Trouvin A.P.,University of Rouen
Clinical interventions in aging | Year: 2010
Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK) ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins) with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.
Coquerel G.,University of Rouen
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
The aim of the tutorial review is to show that any crystallization from solution is guided by stable or metastable equilibria and thus can be rationalized by using phase diagrams. Crystallization conducted by cooling, by evaporation and by anti-solvent addition is mainly considered. The driving force of crystallization is quantified and the occurrence of transient metastable states is logically explained by looking at the pathways of crystallization and the progressive segregation which might occur in a heterogeneous system. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.
Marie I.,University of Rouen
Arthritis care & research | Year: 2010
To assess the long-term outcome of esophageal complications in the group of patients receiving intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) for the treatment of severe steroid-refractory esophageal involvement related to polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 73 patients (39 with PM, 34 with DM) with steroid-resistant esophageal involvement. Esophageal involvement was evaluated by clinical and manometric investigations. Seventy-three patients with steroid-refractory esophageal involvement related to PM/DM received IVIG therapy (2 gm/kg monthly). The median interval between PM/DM diagnosis and the onset of esophageal complications was 6 months. The most common clinical manifestations revealing esophageal dysfunction were dysphagia (69.9%), coughing while eating (61.6%), and gastroesophageal reflux into the pharynx and/or mouth (34.2%). Twenty-five patients exhibited life-threatening esophageal complications requiring exclusive enteral feeding; 33 patients (45.2%) with esophageal impairment developed aspiration pneumonia. Sixty patients (82.2%) exhibited resolution of esophageal clinical manifestations, leading to a return to normal oral feeding and ablation of feeding enteral tubes. Four other patients (5.5%) improved, although they still experienced mild dysphagia intermittently. Because of impaired cricopharyngeal muscle relaxation, another patient successfully underwent cricopharyngeal myotomy. Eight patients died from aspiration pneumonia (n=6) and cancer (n=2). Muscle weakness, thoracic myopathy, and aspiration pneumonia were independent predictive factors of IVIG-treated esophageal complications in PM/DM patients. Our findings indicate that IVIG should be considered in life-threatening esophageal impairment complicating steroid-resistant PM/DM. We also suggest that combined therapy of IVIG and high-dose steroids may be the first-line therapy in PM/DM patients with life-threatening esophageal manifestations. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Roman H.,University of Rouen
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2013
Objective: To report an original technique of rectal shaving using the PlasmaJet system (Plasma Surgical, Inc.) for the management of deep endometriosis of the rectum. Design: Video demonstration of a new surgical technique. Setting: Hospital. Patient(s): A 34 year-old primipara with a deep endometriosis involving the vagina and the mid-rectum over 30 mm. Intervention(s): An original technique of rectal shaving. Main Outcome Measure(s): The procedure is based on the specific properties of PlasmaJet: the lack of lateral thermal spread around the jet of plasma making the dissection on contact of rectal wall safe, the precise ablative property allowing for in situ ablation of rectal endometriosis implants, and the kinetic energy enhancing the dissection of subperitoneal spaces. The steps of the technique and the role of PlasmaJet are emphasized. The surgical technique report using anonymous patients is exempt from ethical approval by the IRB. Result(s): The patient's outcome was uneventful, and colorectal complaints were completely relieved one week after surgery. Since November 2012, we have employed this technique in 18 patients, with only favorable outcomes. Conclusion(s): The technique described in this video article may represent a step toward a more complete removal of endometriotic implants and better colorectal outcomes. © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
Bertini L.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
De Sole A.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Gabrielli D.,University of LAquila |
Jona-Lasinio G.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
And 2 more authors.
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2015
Stationary nonequilibrium states describe steady flows through macroscopic systems. Although they represent the simplest generalization of equilibrium states, they exhibit a variety of new phenomena. Within a statistical mechanics approach, these states have been the subject of several theoretical investigations, both analytic and numerical. The macroscopic fluctuation theory, based on a formula for the probability of joint space-time fluctuations of thermodynamic variables and currents, provides a unified macroscopic treatment of such states for driven diffusive systems. A detailed review of this theory including its main predictions and most relevant applications is given. © 2015 American Physical Society.