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The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a critically endangered species. Red anus syndrome (RAS) is known to be associated with parasitic infections of the eel, particularly with Anguillicola crassus, but the full range of causative pathogenic organisms has not been systematically investigated. Here we examined the infective organisms and histopathological and ultrastructural features of seventy eels with RAS. In total, nine different pathogens were detected in association with RAS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa were present in twelve specimens (17%), the metacercaria of Euclinostromum heterostomum in three cases (4%), Gastrostome (Bucephalidae family) in seven cases (10%), A. crassus in forty-five cases (64%), Bothriocephalus in seventeen cases (24%), and Proteocephalus in twenty-three cases (32%). Yeast, amoeba, and myxobolus-like pathogens were seen in the anal skin in all cases when examined in combination with electron microscopy. Histopathologically, the lesions appeared as anoproctitis of varying severity from mild anusitis to severe haemorrhagic anoproctitis, with severe perianal oedema, haemorrhage, and proctoptosis. Gut inflammation ranged from mild catarrhal enteritis to severe haemorrhagic enteritis with mucosal sloughing. RAS is associated with a range of parasitic infections, not only A. crassus, some of which we describe here for the first time. Since RAS is not associated with direct invasion by parasites, it is likely that RAS is a secondary phenomenon caused by superadded infection on a background of generalised immunosuppression, or indirect local toxic effects. RAS may be used as a non-invasive indicator of underlying parasitic infection, but further investigations are required to establish the causative organisms for effective fishery management. © 2014 Omar A. S. Tamam.

This study aimed to compare traditional tests (Johnin test, fecal staining and fecal culture) with advanced laboratory tests (ELISA, LCD array and IS900 PCR) for detection of Johne's disease. A total of 365 Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle (40 express profuse diarrhea unresponsive to treatment and 325 contacting them) tested with Johnin test, blood collected for ELISA and fecal samples for fecal staining as well as fecal culture, application of LCD array and PCR using IS900 on DNA extracted from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacilli (from feces and culture). Johnin test was 40/40 (100%) and 25/325 (7.69%), fecal staining was 13 (37.1%) and 2 (50%), ELISA was 35/40 (87.5%) and 4/25 (16%) for clinical cattle and apparently healthy contacting them respectively. Isolation was 12/13 (92.3%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from the clinically positive cattle and 1/2 (50%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from apparently healthy contacting them while LCD array and IS900 gave 100% confirming the isolation results. In conclusion, LCD array depending on 16S RNA and DNA hybridization with specific probes for detection of M. paratuberculosis are fast, sensitive and labor-saving when combined with IS900. © 2014 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology.

El-Hattab M.M.,University of Sadat City
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes all changes that occurred to the Egyptian Lake Maryut in order to identify the best strategy for restoring it. Four scenes were used for change detection; three LANDSAT images (dated 15th of March 1991, 2nd of May 2004, and 22nd of May 2013), and the fourth scene was a SPOT-HRV image dated 16th of August 1995. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) algorithm was used to classify the images. The next step used was to focus on land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel) and the cross tabulation technique to analyze changes for the four supervised classification images. The results indicated that severe land cover changes occurred in different land covers especially in the last few years that may be due to political and socio-economic problems. Finally, a modern method based on the Delphi technique was used to select the best restoration alternative for restoring the Lake Maryut. Results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred. In addition, the most suitable restoration alternatives are pollution control for the eastern part of the lake and reopening closed parts in its western part. Copyright © 2014 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences.

Abdelaziz D.H.A.,Helwan University | Khalil H.,University of Sadat City | Khalil H.,Ohio State University | Cormet-Boyaka E.,Ohio State University | Amer A.O.,Ohio State University
Immunological Reviews | Year: 2015

Autophagy is originally described as the main catabolic pathway responsible for maintaining intracellular nutritional homeostasis that involves the formation of a unique vacuole, the autophagosome, and the interaction with the endosome-lysosome pathways. This conserved machinery plays a key role in immune-protection against different invaders, including pathogenic bacteria, intracellular parasites, and some viruses like herpes simplex and hepatitis C virus. Importantly, autophagy is linked to a number of human diseases and disorders including neurodegenerative disease, Crohn's disease, type II diabetes, tumorigenesis, cardiomyopathy, and fatty liver disease. On the other hand, inflammasomes are multiprotein platforms stimulated upon several environmental conditions and microbial infection. Once assembled, the inflammasomes mediate the maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote phagosome-lysosome fusion to sustain an innate immune response. The intersections between autophagy and inflammasome have been observed in various diseases and microbial infections. This review highlights the molecular aspects involved in autophagy and inflammasome interactions during different medical conditions and microbial infections. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Hammad A.M.,University of Sadat City | Shimamoto T.,Hiroshima University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Little information is available on the diversity and distribution of resistance and virulence factors in enterococci isolated from retail fish. In this study, 200 samples of retail ready-to-eat raw fish (sashimi) collected from the Japanese prefecture of Hiroshima were analyzed for incidence of Enterococcus spp. We recovered 96 enterococcal isolates from 90 (45%, 90/200) samples. Fifty-six strains were identified at the species level: E.faecalis (n=31), E.faecium (n=7), E.casseliflavus (n=7), E.gallinarum (n=3), E.phoeniculicola (n=4), E.raffinosus (n=2), E.saccharolyticus (n=1), and E.gilvus (n=1). Twenty-five (26%, 25/96) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included the tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), msr(A/B), aph(3'), and blaZ genes, which were detected in 12.5%, 9.3%, 2%, 14.5%, 1%, 1%, and 2% of isolates, respectively. The virulence genes gelE and asa1 were detected in 31 and 24 E.faecalis strains, respectively. Both genes were detected in one E.faecium strain. In conclusion, this is the first study to underscore the importance of sashimi as not only a reservoir of Enterococcus spp. carrying resistance and virulence genes, but also a reservoir for unusual Enterococcus spp. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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