by local conditions resulting from brittle deformation coeval with orogenic-scale bulk strain. The entire Pulo do Lobo Zone is dominated by a pervasive late-stage vertical to sub-vertical E-W cleavage axial planar to chevron folds which overprint earlier deformation in the older passive margin units. This overprinting suggests that in the late stages of the evolution of the accretionary complex, bulk strain was imposed over the entire complex as a result of internal locking of the accretionary complex and reduced strain rates during the waning stages of collision between Gondwana and Laurussia. Stereographic analysis of fabric elements from each distinct tectonic domain, together with regional geological constraints, support this hypothesis and are indicative of progressive deformation imposed on the PDL during the Variscan Orogeny. Crown Copyright © 2009.
Marshall W.S.,University of Saint Francis Xavier of Bolivia
Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) | Year: 2011
Epithelia involved in vectorial salt transport respond to apical and basolateral changes in osmotic activity by moderating the transmural solute transport rate simultaneously with underlying volume regulatory mechanisms involved in regulatory volume increase (RVI) and decrease (RVD). This review examines rapid osmotic responses in salt secreting epithelia of marine and euryhaline teleost fish, with inclusion of recent results from other ion transporting epithelia that also respond rapidly to osmotic shock. Mitochondrion-rich chloride secreting cells of marine teleost fish gills and skin, when exposed to hypertonic shock, activate NaCl secretion via phosphorylation of Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) in the basolateral membrane and activation of anion channels in the apical membrane. Conversely, NaCl secretion is inhibited when chloride secreting cells are swollen osmotically. Mammalian airway epithelial cells also possess NKCC1 basally and apical anion channels [Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR)]; with hypotonic shock, this epithelium releases ATP and NaCl secretion is stimulated via purinergic receptors, while hypertonic shock inhibits Na(+) uptake. In the eye, the ciliary epithelium activates Cl(-) channels in response to hypotonic shock as RVD, an effect that modulates transepithelial fluid transport rates. In the renal A6 cell line, K(+) and Cl(-) effluxes activate during RVD and RVI Na(+) transepithelial absorption. A common theme in these systems is ATP release in hypotonic shock with subsequent RVD-effective mechanisms such as NKCC1 inhibition and K(+) and Cl(-) efflux, but there are different effects of osmotic changes on transepithelial transport, apparently depending on the role of the epithelial system. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.
Alex M.R.,University of Saint Francis Xavier of Bolivia
American Journal of Nursing | Year: 2011
OVERVIEW: Depending on her working environment, specific immunities, and stage of pregnancy, a pregnant nurse may find it difficult to avoid teratogenic and fetotoxic exposures, as well as working conditions that could jeopardize her pregnancy. A clinical review of the occupational hazards faced by pregnant nurses can be useful to the concerned nurse or health care system, as can suggestions on ways to reduce risk and a list of pertinent occupational safety resources. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
Tam J.C.,University of Saint Francis Xavier of Bolivia |
Scrosati R.A.,Victoria University of Wellington
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2011
Aim We performed the first test of predictions from the abundant-centre model using north-west Atlantic coastal organisms. We tested the hypotheses that the density of intertidal mussels (Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus) and dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) and mussel age and size would peak at an intermediate location along their distribution range. We also assessed the latitudinal variation in critical aerial exposure time. Location North-west Atlantic coast between Newfoundland (Canada) and New York (USA), covering 1800km of shoreline. Methods Using a nested design, we measured mussel density, age and size and dogwhelk density in 60 wave-exposed rocky intertidal sites spread evenly in six regions. Critical aerial exposure times were determined using online data. Results Mytilus edulis peaked in abundance in Maine and was much less abundant in the other regions. Mytilus trossulus peaked in abundance in southern Nova Scotia and Maine, was less abundant in the other regions to the north, and was absent in the southernmost region (New York). Both mussel species were least abundant in a northern region (Cape Breton), although not in the northernmost region (Newfoundland). Critical aerial exposure times were negatively correlated with overall mussel density. Mussel age and size were similar among regions. Dogwhelks peaked in abundance in Maine and were much less abundant in the other regions, being positively correlated with overall mussel density across regions. Main conclusions Density data for M. edulis and N. lapillus provide limited support for an abundant-centre pattern, while M. trossulus shows a clear ramped-south distribution. Critical aerial exposure times suggest that physiological stress during summer and winter low tides may be lowest in Maine and southern Nova Scotia, which might partially explain mussel predominance in those regions. Winter ice scour in Cape Breton may explain the abundance trough observed there. Mussel size and age may be more limited by wave exposure at our sites (as they all face open waters) than by regional differences in environmental stress. Dogwhelks, which prey on mussels, seem to respond positively to prey density at the regional scale. Our study supports the notion that, while the abundant-centre model is a useful starting point for research, it often represents an oversimplification of reality. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Leger M.N.,University of Saint Francis Xavier of Bolivia
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used for noninvasive measurements of solid and liquid samples, through highly scattering media such as colloids, food, and tissue. It has seen many applications in agriculture, medicine, and petroleum industries, mainly due to the minimal sample preparation that is required. This minimal sample preparation does come at a cost to the analyst, since the high signal-tonoise ratio of a typical NIR instrument can be riddled with effects stemming from heterogeneity and the scattering of light. This work proposes a novel preprocessing method, the path length distribution correction (PDC) method, to correct spectral nonlinearities in samples of highly scattering media. These nonlinearities stem from the distribution of path lengths of the incident light, which are a result of the scattering of light in the sample. Recent developments in time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy have allowed for the acquisition of the distribution of times that photons travel within a sample simultaneous with the collection of the NIR spectrum. The TOF distribution is used to estimate a path length distribution within a sample, which is then used to fix the measurement spectra, giving each spectrum an apparent path length of unity. The PDCcorrected spectra can then be used with traditional multivariate calibration methods such as principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). Another discussion looks at the viability of using a lognormal distribution as a simple approximation of the TOF distribution. This would be very useful in circumstances in which experimental TOF distributions are not collected. PDC is shown to significantly improve prediction errors in experimental data sets, while diagnostic plots indicate that the corrected spectra do appear to have a path length of unity, thus alleviating effects of the distribution of path lengths. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.