University of Sadat City

Arish, Egypt

University of Sadat City

Arish, Egypt
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Hammad A.M.,University of Sadat City | Hassan H.A.,University of Sadat City | Hassan H.A.,Shaqra University | Shimamoto T.,Hiroshima University
Food Control | Year: 2015

Little is known about the influx of multidrug and/or virulent enterococcal strains from fresh raw milk cheese to the human digestive tract. In this study, 100 samples of popular Egyptian raw milk cheese, karish cheese, were analyzed to determine the incidence of Enterococcus spp., especially Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. We recovered 120 enterococcal isolates from 90 (90%, 90/100) samples. Thirty-seven strains (30.8%, 37/120), were identified as E.faecium and 13 (10.8%, 13/120) as E.faecalis. Fourteen (11.6%, 14/120) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), and aph(3'), which were detected in 5%, 3.3%, 0.83%, 0.83%, and 0.83% of isolates, respectively. Interestingly, resistance to the most recently introduced anti-Gram-positive agent, linezolid, was detected alone and in combination with vancomycin resistance in 6.6% and 2.5% of isolated strains, respectively. Additionally, eight strains of E.faecalis carried one or more virulence genes, including asa1, cylA, esp, gelE, and hyl, while only one E.faecium strain carried gelE. Tn. 916-like elements detected in 11 (9.3%, 11/120) enterococcal strains. In conclusion, the fresh raw milk cheese, karish cheese, is a potential reservoir of antibiotic resistant and virulent enterococci that may constitute a public health hazard. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first detailed analysis about the ecology of antibiotic resistance and virulence in a variety of enterococci isolated from fresh raw milk cheese in Africa that promoting the necessary criteria for the phenotypic and molecular analysis of enterococci in this type of cheese to ensure their safety. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Shahin S.I.,University of Sadat City
Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control | Year: 2017

A field study was conducted under natural environmental conditions on onion (Allium cepa L.) plants at the Experimental Farm of the Environmental Studies and Research Institute, University of Sadat City, Minufiya Governorate, Egypt, for two successive growing seasons 2013/14 and 2014/15. Some biocides, at certain doses, were applied under field trials for controlling onion downy mildew and evaluate their effectiveness on onion bulb yield. Bio arc (Bacillus megaterium 2.5x107 cfu/g), Bio Zeid (Trichoderma album 107 spore/g) and clean root (B. subtilis 30x106 cfu/g) were used at the rate 500 g/100 liter of water/fed. Blight stop (Trichoderma spp. 30x106) and Plant guard (T. harzianum 3x106) were used at the rate of 1 liter/100 liter of water/fed. For each biofungicide treatment in comparison to the recommended fungicide namely Amistar Top 32.5% EC (Azoxstrobin + difenoconazole) at the recommended dose (300 ml/Fed). All tested treatments recorded the highest efficacy percentages for decreasing downy mildew disease severity compared to control treatment. Meanwhile, Bio Arc and Blight stop on yellow onion were the superior treatments in most cases and recorded (91.71 and 90.44%, respectively) the highest efficacy percentages for decreasing downy mildew disease severity while Bio Zeid and Blight stop were recorded (91.40 and 84.80%, respectively) on red onion compared to the recommended fungicide Amistar Top. Regarding onion bulb yield, Amistar Top fungicide and all biocides were the best treatments and recorded (96.32 and 97.58% on yellow and red onion, respectively) the highest efficacy % for increasing bulb yield in both yellow and red onion compared to control treatment. © 2017, Egyptian Society for Biological Control of Pests. All rights reserved.

Hammad A.M.,University of Sadat City | Shimamoto T.,Hiroshima University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

Little information is available on the diversity and distribution of resistance and virulence factors in enterococci isolated from retail fish. In this study, 200 samples of retail ready-to-eat raw fish (sashimi) collected from the Japanese prefecture of Hiroshima were analyzed for incidence of Enterococcus spp. We recovered 96 enterococcal isolates from 90 (45%, 90/200) samples. Fifty-six strains were identified at the species level: E.faecalis (n=31), E.faecium (n=7), E.casseliflavus (n=7), E.gallinarum (n=3), E.phoeniculicola (n=4), E.raffinosus (n=2), E.saccharolyticus (n=1), and E.gilvus (n=1). Twenty-five (26%, 25/96) strains carried antibiotic resistance genes. These included the tet(M), tet(L), tet(K), erm(B), msr(A/B), aph(3'), and blaZ genes, which were detected in 12.5%, 9.3%, 2%, 14.5%, 1%, 1%, and 2% of isolates, respectively. The virulence genes gelE and asa1 were detected in 31 and 24 E.faecalis strains, respectively. Both genes were detected in one E.faecium strain. In conclusion, this is the first study to underscore the importance of sashimi as not only a reservoir of Enterococcus spp. carrying resistance and virulence genes, but also a reservoir for unusual Enterococcus spp. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Elmekawy A.,University of Sadat City | Elmekawy A.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Hegab H.M.,Intel Corporation | Hegab H.M.,Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials | And 2 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2014

The combined negative effect of both fresh water shortage and energy depletion has encouraged the research to move forward to explore effective solutions for water desalination with less energy consumption. Reverse osmosis (RO), the most common technology for desalination today, uses much less energy than thermal processes. Several modifications and improvements have been made to RO during the last four decades in order to minimize energy consumption, and the process is now near thermodynamic limits. To further reduce energy requirements for desalination, other approaches are needed. A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a recent technology that could be used as an alternative to RO. An MDC uses electrical current, produced by electrochemically active bacteria, to concurrently generate bioenergy, treat wastewater, and desalinate water. In an attempt to answer the question of whether this emerging technology has the ability to stand alone as an efficient replacement for RO, or it is best if used as an RO pre-treatment setup, this review addresses the recent approaches and limitations of both MDC and RO technologies in order to highlight the near-future application of MDC integration with RO operation. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Elmekawy A.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research | Elmekawy A.,University of Sadat City | Hegab H.M.,Intel Corporation | Hegab H.M.,Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The shortage of sustainable energy and the extensive environmental pollution along with the global warming effect caused by CO2 emissions are major problems facing the world today. The use of microalgae to overcome these problems has gained enormous research interests in recent years, primarily due to their ability to convert CO2 by photosynthesis into potential biomass. The merging of such phototrophic organisms into microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is an interesting option since they can act as efficient in situ oxygenators, thus facilitating the cathodic reaction of photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFCs). Also, microalgae can support the efficient removal of phosphorus and nitrogen, as the MFC technology cannot stand-up alone in this field. But such PMFC configurations does possess several challenges, among which PMFC design, output current and sustainability are the major bottlenecks encountering large scale implementation for electricity generation in a cost-effective way. This review goes beyond previous research work by providing not only a detailed update on the current PMFC configurations, but also the critical operational parameters of PMFC, with a scope that extends to cover all types of direct or indirect integration of phototrophic microbes within MFC technology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a critically endangered species. Red anus syndrome (RAS) is known to be associated with parasitic infections of the eel, particularly with Anguillicola crassus, but the full range of causative pathogenic organisms has not been systematically investigated. Here we examined the infective organisms and histopathological and ultrastructural features of seventy eels with RAS. In total, nine different pathogens were detected in association with RAS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa were present in twelve specimens (17%), the metacercaria of Euclinostromum heterostomum in three cases (4%), Gastrostome (Bucephalidae family) in seven cases (10%), A. crassus in forty-five cases (64%), Bothriocephalus in seventeen cases (24%), and Proteocephalus in twenty-three cases (32%). Yeast, amoeba, and myxobolus-like pathogens were seen in the anal skin in all cases when examined in combination with electron microscopy. Histopathologically, the lesions appeared as anoproctitis of varying severity from mild anusitis to severe haemorrhagic anoproctitis, with severe perianal oedema, haemorrhage, and proctoptosis. Gut inflammation ranged from mild catarrhal enteritis to severe haemorrhagic enteritis with mucosal sloughing. RAS is associated with a range of parasitic infections, not only A. crassus, some of which we describe here for the first time. Since RAS is not associated with direct invasion by parasites, it is likely that RAS is a secondary phenomenon caused by superadded infection on a background of generalised immunosuppression, or indirect local toxic effects. RAS may be used as a non-invasive indicator of underlying parasitic infection, but further investigations are required to establish the causative organisms for effective fishery management. © 2014 Omar A. S. Tamam.

Talaat R.M.,University of Sadat City | Elmaghraby A.M.,University of Sadat City | Barakat S.S.,Alexandria University | El-Shahat M.,University of Sadat City
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2014

Summary: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is acquired autoimmune disease in children characterized by the breakdown of immune tolerance. This work is designed to explore the contribution of different lymphocyte subsets in acute and chronic ITP children. Imbalance in the T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine secretion profile was investigated. The frequency of T (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+) and B (CD19+) lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) (CD16+56+) and regulatory T (Treg) [CD4+CD25+highforkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+] cells was investigated by flow cytometry in 35 ITP children (15 acute and 20 chronic) and 10 healthy controls. Plasma levels of Th1 cytokines [interferon (IFN-γ) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α)] and Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6 and IL-10)] cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The percentage of Treg (P<0·001) and natural killer (NK) (P<0·001) cells were significantly decreased in ITP patients compared to healthy controls. A negative correlation was reported between the percentage of Treg cells and development of acute (r=-0·737; P<0·01) and chronic (r=-0·515; P<0·01) disease. All evaluated cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10) were elevated significantly in ITP patients (P<0·001, P<0·05, P<0·05, P<0·05 and P<0·001, respectively) compared to controls. In conclusion, our data shed some light on the fundamental role of immune cells and their related cytokines in ITP patients. The loss of tolerance in ITP may contribute to the dysfunction of Tregs. Understanding the role of T cell subsets will permit a better control of autoimmunity through manipulation of their cytokine network. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

El-Hattab M.M.,University of Sadat City
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science | Year: 2015

This paper analyzes all changes that occurred to the Egyptian Lake Maryut in order to identify the best strategy for restoring it. Four scenes were used for change detection; three LANDSAT images (dated 15th of March 1991, 2nd of May 2004, and 22nd of May 2013), and the fourth scene was a SPOT-HRV image dated 16th of August 1995. Maximum likelihood classification (MLC) algorithm was used to classify the images. The next step used was to focus on land cover changes by using change detection comparison (pixel by pixel) and the cross tabulation technique to analyze changes for the four supervised classification images. The results indicated that severe land cover changes occurred in different land covers especially in the last few years that may be due to political and socio-economic problems. Finally, a modern method based on the Delphi technique was used to select the best restoration alternative for restoring the Lake Maryut. Results indicate that severe land cover changes have occurred. In addition, the most suitable restoration alternatives are pollution control for the eastern part of the lake and reopening closed parts in its western part. Copyright © 2014 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences.

This study aimed to compare traditional tests (Johnin test, fecal staining and fecal culture) with advanced laboratory tests (ELISA, LCD array and IS900 PCR) for detection of Johne's disease. A total of 365 Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle (40 express profuse diarrhea unresponsive to treatment and 325 contacting them) tested with Johnin test, blood collected for ELISA and fecal samples for fecal staining as well as fecal culture, application of LCD array and PCR using IS900 on DNA extracted from Mycobacterium paratuberculosis bacilli (from feces and culture). Johnin test was 40/40 (100%) and 25/325 (7.69%), fecal staining was 13 (37.1%) and 2 (50%), ELISA was 35/40 (87.5%) and 4/25 (16%) for clinical cattle and apparently healthy contacting them respectively. Isolation was 12/13 (92.3%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from the clinically positive cattle and 1/2 (50%) of the (Johnin test +ve, ELISA +ve and Acid Fast Bacilli +ve) from apparently healthy contacting them while LCD array and IS900 gave 100% confirming the isolation results. In conclusion, LCD array depending on 16S RNA and DNA hybridization with specific probes for detection of M. paratuberculosis are fast, sensitive and labor-saving when combined with IS900. © 2014 Asian-African Society for Mycobacteriology.

Mousa I.E.,University of Sadat city
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2016

The crude oil drilling and extraction operations are aimed to maximize the production may be counterbalanced by the huge production of contaminated produced water (PW). PW is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The efficiency of suggested hybrid electrobiochemical (EBC) methods for the simultaneous removal of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and sulfate from PW generated by petroleum industry is studied. Also, the factors that affect the stability of PW quality are investigated. The results indicated that the effect of biological treatment is very important to keep control of the electrochemical by-products and more TPH removal in the EBC system. The maximum TPH and sulfate removal efficiency was achieved 75% and 25.3%, respectively when the detention time was about 5.1 min and the energy consumption was 32.6 mA/cm2. However, a slight increasing in total bacterial count was observed when the EBC compact unit worked at a flow rate of average 20 L/h. Pseudo steady state was achieved after 30 min of current application in the solution. Also, the results of the study indicate that when the current intensity was increased above optimum level, no significant results occurred due to the release of gases. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

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