Rostock, Germany

University of Rostock

www.uni-rostock.de
Rostock, Germany

The University of Rostock is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe. It was the 5th university established in the Holy Roman Empire. The university has been associated with five Nobel laureates. Famous alumni include Nobel laureates: Albrecht Kossel, Karl von Frisch, and Otto Stern; theoretical physicists: Pascual Jordan and Walter H. Schottky. It is a member of the European University Association. The language of instruction is usually German, but Englishfor postgraduate studies. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 2, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Amantadine hydrochloride may be the most common medication you've never heard of. This compound has been around for decades as the basis for antiviral and other medications, from flu therapy to treatments for brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease and the fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis. And yet, this compound has long been a bit of an enigma because of missing information on its properties. Now, chemists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaborators have published the very first data on this important chemical's thermodynamic properties, including data on how it responds to heat and changes from a solid into a gas. Such data are valuable to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries for getting the highest production yields and shelf life for the medication. "Our research results are not directly related to the medical application of this multifunctional drug, although I am really fascinated by the range of its pharmacological activity," NIST research chemist Ala Bazyleva said. "We studied its thermodynamic properties and decomposition," Bazyleva said. "It is surprising, given the long history of amantadine-based drugs, that there is almost no information like this in the literature for many of them. Chemical engineers often have to rely on estimates and predictions based on similar compounds. Collating this information and developing these types of recommendations is at the core of what our group at NIST does." Amantadine hydrochloride belongs to a diamondoid class, a family of compounds whose structure is based on a cage of carbon atoms similar to diamond. Amantadine has a single carbon cage with a nitrogen atom attached on one side. Nonmedical studies have focused on the solid form of amantadine hydrochloride because it was expected to form disordered, or plastic, crystals, as many diamondoids do. Turns out, amantadine hydrochloride does not. Bazyleva began studying amantadine hydrochloride years ago while in Belarus working on her doctoral dissertation, and continued the effort during her postdoctoral studies in Germany and Canada. But progress was slow, partly because adamantine hydrochloride changes from a solid directly into a gas (a process called sublimation) and simultaneously falls apart, or decomposes. She needed a model explaining this complex process, one that incorporates detailed, high-level calculations of quantum chemistry. She finally got access to this computational capability after she began working with the Thermodynamics Research Center (TRC) Group at NIST in Boulder several years ago. "NIST was fundamental in facilitating the modeling component," Bazyleva said. "In particular, the unique combination of facilities, software and expertise in quantum chemical computations allowed us to apply high-level calculations to get insight into the structure and stability of the drug in the gas phase." While the compound behaves like it is ionic (composed of positively and negatively charged pieces, though neutral overall) in the solid crystal form and when dissolved in a liquid, quantum chemistry calculations revealed that it decomposes into two neutral compounds in the gas phase. The data were generated by NIST's TRC, which for more than 70 years has been producing chemical data for scientific research and industrial process design. Co-authors are from the Belarusian State University in Belarus; the University of Rostock in Germany; and the University of Alberta in Canada. Paper: A. Bazyleva, A.V. Blokhin, D.H. Zaitsau, G.J. Kabo, E. Paulechka, A.F. Kazakov and J.M. Shaw. Thermodynamics of the antiviral and antiparkinsonian drug amantadine hydrochloride: condensed state properties and decomposition. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. Published online May 1. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.7b00107


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: phys.org

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as 'sluggish'. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence relatively still in a dielectric crystal lattice. This idyll has now been heavily shaken up by a team of physicists led by Matthias Kling, the leader of the Ultrafast Nanophotonics group in the Department of Physics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, and various research institutions, including the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ), the Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN-CNR) in Milan, the Institute of Physics at the University of Rostock, the Max Born Institute (MBI), the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) and the University of Hamburg. For the first time, these researchers managed to directly observe the interaction of light and electrons in a dielectric, a non-conducting material, on timescales of attoseconds (billionths of a billionth of a second). The study was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Physics. The scientists beamed light flashes lasting only a few hundred attoseconds onto 50 nanometer thick glass particles, which released electrons inside the material. Simultaneously, they irradiated the glass particles with an intense light field, which interacted with the electrons for a few femtoseconds (millionths of a billionth of a second), causing them to oscillate. This resulted, generally, in two different reactions by the electrons. First, they started to move, then collided with atoms within the particle, either elastically or inelastically. Because of the dense crystal lattice, the electrons could move freely between each of the interactions for only a few ångstrom (10-10 meter). "Analogous to billiard, the energy of electrons is conserved in an elastic collision, while their direction can change. For inelastic collisions, atoms are excited and part of the kinetic energy is lost. In our experiments, this energy loss leads to a depletion of the electron signal that we can measure," explains Professor Francesca Calegari (CNR-IFN Milan and CFEL/University of Hamburg). Since chance decides whether a collision occurs elastically or inelastically, with time inelastic collisions will eventually take place, reducing the number of electrons that scattered only elastically. Employing precise measurements of the electrons' oscillations within the intense light field, the researchers managed to find out that it takes about 150 attoseconds on average until elastically colliding electrons leave the nanoparticle. "Based on our newly developed theoretical model we could extract an inelastic collision time of 370 attoseconds from the measured time delay. This enabled us to clock this process for the first time," describes Professor Thomas Fennel from the University of Rostock and Berlin's Max Born Institute in his analysis of the data. The researchers' findings could benefit medical applications. With these worldwide first ultrafast measurements of electron motions inside non-conducting materials, they have obtained important insight into the interaction of radiation with matter, which shares similarities with human tissue. The energy of released electrons is controlled with the incident light, such that the process can be investigated for a broad range of energies and for various dielectrics. "Every interaction of high-energy radiation with tissue results in the generation of electrons. These in turn transfer their energy via inelastic collisions onto atoms and molecules of the tissue, which can destroy it. Detailed insight about electron scattering is therefore relevant for the treatment of tumors. It can be used in computer simulations to optimize the destruction of tumors in radiotherapy while sparing healthy tissue," highlights Professor Matthias Kling of the impact of the work. As a next step, the scientists plan to replace the glass nanoparticles with water droplets to study the interaction of electrons with the very substance which makes up the largest part of living tissue. More information: L. Seiffert et al, Attosecond chronoscopy of electron scattering in dielectric nanoparticles, Nature Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4129


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as 'sluggish'. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence relatively still in a dielectric crystal lattice. This idyll has now been heavily shaken up by a team of physicists led by Matthias Kling, the leader of the Ultrafast Nanophotonics group in the Department of Physics at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich, and various research institutions, including the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ), the Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (IFN-CNR) in Milan, the Institute of Physics at the University of Rostock, the Max Born Institute (MBI), the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) and the University of Hamburg. For the first time, these researchers managed to directly observe the interaction of light and electrons in a dielectric, a non-conducting material, on timescales of attoseconds (billionths of a billionth of a second). The study was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Physics. The scientists beamed light flashes lasting only a few hundred attoseconds onto 50 nanometer thick glass particles, which released electrons inside the material. Simultaneously, they irradiated the glass particles with an intense light field, which interacted with the electrons for a few femtoseconds (millionths of a billionth of a second), causing them to oscillate. This resulted, generally, in two different reactions by the electrons. First, they started to move, then collided with atoms within the particle, either elastically or inelastically. Because of the dense crystal lattice, the electrons could move freely between each of the interactions for only a few ångstrom (10-10 meter). "Analogous to billiard, the energy of electrons is conserved in an elastic collision, while their direction can change. For inelastic collisions, atoms are excited and part of the kinetic energy is lost. In our experiments, this energy loss leads to a depletion of the electron signal that we can measure," explains Professor Francesca Calegari (CNR-IFN Milan and CFEL/University of Hamburg). Since chance decides whether a collision occurs elastically or inelastically, with time inelastic collisions will eventually take place, reducing the number of electrons that scattered only elastically. Employing precise measurements of the electrons' oscillations within the intense light field, the researchers managed to find out that it takes about 150 attoseconds on average until elastically colliding electrons leave the nanoparticle. "Based on our newly developed theoretical model we could extract an inelastic collision time of 370 attoseconds from the measured time delay. This enabled us to clock this process for the first time," describes Professor Thomas Fennel from the University of Rostock and Berlin's Max Born Institute in his analysis of the data. The researchers' findings could benefit medical applications. With these worldwide first ultrafast measurements of electron motions inside non-conducting materials, they have obtained important insight into the interaction of radiation with matter, which shares similarities with human tissue. The energy of released electrons is controlled with the incident light, such that the process can be investigated for a broad range of energies and for various dielectrics. "Every interaction of high-energy radiation with tissue results in the generation of electrons. These in turn transfer their energy via inelastic collisions onto atoms and molecules of the tissue, which can destroy it. Detailed insight about electron scattering is therefore relevant for the treatment of tumors. It can be used in computer simulations to optimize the destruction of tumors in radiotherapy while sparing healthy tissue," highlights Professor Matthias Kling of the impact of the work. As a next step, the scientists plan to replace the glass nanoparticles with water droplets to study the interaction of electrons with the very substance which makes up the largest part of living tissue.


News Article | May 11, 2017
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

BETHESDA, MD, May 11, 2017-- Wolfgang Lothar Wiese is a celebrated Marquis Who's Who biographee. As in all Marquis Who's Who biographical volumes, individuals profiled are selected on the basis of current reference value. Factors such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in a field are all taken into account during the selection process.Marquis Who's Who, the world's premier publisher of biographical profiles, is proud to name Dr. Wiese a Lifetime Achiever. An accomplished listee, Dr. Wiese celebrates many years' experience in his professional network, and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes he has accrued in his field.In the field of atomic physics, Dr. Wolfgang Wiese is an accomplished scientist and author with decades of experience. Highly regarded for his work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Dr. Wiese has been very productive as a researcher and has also led the NIST plasma spectroscopy section and, since 1977, the NIST Atomic Physics Division, which at his retirement in 2004 consisted of 65 Ph.D. scientists. Since then, he has remained at NIST as a contractor and research associate.Drawn to physcs at an early age, Dr. Wiese took to education to explore his passion. He earned a doctorate at the University of Kiel, Germany, in 1957, then moved to the USA as a junior faculty member at the University of Maryland, and from there in 1960 to NIST, where he spent essentially all of his career. In addition to leading the above noted research groups, he has been personally involved in high precision measurements of the shapes of the famous Balmer spectral lines of hydrogen under very controlled plasma environments, very similar to those of stellar atmospheres and the sun. These measurements are to this day still the yardstick for all theoretically calculated Balmer line shapes. Dr. Wiese also discovered and analyzed regularities and systematic trends in atomic oscillator strengths, especially for isoelectronic transitions from neutral to highly ionized atoms, and he has been one of the pioneers in developing a critically evaluated database for large numbers of atomic and ionic transitions of all chemical elements. With several co-workers, he produced six data volumes on atomic oscillator strengths, also known as Einstein A-coefficients, covering most chemical elements with their ions, of which two have been cited as "Citation Classics", each being cited more than 3000 times.Overall, his scientific work is recorded in more than 250 publications, including 15 book chapters. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the Optical Society of America, and the Washington Academy of Sciences, a member of the International Astronomical Union, and has been a long standing member of the atomic data committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna, Austria. He has been a visiting scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, the Ruhr University and the University of Rostock, all in Germany, and the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Tokyo.Awards:Silver Medal and Gold Medal, U. S. Department of Commerce, 1962 and 1971Guggenheim Fellow, 1966Humboldt Award, 1986Distinguished Career in Science Award, Washington Academy of Sciences, 1992Allen W. Astin Measurement Science Award, 1992Honorary Doctorate, University of Kiel, Germany, 1993Distinguished Postdoctoral Award, University of Maryland, 2003About Marquis Who's Who :Since 1899, when A. N. Marquis printed the First Edition of Who's Who in America , Marquis Who's Who has chronicled the lives of the most accomplished individuals and innovators from every significant field of endeavor, including politics, business, medicine, law, education, art, religion and entertainment. Today, Who's Who in America remains an essential biographical source for thousands of researchers, journalists, librarians and executive search firms around the world. Marquis publications may be visited at the official Marquis Who's Who website at www.marquiswhoswho.com


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: EINFRA-9-2015 | Award Amount: 8.22M | Year: 2016

The overall objective of READ is to implement a Virtual Research Environment where archivists, humanities scholars, computer scientists and volunteers are collaborating with the ultimate goal of boosting research, innovation, development and usage of cutting edge technology for the automated recognition, transcription, indexing and enrichment of handwritten archival documents. This Virtual Research Environment will not be built from the ground up, but will benefit from research, tools, data and resources generated in multiple national and EU funded research and development projects and provide a basis for sustaining the network and the technology in the future. This ICT based e-infrastructure will address the Societal Challenge mentioned in Europe in a Changing World namely the transmission of European cultural heritage and the uses of the past as one of the core requirements of a reflective society. Based on research and innovation enabled by the READ Virtual Research Environment we will be able to explore and access hundreds of kilometres of archival documents via full-text search and therefore be able to open up one of the last hidden treasures of Europes rich cultural hertitage.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: DS-01-2016 | Award Amount: 5.62M | Year: 2017

certMILS develops a security certification methodology for Cyber-physical systems (CPS). CPS are characterised by safety-critical nature, complexity, connectivity, and open technology. A common downside to CPS complexity and openness is a large attack surface and a high degree of dynamism that may lead to complex failures and irreparable physical damage. The legitimate fear of security or functional safety vulnerabilities in CPS results in arduous testing and certification processes. Once fielded, many CPS suffer from the motto: never change a running system. certMILS increases the economic efficiency and European competitiveness of CPS development, while demonstrating the effectiveness of safety & security certification of composable systems. The project employs a security-by-design concept originating from the avionics industry: Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS), which targets controlled information flow and resource usage amongst software applications. certMILS reduces certification complexity, promotes re-use, and enables secure updates to CPS throughout its life-cycle by providing certified separation of applications, i.e. if an application within a complex CPS fails or starts acting maliciously, other applications are unaffected. Security certification of complex systems to medium-high assurance levels is not solved today. The existing monolithic approaches cannot cope with the complexity of modern CPS. certMILS uses ISO/IEC 15408 and IEC 62443 to develop and applies a compositional security certification methodology to complex composable safety-critical systems operating in constantly evolving hostile environments. certMILS core results are standardised in a protection profile.certMILS develops three composable industrial CPS pilots (smart grid, railway, subway), certifies security of critical re-useable components, and ensures security certification for the pilots by certification labs in three EU countries with involvement of the authorities.


Gassmann A.,University of Rostock
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

This study describes a new global non-hydrostatic dynamical core (ICON-IAP: Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic model at the Institute for Atmospheric Physics) on a hexagonal C-grid which is designed to conserve mass and energy. Energy conservation is achieved by discretizing the antisymmetric Poisson bracket which mimics correct energy conversions between the different kinds of energy (kinetic, potential, internal). Because of the bracket structure this is even possible in a complicated numerical environment with (i) the occurrence of terrain-following coordinates with all the metric terms in it, (ii) the horizontal C-grid staggering on the Voronoi mesh and the complications induced by the need for an acceptable stationary geostrophic mode, and (iii) the necessity for avoiding Hollingsworth instability. The model is equipped with a Smagorinsky-type nonlinear horizontal diffusion. The associated dissipative heating is accounted for by the application of the discrete product rule for derivatives. The time integration scheme is explicit in the horizontal and implicit in the vertical. In order to ensure energy conservation, the Exner pressure has to be off-centred in the vertical velocity equation and extrapolated in the horizontal velocity equation. Test simulations are performed for small-scale and global-scale flows. A test simulation of linear non-hydrostatic flow over a rough mountain range shows the theoretically expected gravity wave propagation. The baroclinic wave test is extended to 40 days in order to check the Lorenz energy cycle. The model exhibits excellent energy conservation properties even in this strongly nonlinear and dissipative case. The Held-Suarez test confirms the reliability of the model over even longer time-scales. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.


Hagemann M.,University of Rostock
FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2011

High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


Popok V.N.,University of Rostock
Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports | Year: 2011

Atomic and molecular clusters can be considered to be a distinct form of matter, a "bridge" between atoms on the one hand and solids on the other. Interest in clusters comes from various fields. They can be used as models for investigation of fundamental physical aspects of the transition from the atomic scale to bulk material as well as controllable and versatile tools for modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on the nanometer scale. One of the important parameters in the application of cluster beams is the impact (or kinetic) energy. Current paper presents a state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interaction. The main emphasis is put on cluster collisions leading either to surface modification or implantation of cluster constituents. Both experimental results and data of theoretical modeling are considered. In particular, fundamental physical aspects and possible practical applications of pinning regime (slight cluster embedding into the surface) are under the discussion. Mechanisms of crater and hillock formation on the individual cluster impacts as well as of surface erosion on macroscopic scale (smoothing or dry etching) under the high fluence cluster bombardment are analysed. Specific phenomena of cluster stopping in matter and formation of radiation damage under keV-to-MeV energy implantation are critically analysed and an approach towards finding a universal scaling law for the cluster implantation is suggested. A number of advantages peculiar to the cluster beam technique are discussed in terms of designing and engineering the physical and chemical properties of materials for practical applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: Shift2Rail-RIA | Phase: S2R-OC-CCA-02-2015 | Award Amount: 797.13K | Year: 2016

The aim of OPEUS is to develop a simulation methodology and accompanying modelling tool to evaluate, improve and optimise the energy consumption of rail systems with a particular focus on in-vehicle innovation. The OPEUS concept is based on the need to understand and measure the energy being used by each of the relevant components of the rail system and in particular the vehicle. This includes the energy losses in the traction chain, the use of technologies to reduce these and to optimise energy consumption (e.g. ESSs). Specifically, the OPEUS approach has three components at its core: i) the energy simulation model ii) the energy use requirements (e.g. duty cycles) and iii) the energy usage outlook and optimisation strategies recommendation. The concept builds on an extensive range of knowledge and outcomes generated by a number of key collaborative projects (e.g. CleanER-D, MERLIN, OSIRIS, RailEnergy, ROLL2RAIL) underpinning the research proposed, ALL of which have been led by OPEUS consortium members. Particularly the tool developed for the CleanER-D project will be used as starting point. Significant complementary work from the academic community will also be used to enhance the activities of the project. Specifically, these previous projects input will be used to: Expand and develop the simulation tool (CleanER-D, MERLIN); Complete the operational requirements by enhancing the urban duty cycles (OSiRIS); Provide a global vision of energy consumption in railways (CleanER-D, OSIRIS, RailEnergy). OPEUS ambition is to firmly contribute to the following key areas: Understand energy consumption of urban railways; Develop a tool to objectively compare technologies and strategies aimed at optimising the energy usage of railway systems; Unlock the potential contribution that novel technologies and associated strategies can make to optimising rail energy consumption; Share a global vision for how energy is used in railways.

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