Rzeszow, Poland
Rzeszow, Poland

The University of Rzeszów is a university in Rzeszów, Poland.It was officially established in 2001 by combining several older institutions in the city.The current university comprises the former: Rzeszów branch of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University Higher School of Education Economics department of the Hugo Kołłątaj Academy of AgricultureThe school has over 22,000 students. Wikipedia.


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News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, Poland it has been shown that the course of this complex process can be represented by a surprisingly simple model: extremely hot matter moves away from the impact point, stretching along the original flight path in streaks, and the further the streak is from the plane of the collision, the greater its velocity. When two massive atomic nuclei collide at high energies, the most exotic form of matter is formed: the quark-gluon plasma behaving like a perfect fluid. The theoretical considerations of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow, Poland show that after impact the plasma forms into streaks along the direction of impact, moving faster the further away it moves from the collision axis. The model, its predictions and the effects of their confrontation with hitherto experimental data are presented in the journal Physical Review C. Collisions of atomic nuclei occur extremely rapidly and at distances of merely hundreds of femtometres (i.e. hundreds of millionths of one billionth of a metre). The physical conditions are exceptionally sophisticated and direct observation of the phenomenon is not currently possible. In such situations, science copes by constructing theoretical models and confronting their predictions with the data collected in experiments. In the case of these collisions, however, a huge disadvantage is that the resulting conglomerate of particles is the quark-gluon plasma. Interactions between quarks and gluons are dominated by forces that are so strong and complex that modern physics is not capable of describing them precisely. "Our group decided to focus on the electromagnetic phenomena occurring during the collision because they are much easier to express in the language of mathematics. As a result, our model proved to be simple enough for us to employ the principles of energy and momentum conservation without too much trouble. Later on, we found that despite the adopted simplifications the model predictions remain at least 90% consistent with experimental data", says Dr. Andrzej Rybicki (IFJ PAN). Massive atomic nuclei accelerated to high velocities, observed in the laboratory, are flattened in the direction of motion as a result of the effects of the theory of relativity. When two such proton-neutron 'pancakes' fly towards each other, the collision is generally not central: only some of the protons and neutrons of one nucleus reach the other, entering into violent interactions and forming the quark-gluon plasma. At the same time, some of the external fragments of the nuclear pancakes do not encounter any obstacles on their way and continue their uninterrupted flight; in the jargon of physicists they are called spectators. "Our work was inspired by data collected in earlier experiments with nuclear collisions, including these made at the SPS accelerator. The electromagnetic effects occurring in these collisions that we examined showed that the quark-gluon plasma moves at a higher velocity the closer it is to the spectators", says Dr. Rybicki. In order to reproduce this course of the phenomenon, the physicists from IFJ PAN decided to divide the nuclei along the direction of movement into a series of strips - 'bricks'. Each nucleus in cross section thus looked like a pile of stacked bricks (in the model their height was one femtometre). Instead of considering the complex strong interactions and flows of momentum and energy between hundreds and thousands of particles, the model reduced the problem to several dozen parallel collisions, each occurring between two proton-neutron bricks. The IFJ PAN scientists confronted the predictions of the model with data collected from collisions of massive nuclei measured by the NA49 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This accelerator is located at the CERN European Nuclear Research Organization near Geneva, where one of its most important tasks now is to accelerate particles shot into the LHC accelerator. "Due to the scale of technical difficulties, the NA49 experiment's results are subject to specific measurement uncertainties that are difficult to completely reduce or eliminate. In reality, the accuracy of our model can even be greater than the already mentioned 90%. This entitles us to say that even if there were any additional, still not included, physical mechanisms in the collisions they should no longer significantly affect the theoretical framework of the model", comments doctoral student Miroslaw Kielbowicz (IFJ PAN). After developing the model of collisions of 'brick stacks', the IFJ PAN researchers discovered that a very similar theoretical structure, called the fire streak model, had been proposed by a group of physicists from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (USA) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre in France - already in 1978. "The previous model of fire streaks which, in fact, we mention in our publication, was built to describe other collisions occurring at lower energies. We have created our structure independently and for a different energy range", says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN, University of Rzeszow) and emphasizes: "The existence of two independent models based on a similar physical idea and corresponding to measurements in different energy ranges of collisions increases the probability that the physical basis on which these models are built is correct". The Cracow fire streak model provides new information on the expansion of quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions of massive atomic nuclei. The study of these phenomena is being further extended in the framework of another international experiment, NA61/SHINE at the SPS accelerator.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, Poland it has been shown that the course of this complex process can be represented by a surprisingly simple model: extremely hot matter moves away from the impact point, stretching along the original flight path in streaks, and the further the streak is from the plane of the collision, the greater its velocity. When two massive atomic nuclei collide at high energies, the most exotic form of matter is formed: the quark-gluon plasma behaving like a perfect fluid. The theoretical considerations of physicists from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow, Poland show that after impact the plasma forms into streaks along the direction of impact, moving faster the further away it moves from the collision axis. The model, its predictions and the effects of their confrontation with hitherto experimental data are presented in the journal Physical Review C. Collisions of atomic nuclei occur extremely rapidly and at distances of merely hundreds of femtometres (i.e. hundreds of millionths of one billionth of a metre). The physical conditions are exceptionally sophisticated and direct observation of the phenomenon is not currently possible. In such situations, science copes by constructing theoretical models and confronting their predictions with the data collected in experiments. In the case of these collisions, however, a huge disadvantage is that the resulting conglomerate of particles is the quark-gluon plasma. Interactions between quarks and gluons are dominated by forces that are so strong and complex that modern physics is not capable of describing them precisely. "Our group decided to focus on the electromagnetic phenomena occurring during the collision because they are much easier to express in the language of mathematics. As a result, our model proved to be simple enough for us to employ the principles of energy and momentum conservation without too much trouble. Later on, we found that despite the adopted simplifications the model predictions remain at least 90% consistent with experimental data", says Dr. Andrzej Rybicki (IFJ PAN). Massive atomic nuclei accelerated to high velocities, observed in the laboratory, are flattened in the direction of motion as a result of the effects of the theory of relativity. When two such proton-neutron 'pancakes' fly towards each other, the collision is generally not central: only some of the protons and neutrons of one nucleus reach the other, entering into violent interactions and forming the quark-gluon plasma. At the same time, some of the external fragments of the nuclear pancakes do not encounter any obstacles on their way and continue their uninterrupted flight; in the jargon of physicists they are called spectators. "Our work was inspired by data collected in earlier experiments with nuclear collisions, including these made at the SPS accelerator. The electromagnetic effects occurring in these collisions that we examined showed that the quark-gluon plasma moves at a higher velocity the closer it is to the spectators", says Dr. Rybicki. In order to reproduce this course of the phenomenon, the physicists from IFJ PAN decided to divide the nuclei along the direction of movement into a series of strips - 'bricks'. Each nucleus in cross section thus looked like a pile of stacked bricks (in the model their height was one femtometre). Instead of considering the complex strong interactions and flows of momentum and energy between hundreds and thousands of particles, the model reduced the problem to several dozen parallel collisions, each occurring between two proton-neutron bricks. The IFJ PAN scientists confronted the predictions of the model with data collected from collisions of massive nuclei measured by the NA49 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This accelerator is located at the CERN European Nuclear Research Organization near Geneva, where one of its most important tasks now is to accelerate particles shot into the LHC accelerator. "Due to the scale of technical difficulties, the NA49 experiment's results are subject to specific measurement uncertainties that are difficult to completely reduce or eliminate. In reality, the accuracy of our model can even be greater than the already mentioned 90%. This entitles us to say that even if there were any additional, still not included, physical mechanisms in the collisions they should no longer significantly affect the theoretical framework of the model", comments doctoral student Miroslaw Kielbowicz (IFJ PAN). After developing the model of collisions of 'brick stacks', the IFJ PAN researchers discovered that a very similar theoretical structure, called the fire streak model, had been proposed by a group of physicists from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (USA) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre in France - already in 1978. "The previous model of fire streaks which, in fact, we mention in our publication, was built to describe other collisions occurring at lower energies. We have created our structure independently and for a different energy range", says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN, University of Rzeszow) and emphasizes: "The existence of two independent models based on a similar physical idea and corresponding to measurements in different energy ranges of collisions increases the probability that the physical basis on which these models are built is correct". The Cracow fire streak model provides new information on the expansion of quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions of massive atomic nuclei. The study of these phenomena is being further extended in the framework of another international experiment, NA61/SHINE at the SPS accelerator. The research of the IFJ PAN group is being financed by the SONATA BIS grant from the National Science Centre. The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) is currently the largest research institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The broad range of studies and activities of IFJ PAN includes basic and applied research, ranging from particle physics and astrophysics, through hadron physics, high-, medium-, and low-energy nuclear physics, condensed matter physics (including materials engineering), to various applications of methods of nuclear physics in interdisciplinary research, covering medical physics, dosimetry, radiation and environmental biology, environmental protection, and other related disciplines. The average yearly yield of the IFJ PAN encompasses more than 500 scientific papers in the Journal Citation Reports published by the Thomson Reuters. The part of the Institute is the Cyclotron Centre Bronowice (CCB) which is an infrastructure, unique in Central Europe, to serve as a clinical and research centre in the area of medical and nuclear physics. IFJ PAN is a member of the Marian Smoluchowski Krakow Research Consortium: "Matter-Energy-Future" which possesses the status of a Leading National Research Centre (KNOW) in physics for the years 2012-2017. The Institute is of A+ Category (leading level in Poland) in the field of sciences and engineering. Dr. Andrzej Rybicki The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences tel.: +48 12 6628447 email: andrzej.rybicki@ifj.edu.pl Prof. Antoni Szczurek The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences tel. +48 12 6628212 email: antoni.szczurek@ifj.edu.pl "Implications of energy and momentum conservation for particle emission in A+A collisions at energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron" http://shine. The website of the SHINE experiment. http://www. The website of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). http://www. The website of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. http://press. Press releases of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Fragments of extremely hot matter, produced in the collision of heavy atomic nuclei at the SPS accelerator at the European CERN centre, move away from each other at high velocities, forming streaks along the direction of the collision. (Source: IFJ PAN, Iwona Sputowska)


News Article | May 12, 2017
Site: phys.org

When two massive atomic nuclei collide at high energies, the most exotic form of matter is formed—a quark-gluon plasma behaving like a perfect fluid. These theoretical considerations show that after impact, the plasma forms into streaks along the direction of impact, moving faster the further away it moves from the collision axis. The model, its predictions and the implications for hitherto experimental data are presented in the journal Physical Review C. Collisions of atomic nuclei occur extremely rapidly and at distances of merely hundreds of femtometres (i.e. hundreds of millionths of one billionth of a metre). The physical conditions are exceptionally sophisticated, and direct observation of the phenomenon is not currently possible. In such situations, science copes by constructing theoretical models and comparing their predictions with the data collected in experiments. In the case of these collisions, however, a huge disadvantage is that the resulting conglomerate of particles is the quark-gluon plasma. Interactions between quarks and gluons are dominated by forces that are so strong and complex that modern physics is not capable of describing them precisely. "Our group decided to focus on the electromagnetic phenomena occurring during the collision because they are much easier to express in the language of mathematics. As a result, our model proved to be simple enough for us to employ the principles of energy and momentum conservation without too much trouble. Later on, we found that despite the adopted simplifications, the model predictions remain at least 90 percent consistent with experimental data," says Dr. Andrzej Rybicki (IFJ PAN). Massive atomic nuclei accelerated to high velocities, observed in the laboratory, are flattened in the direction of motion as a result of the effects of the theory of relativity. When two such proton-neutron 'pancakes' fly toward each other, the collision is generally not central—only some of the protons and neutrons of one nucleus reach the other, entering into violent interactions and forming the quark-gluon plasma. At the same time, some of the external fragments of the nuclear pancakes do not encounter any obstacles on their way, and continue their uninterrupted flight; in the jargon of physicists, they are called "spectators." "Our work was inspired by data collected in earlier experiments with nuclear collisions, including these made at the SPS accelerator. The electromagnetic effects occurring in these collisions that we examined showed that the quark-gluon plasma moves at a higher velocity the closer it is to the spectators," says Dr. Rybicki. In order to reproduce this course of the phenomenon, the physicists from IFJ PAN decided to divide the nuclei along the direction of movement into a series of strips—'bricks'. Each nucleus in cross section thus looked like a pile of stacked bricks (in the model, their height was one femtometre). Instead of considering the complex strong interactions and flows of momentum and energy between hundreds and thousands of particles, the model reduced the problem to several dozen parallel collisions, each occurring between two proton-neutron bricks. The IFJ PAN scientists confronted the predictions of the model with data collected from collisions of massive nuclei measured by the NA49 experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). This accelerator is located at the CERN European Nuclear Research Organization near Geneva, where one of its most important tasks now is to accelerate particles shot into the LHC accelerator. "Due to the scale of technical difficulties, the NA49 experiment's results are subject to specific measurement uncertainties that are difficult to completely reduce or eliminate. In reality, the accuracy of our model can even be greater than the already mentioned 90 percent. This entitles us to say that even if there were any additional, still not included, physical mechanisms in the collisions, they should no longer significantly affect the theoretical framework of the model," says doctoral student Miroslaw Kielbowicz (IFJ PAN). After developing the model of collisions of 'brick stacks,' the IFJ PAN researchers discovered that a very similar theoretical structure, called the 'fire streak model,' had already been proposed by a group of physicists from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (USA) and the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre in France in 1978. "The previous model of fire streaks which, in fact, we mention in our publication, was built to describe other collisions occurring at lower energies. We have created our structure independently and for a different energy range," says Prof. Antoni Szczurek (IFJ PAN, University of Rzeszow) and emphasizes: "The existence of two independent models based on a similar physical idea and corresponding to measurements in different energy ranges of collisions increases the probability that the physical basis on which these models are built is correct." The Cracow fire streak model provides new information on the expansion of quark-gluon plasma in high energy collisions of massive atomic nuclei. The study of these phenomena is being further extended in the framework of another international experiment, NA61/SHINE at the SPS accelerator. Explore further: New CERN results show novel phenomena in proton collisions More information: Antoni Szczurek et al, Implications of energy and momentum conservation for particle emission incollisions at energies available at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, Physical Review C (2017). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.024908


Abbas C.A.,Archer Daniels Midland Company | Sibirny A.A.,Ukrainian Academy of Sciences | Sibirny A.A.,University of Rzeszow
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2011

Riboflavin [7,8-dimethyl-10-(1′-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine, vitamin B2] is an obligatory component of human and animal diets, as it serves as the precursor of flavin coenzymes, flavin mononucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are involved in oxidative metabolism and other processes. Commercially produced riboflavin is used in agriculture, medicine, and the food industry. Riboflavin synthesis starts from GTP and ribulose-5-phosphate and proceeds through pyrimidine and pteridine intermediates. Flavin nucleotides are synthesized in two consecutive reactions from riboflavin. Some microorganisms and all animal cells are capable of riboflavin uptake, whereas many microorganisms have distinct systems for riboflavin excretion to the medium. Regulation of riboflavin synthesis in bacteria occurs by repression at the transcriptional level by flavin mononucleotide, which binds to nascent noncoding mRNA and blocks further transcription (named the riboswitch). In flavinogenic molds, riboflavin overproduction starts at the stationary phase and is accompanied by derepression of enzymes involved in riboflavin synthesis, sporulation, and mycelial lysis. In flavinogenic yeasts, transcriptional repression of riboflavin synthesis is exerted by iron ions and not by flavins. The putative transcription factor encoded by SEF1 is somehow involved in this regulation. Most commercial riboflavin is currently produced or was produced earlier by microbial synthesis using special selected strains of Bacillus subtilis, Ashbya gossypii, and Candida famata. Whereas earlier RF overproducers were isolated by classical selection, current producers of riboflavin and flavin nucleotides have been developed using modern approaches of metabolic engineering that involve overexpression of structural and regulatory genes of the RF biosynthetic pathway as well as genes involved in the overproduction of the purine precursor of riboflavin, GTP. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Durak T.,University of Rzeszow
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Development of more sustainable forest management methods is heavily reliant on the profound understanding of interactions between management methods and the forest vegetation. This study presents an analysis of changes in the interactions between the diversity of the tree and herb layers over the past 50. years in the previously over-exploited Eastern Carpathian beech forests. After the anthropogenic pressure related to large scale forest clearings, intense forestry and agricultural use ceased, the regeneration processes accompanied two distinct routes (1) implementation of more sustainable forest management (shelterwood system) and (2) complete cessation of land use. The vegetation diversity and its dependence on the biotic and abiotic factors has been examined based on the data collected from 62 semi-permanent plots during two sampling periods: 1955-1962 and 2005-2009. The plots were located within the polish part of the "Eastern Carpathian" International Biosphere Reserve. The analysis included forest management methods, diversity indicators specific to different vegetation layers, indicator species groups, individual tree species, canopy density and the height of the forest stand. The main direction in changes indicates an increase in strength of the correlation between the diversity of tree and herb layers, caused by a change in the factor differentiating the diversity of the tree layer from a historical one related to general use of the land by the autochthonous people to an environmental one. Sycamore has been identified as a highly important species responsible for maintaining the stability and diversity of the herb layer structure. It has also been verified that analysis conducted using general diversity indicators does not truly reflect the interrelations between the tree and herb layer vegetation. A better representation of these interactions is provided by an analysis incorporating individual tree species and indicator species groups. Three distinct diversity patterns of the tree and herb layers have been distinguished, depending on the developmental stage of the forest and the management method implemented. First one, specific to heavily disturbed, overexploited maturing forests from the period between 1955 and 1962 is characterised by a weak relationship between the diversity of the tree and herb layer vegetation and a major role of sycamore in development of the herb layer structure. The second pattern was identified in mature forest stands, where more sustainable management methods were implemented. The second pattern is characterised by a strong relationship between the diversity of the tree and herb layer with a concomitant decrease in the importance of sycamore and an increase in the negative effects of beech exerted on the herb layer structure, which consequently undergoes homogenisation due to a decrease in habitat heterogeneity. The third pattern was described for unmanaged, mature forests, in which an emerging relationship between the diversity of tree and herb layers accompanied by a more diverse structure of the herb layer maintained by the presence of sycamore within the forest stand as well as the presence of large quantity of coarse woody debris has been identified. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Boek P.,H Niewodniczanski Institute Of Nuclear Physics | Boek P.,University of Rzeszow
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

We apply the hydrodynamic model to the dynamics of matter created in p-Pb collisions at √s NN=4.4 TeV and d-Pb collisions at √s NN=3.11 TeV. The fluctuating initial conditions are calculated in the Glauber Monte Carlo model for several centrality classes. The expansion is performed event by event in (3+1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics. Noticeable elliptic and triangular flows appear in the distributions of produced particles. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Boek P.,H Niewodniczanski Institute Of Nuclear Physics | Boek P.,University of Rzeszow
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

The expansion of the fireball created in Au-Au collisions at √s NN=200 GeV is described in (3 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamics with shear and bulk viscosities. We present results for the transverse momentum spectra, the directed and elliptic flow, and the interferometry radii. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Banas A.,University of Rzeszow
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

There is a great interest in the development of functional hepatocytes in vitro from different types of stem cells. Multipotential mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) compose a great source for stem cell based therapy, especially, because they can be obtain from patients own tissues, sidestepping immunocompatibility and ethical issues. Among MSCs from different sources, adipose-tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are very promising because of their high accessibility, proliferation ability, potentiality, and immunocompatibility. AT-MSCs can be easily isolated from stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of adipose tissue. They represent a heterogeneous population of cells. The precise AT-MSCs's marker profile has not been defined yet; therefore, it is still not obvious how to purify these heterogeneous fraction of cells. We postulate that one of the markers defining MSC provenance is CD105 (endoglin). Therefore, we have sorted CD105 + fraction of AT-MSCs, expanded them, and differentiated toward hepatic-like cells. In order to check their potentiality, we have firstly differentiated sorted CD105 + AT-MSCs toward mesoderm lineages, using commercialized protocols. We have shown here, that pure CD105 + AT-MSCs fraction revealed higher homogeneity and differentiation potential toward adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and highly inducible into the hepatogenic lineage. Generated (by using our hepatic differentiation protocol) CD105 + AT-MSCs-derived hepatic-like cells expressed hepatocyte markers, enzymes, and functions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Pekala B.,University of Rzeszow
Information Sciences | Year: 2012

The goal of this paper is to consider properties of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy relations which were introduced by Atanassov in 1986. Fuzzy set theory turned out to be a useful tool to describe situations in which the data are imprecise or vague. Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy set theory is a generalization of fuzzy set theory which was introduced by Zadeh in 1965. This paper is a continuation of examinations by Pȩkala [22] on the interval-valued fuzzy relations. We study standard properties of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy relations in the context of Atanassov's operators. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Bozek P.,University of Rzeszow | Bozek P.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

We calculate the elliptic flow of charged particles in Pb-Pb collisions at s=2.76 TeV in relativistic viscous hydrodynamics. The recent data of the ALICE Collaboration on the elliptic flow as function of the centrality can be very well described using the hydrodynamic expansion of a fluid with a small shear viscosity μ/s=0.08. The elliptic flow as function of the transverse momentum shows systematic deviations from a hydrodynamic behavior in the small momenta region p⊥<800 MeV. It indicates that a non-negligible contribution of non-thermalized particles from jet fragmentation is present. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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