The University of Rostock is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany. It is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, and 8th oldest in Central Europe. It was the 5th university established in the Holy Roman Empire. The university has been associated with five Nobel laureates. Famous alumni include Nobel laureates: Albrecht Kossel, Karl von Frisch, and Otto Stern; theoretical physicists: Pascual Jordan and Walter H. Schottky. It is a member of the European University Association. The language of instruction is usually German, but Englishfor postgraduate studies. Wikipedia.
Gassmann A.,University of Rostock
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2013
This study describes a new global non-hydrostatic dynamical core (ICON-IAP: Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic model at the Institute for Atmospheric Physics) on a hexagonal C-grid which is designed to conserve mass and energy. Energy conservation is achieved by discretizing the antisymmetric Poisson bracket which mimics correct energy conversions between the different kinds of energy (kinetic, potential, internal). Because of the bracket structure this is even possible in a complicated numerical environment with (i) the occurrence of terrain-following coordinates with all the metric terms in it, (ii) the horizontal C-grid staggering on the Voronoi mesh and the complications induced by the need for an acceptable stationary geostrophic mode, and (iii) the necessity for avoiding Hollingsworth instability. The model is equipped with a Smagorinsky-type nonlinear horizontal diffusion. The associated dissipative heating is accounted for by the application of the discrete product rule for derivatives. The time integration scheme is explicit in the horizontal and implicit in the vertical. In order to ensure energy conservation, the Exner pressure has to be off-centred in the vertical velocity equation and extrapolated in the horizontal velocity equation. Test simulations are performed for small-scale and global-scale flows. A test simulation of linear non-hydrostatic flow over a rough mountain range shows the theoretically expected gravity wave propagation. The baroclinic wave test is extended to 40 days in order to check the Lorenz energy cycle. The model exhibits excellent energy conservation properties even in this strongly nonlinear and dissipative case. The Held-Suarez test confirms the reliability of the model over even longer time-scales. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society.
Benecke R.,University of Rostock
BioDrugs | Year: 2012
Botulinum toxin type A is a 150kD protein produced by Clostridium botulinum, which exists in a complex with up to six additional proteins. The ability of botulinum toxin to inhibit acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction has been exploited for use in medical conditions characterized by muscle hyperactivity. As such, botulinum toxin is widely recommended by international treatment guidelines for movement disorders and it has a plethora of other clinical and cosmetic indications. The chronic nature of these conditions requires repeated injections of botulinum toxin, usually every few months. Multiple injections can lead to secondary treatment failure in some patients that may be associated with the production of neutralizing antibodies directed specifically against the neurotoxin. However, the presence of such antibodies does not always render patients non-responsive. The reported prevalence of immunoresistance varies greatly, depending on factors such as study design and treated indication. This review presents what is currently known about the immunogenicity of botulinum toxin and how this impacts upon patient non-response to treatment. The complexing proteins may act as adjuvants and stimulate the immune response. Their role and that of neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies in the response to botulinum toxin is discussed, together with an assessment of current neutralizing antibody measurement techniques. Botulinum toxin preparations with different compositions and excipients have been developed. The major commercially available preparations of botulinum toxin are Botox® (onabotulinumtoxinA; Allergan, Inc., Ireland), Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA; Ipsen Ltd, UK), and Xeomin® (incobotulinumtoxinA; botulinum toxin type A 150kD, free from complexing proteins; NT 201; Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Germany). The new preparations of botulinum toxin aim to minimize the risk of immunoresistance in patients being treated for chronic clinical conditions. © 2012 Benecke, publisher and licensee Adis Data Information BV.
Nienaber C.A.,University of Rostock |
Powell J.T.,Imperial College London
European Heart Journal | Year: 2012
Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is a modern term to describe interrelated emergency aortic conditions with similar clinical characteristics and challenges. These conditions include aortic dissection, intramural haematoma (IMH), and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU and aortic rupture); trauma to the aorta with intimal laceration may also be considered. The common denominator of AAS is disruption of the media layer of the aorta with bleeding within IMH, along the aortic media resulting in separation of the layers of the aorta (dissection), or transmurally through the wall in the case of ruptured PAU or trauma. Population-based studies suggest that the incidence of acute dissection ranges from 2 to 3.5 cases per 100 000 person-years; hypertension and a variety of genetic disorders with altered connective tissues are the most prevalent risk conditions. Patients with AAS often present in a similar fashion, regardless of the underlying condition of dissection, IMH, PAU, or contained aortic rupture. Pain is the most commonly presenting symptom of acute aortic dissection and should prompt immediate attention including diagnostic imaging modalities (such as multislice computed tomography, transoesophageal ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging). Prognosis is clearly related to undelayed diagnosis and appropriate surgical repair in the case of proximal involvement of the aorta; affection of distal segments of the aorta may call for individualized therapeutic approaches favouring endovascular in the presence of malperfusion or imminent rupture, or medical management. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2011.
Nienaber C.A.,University of Rostock
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging | Year: 2013
The classic entity of life-threatening aortic dissection represents one pathology of a spectrum of acute conditions coined the acute aortic syndrome comprising dissection, intramural haematoma, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, and contained aortic rupture of any cause. The common denominator is disruption of the aortic media layers associated with severe pain and a variety of other symptoms. Any clinical suspicion of acute aortic syndrome should prompt immediate action and confirmatory non-invasive imaging; with respect to sensitivity and specificity for acute aortic pathology modern contrast-enhanced CT technology, MR imaging and ultrasound techniques have similar diagnostic accuracy near 100%. Since the prognosis of most patients with acute aortic dissection is related to undelayed diagnosis and (often surgical) treatment swift diagnostic imaging should be the primary goal in the work-up of any patient with suspected acute aortic syndrome; transfer and in-hospital logistics and local expertise for the differential use of various imaging modalities should be constantly improved. All rights reserved. © 2012 The Author.
Gupta K.J.,University of Rostock
Science signaling | Year: 2011
The highly diffusible free radical nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a key signaling molecule in bacteria, plants, and animals. There are several mechanisms through which NO is produced in plants, and once produced, NO readily reacts with various targets, such as thiols and the metallic centers of proteins. During the past few years, S-nitrosylation, the covalent and reversible binding of NO to the thiols of reduced reactive cysteine residues, has emerged as an important posttranslational modification. S-nitrosylation is thought to account for much of the widespread influence of NO on cellular signaling through redox-based biochemical regulation of signaling components. Here, I highlight the emerging roles of S-nitrosylation in plants with particular emphasis on the role of S-nitrosylation in mitochondria during the defense response.