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Rochester, NY, United States

The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The University of Rochester is noted for its Eastman School of Music. The university is also home to the Institute of Optics, founded in 1929, the nation's first educational program devoted exclusively to optics. Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics is home to the second most energetic fusion laser in the world.In its history, five university alumni, two faculty, and one senior research associate at Strong Memorial Hospital have been awarded a Nobel Prize; eight alumni and four faculty members have won a Pulitzer Prize, and 19 faculty members have been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. Faculty and alumni of Rochester make up nearly one-quarter of the scientists on the board advising NASA in the development of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will replace the Hubble Space Telescope as of 2011. The departments of political science and economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s; the distinctive, mathematical approach pioneered at Rochester and closely affiliated departments is known as the Rochester school, and Rochester graduates and former affiliates are highly represented at faculties across top economics and political science departments. The University of Rochester, across all of its schools and campuses, enrolls approximately 5,600 undergraduates and 4,600 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. Additionally, Rochester is the largest employer in the Greater Rochester area and the sixth largest employer in the New York. Wikipedia.

Glor R.E.,University of Rochester
Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics | Year: 2010

Adaptive radiation is a response to natural selection and ecological opportunity involving diversification of species and associated adaptations. Although evolutionary biologists have long speculated that adaptive radiation is responsible for most of life's diversity, persistent confusion and disagreement over some of its most fundamental questions have prevented it from assuming a central role in explaining the evolution of biological diversity. Today, answers to many of these questions are emerging from a new wave of integrative research that combines phylogenetic trees with a variety of other data and perspectives. In this review, I discuss how modern phylogenetic analyses are central to (a) defining and diagnosing adaptive radiation, (b)identifying the factors underlying the occurrence and scope of adaptive radiation, (c)diagnosing predictable patterns of ecological diversification during adaptive radiation, and (d) reconstructing the history of adaptive radiations. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Presgraves D.C.,University of Rochester
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2010

All plant and animal species arise by speciation ĝ€" the evolutionary splitting of one species into two reproductively incompatible species. But until recently our understanding of the molecular genetic details of speciation was slow in coming and largely limited to Drosophila species. Here, I review progress in determining the molecular identities and evolutionary histories of several new 'speciation genes' that cause hybrid dysfunction between species of yeast, flies, mice and plants. The new work suggests that, surprisingly, the first steps in the evolution of hybrid dysfunction are not necessarily adaptive. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Schoenberg D.R.,Ohio State University | Maquat L.E.,University of Rochester
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2012

Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means of modulating gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies largely focused on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay and the ribonucleases that catalyse decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This Review examines our current understanding of how mammalian cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signalling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Yang H.,University of Rochester
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

The core of the problem: Electrocatalysts need to be highly active and durable under harsh reactive environments in order to meet the requirements for future automotive applications. Platinum-group-metal-based core-shell and core-shell-like nanostructures have great potential in the design of multifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR; see picture). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Alonso M.A.,University of Rochester
Advances in Optics and Photonics | Year: 2011

This tutorial gives an overview of the use of the Wigner function as a tool for modeling optical field propagation. Particular emphasis is placed on the spatial propagation of stationary fields, as well as on the propagation of pulses through dispersive media. In the first case, the Wigner function gives a representation of the field that is similar to a radiance or weight distribution for all the rays in the system, since its arguments are both position and direction. In cases in which the field is paraxial and where the system is described by a simple linear relation in the ray regime, the Wigner function is constant under propagation along rays. An equivalent property holds for optical pulse propagation in dispersive media under analogous assumptions. Several properties and applications of the Wigner function in these contexts are discussed, as is its connection with other common phase-space distributions like the ambiguity function, the spectrogram, and the Husimi, P, Q, and Kirkwood-Rihaczek functions. Also discussed are modifications to the definition of the Wigner function that allow extending the property of conservation along paths to a wider range of problems, including nonparaxial field propagation and pulse propagation within general transparent dispersive media. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

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