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Gagnon M.,University of Saint-Boniface
Physics Teacher | Year: 2012

Early in the last century, Robert Millikan developed a precise method of determining the electric charge carried by oil droplets.1-3 Using a microscope and a small incandescent lamp, he observed the fall of charged droplets under the influence of an electric field inside a small observation chamber. In so doing, Millikan demonstrated the existence of a fundamental unit of electric charge, and established its quantization. Now renowned as one of the most famous experiments of 20th-century physics, Millikan's oil-drop experiment has been reproduced with more or less success in most, if not all, high school and university physics classes. This has encouraged many improvements of the apparatus, now making this experiment much more accurate and easier to realize for advanced students. However, the required apparatus remains rather expensive, and for introductory college or high school students the experiment is still quite difficult to conduct. As an alternative to the traditional setup, a realistic computer-based simulator to replicate the Millikan oil-drop experiment has been developed. Using this software, students are able to undertake a complete experiment, obtain an accurate set of results, and thus gain a better understanding of the original experiment and its historical importance. © American Association of Physics Teachers.


Bernier A.-M.,University of Saint-Boniface | Bernard K.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Bernard K.,University of Manitoba
Genome Announcements | Year: 2016

Draft genomes for Microbacterium hominis 84-0209T and M. laevaniformans 91-0039 were studied. Genome sizes (bps, [G+C contents]) were 3,506,522 (70.96%) and 2,999,965 (69.51%), respectively. Annotation revealed: (M. hominis) three rRNA sequences, 45 tRNA genes, and 3,218 coding sequences; (M. laevaniformans) three rRNA sequences, 49 tRNA genes, and 2,874 coding sequences. © Crown 2016.


Que A.L.,University of Saint-Boniface | Li H.Z.,University of Northern British Columbia
Communication and Medicine | Year: 2016

This study explores male physicians' use of verbal compliance-gaining strategies to encourage patients to adhere to medication regimens, lifestyle changes, or future appointments, and assesses which strategies are associated with patients' reported healthcare experiences. Five physicians from a family practice clinic in northern British Columbia, Canada, were audio-recorded while interacting with 31 patients during actual consultations. Compliancegaining utterances were coded into five categories of strategies, while patient experience with care was assessed using a questionnaire. A number of intriguing findings emerged: direct orders were related to a more negative experience with interpersonal aspects of care, but were fairly frequently used, especially with female patients. Persuasion was the only strategy that promoted a positive patient experience, but was rarely used. However, the effect of persuasion on patient experience was no longer significant when adjusting for patients' health status. Physicians relied mostly on motivation strategies to encourage adherence, but these strategies were not related to patients' assessment of their healthcare experiences. These results suggest that the most frequently used verbal compliance-gaining strategies by physicians are not always appreciated by patients. To be more effective, it is necessary to inform physicians about which compliance-gaining strategies promote a positive patient healthcare experience.


Bernier A.-M.,University of Saint-Boniface | Bernard K.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Bernard K.,University of Manitoba
Genome Announcements | Year: 2017

Features from two Pigmentiphaga isolates referred to Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory from human clinical materials were described previously (N. Bridger, S. Drews, T. Burdz, D. Wiebe, A. L. Pacheco, B. Ng, and K. Bernard, J Med Microbiol 62:708–711, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.051615-0). Whole-genome sequencing was performed on strains NML030171 and NML080357; the sequences were found to have 5.86 and 5.73 Mb of clean data and G+C contents of 67.5 and 66.74 mol%, respectively. © Crown copyright 2017.


Polymerolepis whitei Karatajute-Talimaa, 1968 was described based on isolated polyodontode scales recovered from the Ukraine, and originally was thought to be heterostracan (Agnatha). Additional scales with neck canals were described years later, and as a result, P. whitei was reclassified as a bradyodont holocephalan because it had scales similar to those of Listracanthus Newberry & Worthen, 1870. Until now, no articulated body fossils were known, and so the classification of this taxon has remained uncertain and based only on the original author's opinion. New specimens of P. whitei from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, show articulated scale patches from the head, with the best specimen showing part of an anal fin, caudal peduncle, and caudal fin. This new material confirms that the original account of scale variation was accurate, but also that P. whitei possesses an anal fin spine, a feature that, until recently, was thought to be a synapomorphy of acanthodian fishes among Palaeozoic fishes. Several primitive chondrichthyans (Obtusacanthus Hanke & Wilson, 2004; Lupopsyroides Hanke & Wilson, 2004; Kathemacanthus Gagnier & Wilson, 1996; Seretolepis Karatajute-Talimaa, 1968; Doliodus Traquair, 1893; Antarctilamna Young, 1982, and also problematic taxa such as Gyracanthides Woodward, 1902, and now Polymerolepis Karatajute-Talimaa, 1968), are known from articulated remains and show a fin-spine complement like that of acanthodian fishes. They also have placoid scales or polyodontode scales that grew by areal rather than superpositional accretion. These taxa blur the distinction that exists in historic literature between acanthodians and early chondrichthyans. © Publications Scientifiques du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.


Hawke L.D.,University of Western Ontario | Hawke L.D.,University of Saint-Boniface | Parikh S.V.,University of Western Ontario | Parikh S.V.,King's College | Michalak E.E.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Background Psychiatric stigma is pervasive injustice that complicates the course of illness and reduces quality of life for people with mental illnesses. This article reviews the research examining stigma towards bipolar disorder (BD) with a view to guiding the development of stigma reduction initiatives and ongoing research. Methods PsychInfo, Medline, and Embase databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies addressing stigma in BD. Results Stigma is a serious concern for individuals with BD and their families. Stigma occurs within affected individuals, families, social environments, work and school environments, and the healthcare industry. With stigma often come a loss of social support and occupational success, reduced functioning, higher symptom levels and lower quality of life. BD stigma is comparable to that of other severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Few interventions are available to specifically target stigma against BD. Limitations Most studies have used explicit, attitude-based measures of stigma without controlling for social desirability, which may not translate into real-world stigmatizing behaviors. Furthermore, many studies have not clearly delineated results in a manner consistent with the conceptual framework of stigmatization. Conclusions Stigma toward BD is ubiquitous and has insidious consequences for affected individuals and their families. Stigma reduction initiatives should target individuals living with BD, their families, workplaces, and the healthcare industry, taking into account the experiences and impacts of BD stigma to improve social support, course of illness, and quality of life. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Balhara J.,University of Manitoba | Koussih L.,University of Manitoba | Koussih L.,University of Saint-Boniface | Zhang J.,University of Manitoba | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor that is a humoral component of the innate immune system. It interacts with pathogenic moieties, infected and dying host cells and facilitates their removal through activation of appropriate innate and adaptive mechanisms. PTX3 is secreted by a diverse variety of cells, ranging from immune cells to structural cells, in response to Toll like receptor (TLR) engagement, inflammatory stimuli, and physical and chemical stress. Further, PTX3 plays an essential role in female fertility as it facilitates the organization of extracellular matrix in the cumulus oophorus. Such activity is also implicated in post-inflammation tissue repair. PTX3 is a multifunctional protein and plays a non-redundant role in providing immunity against potential immunological dangers. Thus, we assessed its role in lung immunity, as lungs are at a constant risk of infections and tissue damage that is attributable to perpetual exposure to foreign agents. © 2013 Balhara, Koussih, Zhang and Gounni.


Gee J.H.,University of Manitoba | Rondeau S.L.,University of Saint-Boniface
Herpetologica | Year: 2012

We measured gaseous lift and specific gravity of larval anurans at regular intervals during development to assess their importance in determining buoyancy in eight species. Specifically, we examined the hatchling, larval, and metamorphic stages of tadpoles from still waters (Limnodynastes dumerili, Limn. peronii, Lithobates septentrionalis, and Rhinella marina), intermittent streams (Litoria genimaculata and Lito. lesueuri), and torrent sections of rivers (Lito. nannotis and Nyctimystes dayi). Buoyancy levels and the strategies used to attain buoyancy varied at different phases of development and with the environment occupied. Buoyancy increased rapidly during development in hatchlings of Limn. peronii, Lith. septentrionalis, and R. marina due to a reduction in specific gravity. Lungs were inflated in early larval stages of all species except for Lito. nannotis, N. dayi, and R. marina, which inflated their lungs following metamorphosis. Limnodynastes dumerili and Limn. peronii used gaseous lift to maintain near-neutral buoyancy throughout larval and metamorphic stages. Lithobates septentrionalis, Stages 25-29 (first summer), possessed a high level of gaseous lift, but buoyancy declined as lung gas volume decreased in Stages 31-43 (second summer). Rhinella marina did not inflate lungs prior to transformation but achieved an intermediate buoyancy level due to a very low specific gravity. The intermittent-stream species Lito. genimaculata and Lito. lesueuri used gaseous lift to achieve buoyancy levels similar to those of Lith. septentrionalis (Stages 31-43) and R. marina. The torrent-dwelling species Lito. nannotis and N. dayi were the least buoyant; their lungs were not inflated prior to transformation and their specific gravity was elevated. Both gaseous lift and specific gravity are important factors in determining buoyancy in larval anurans. © 2012 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.


Gagnon M.,University of Saint-Boniface
Physics Education | Year: 2011

The close relationship between charged particles and electromagnetic fields has been well known since the 19th century, thanks to James Clerk Maxwell's brilliant unified theory of electricity and magnetism. Today, electromagnetism is recognized as an essential aspect of human activity and has consequently become a major component of senior high-school and first-year university science curricula. However, while the action of electrical force on charged particles is generally well understood, that of the magnetic force still remains a mystery for some students, and thus the analysis of combined interactions quickly becomes a real puzzle. To improve the teaching of these phenomena, and also to facilitate comprehension by students, we have developed a computer-based simulator to replicate the motion of a real charged particle under the influence of any combination of electric and magnetic fields. Using this software, students are able to visualize the motion of charged particles and thus gain a better understanding of the effect of electric and magnetic fields. The software is available as a free download. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Sims L.,University of Saint-Boniface
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal | Year: 2012

This paper describes an innovative approach to environmental assessment that built local capacity enabling a more sustainable management of natural resources. It presents learning outcomes from a community-based strategic environmental assessment (CBSEA) involving communities from two Costa Rican watersheds who assessed the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad's (ICE) proposed agro-conservation programme. Participants were engaged throughout the CBSEA process, from planning to the implementation of four highly interactive workshops representing steps in a strategic environmental assessment. Instrumental learning results included: learning about CBSEA and its role in programme planning; developing problem-solving skills related to assessing impacts and creating mitigation strategies; effective group-working strategies; and technical information. Communicative learning outcomes included becoming more self-aware, and appreciating environmental conservation and collaboration. ICE learnt a participatory methodology and reconsidered communities' role in programme planning. Findings contribute to understanding the process of adult learning in cross-cultural contexts and the link between individual learning and social action. © 2012 Copyright IAIA.

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