Rochester, NY, United States
Rochester, NY, United States

The University of Rochester is a private, nonsectarian, research university in Rochester, New York, United States. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The university has six schools and various interdisciplinary programs.The University of Rochester is noted for its Eastman School of Music. The university is also home to the Institute of Optics, founded in 1929, the nation's first educational program devoted exclusively to optics. Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics is home to the second most energetic fusion laser in the world.In its history, five university alumni, two faculty, and one senior research associate at Strong Memorial Hospital have been awarded a Nobel Prize; eight alumni and four faculty members have won a Pulitzer Prize, and 19 faculty members have been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship. Faculty and alumni of Rochester make up nearly one-quarter of the scientists on the board advising NASA in the development of the James Webb Space Telescope, which will replace the Hubble Space Telescope as of 2011. The departments of political science and economics have made a significant and consistent impact on positivist social science since the 1960s; the distinctive, mathematical approach pioneered at Rochester and closely affiliated departments is known as the Rochester school, and Rochester graduates and former affiliates are highly represented at faculties across top economics and political science departments. The University of Rochester, across all of its schools and campuses, enrolls approximately 5,600 undergraduates and 4,600 graduate students. Its 158 buildings house over 200 academic majors. Additionally, Rochester is the largest employer in the Greater Rochester area and the sixth largest employer in the New York. Wikipedia.


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Patent
University of Rochester and University of Kansas | Date: 2016-11-21

Provided herein are compositions and methods for treating or preventing infection.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2016-10-19

A method for providing vision correction to a patient. The method includes: (a) measuring the degree of vision correction needed by the patient and determining the location and shape of refractive structures that need to be positioned within the cornea to partially correct a patients vision; (b) directing and focusing femtosecond laser pulses in the blue spectral region within the cornea at an intensity high enough to change the refractive index of the cornea within a focal region, but not high enough to damage the cornea or to affect cornea tissue outside of the focal region; and (c) scanning the laser pulses across a volume of the cornea or the lens to provide the focal region with refractive structures in the cornea or the lens. Again, the refractive structures are characterized by a change in refractive index, and exhibit little or no scattering loss.


The present invention provides compositions and methods for providing controllable local delivery of a therapeutic agent to promote bone formation. In certain embodiments, the invention is used as a treatment for a subject with osteoporosis, bone cancer or bone fracture. The invention provides a therapeutic agent that is tethered to a polymer to form a therapeutic-tethered macromer, where the therapeutic agent is controllably released from the conjugate by degradation of the tether. In certain embodiments, the therapeutic agent is an inhibitor of GSK3. In certain embodiments, the composition of the invention is specifically targeted to a site in need of bone formation or treatment.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2016-09-12

A responsive construction toy is disclosed. The responsive construction toy, also known as LumenLinks, comprises at least one active rod and at least one connector. The active rod has an optics end and a push-pull transducer. The active rod illuminates with varying intensity and color to signify magnitude and direction of force on the active rod. Three dimensional structures such as trusses, buildings, and towers can be built by connecting active rods and connectors. When a structure is built, the forces on each active rod can be visually interpreted, thus providing an educational toy that has both tangible and concrete elements as well as responsiveness and feedback.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2015-04-01

Methods and compositions are provided for generating macrocyclic peptides constrained by side-chain-to-C-terminus non-peptidic tethers for use as functional and structural mimics of -helical motifs, including in therapeutic applications. These methods can be used to produce libraries of conformationally constrained peptidomimetics to identify compounds with desired activity properties.


Patent
Georgetown University and University of Rochester | Date: 2015-04-30

The present invention relates to methods of determining if a subject has an increased risk of suffering from memory impairment. The methods comprise analyzing at least one plasma sample from the subject to determine a value of the subjects lipidomic profile, and also analyzing the gene expression profile from leukocytes and comparing the value of the subjects biomarker profile (lipidomic profile plus gene expression profile) with the value of a normal biomarker profile. A change in the value of the subjects biomarker profile, including a change in the subjects biomarker profile, over normal values is indicative that the subject has an increased risk of suffering from memory impairment compared to a normal individual.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2016-09-08

A microfabricated device and method having a substrate with an array of curvilinear cavities that is used for high throughput single cell screening. The substrate of the device is preferably fabricated in a low elastic modulus polymer such as polydimethylsiloxane. The architecture of the cavity forms a small volume micro-niche that seeded cells can rapidly condition to promote survival and proliferation which can be monitored for hours to days to weeks. The cavity architecture allows independent assays to be conducted with minimal influence from nearest neighbor cavities. Methods are disclosed to use the device to, for example, screen single cells by clonal proliferation, clonal morphology, secreted factors, secretion rate, surface markers, and cell functional characteristics including but not limited to migration, drug resistance, the ability to block or promote signaling pathways, or to enhance opsonization.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2015-09-10

A liveness-based memory allocation module operating so that a program thread invoking the memory allocation module is provided with an allocation of memory including a reserve of free heap slots beyond the immediate requirements of the invoking thread. The module receives a parameter representing a thread execution window from an invoking thread; calculates a liveness metric based upon the parameter; calculates a reserve of memory to be passed to the invoking thread based upon the parameter; returns a block of memory corresponding to the calculated reserve of memory. Equations, algorithms, and sampling strategies for calculating liveness metrics are disclosed, as well as a method for adaptive control of the module to achieve a balance between memory efficiency and potential contention as specified by a single control parameter.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2016-08-05

Presented is a method and apparatus for solving. The method includes receiving, by a resistive memory array, a first data, the resistive memory array comprising a plurality of cells, wherein the receiving comprises setting a plurality of resistances on the plurality of cells, wherein each of the plurality of resistances are based on the first data. The method further includes receiving, by the resistive memory array, a second data, wherein the receiving comprises applying at least one of a current and a voltage based on the second data on the plurality of cells. The method still further includes determining, by the resistive memory array, an initial unknown value, the initial value based on the first data and the second data.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2016-09-02

Disclosed herein are systems and methods for removing reverberation from signals. The systems and methods can be applicable to audio signals, for example, to voice, musical instrument sounds, and the like. Signals such as the vowel sounds in speech and the sustained portions of many musical instrument sounds can be composed of a fundamental frequency component and a series of harmonically related overtones. The systems and methods can exploit the intrinsically high degree of mutual correlation among the overtones. When such signals are passed through a reverberant channel, the degree of mutual correlation among the partials can be reduced. An inverse channel filter for the removal of reverberation can be found by employing an adaptive filter technique that maximizes the cross-correlation among signal overtones.


Patent
University of Rochester | Date: 2017-04-05

The present invention is directed to a monoclonal antibody that binds specifically to a Staphylococcus aureus glucosaminidase and inhibits in vivo growth of S. aureus. Also disclosed are monoclonal antibody binding portions, recombinant or hybridoma cell lines, pharmaceutical compositions containing the monoclonal antibody or binding portions thereof, and methods of treating Staphylococcus aureus infection and osteomyelitis, and methods for introducing an orthopedic implant into a patient using the monoclonal antibody, binding portion, or pharmaceutical composition of the present invention.


Fiscella K.,University of Rochester
Journal of Ambulatory Care Management | Year: 2017

The PCMH would benefit from a TARP that enhances the capacity of the PCMH to achieve the triple aim. Such a program would support patient autonomy, competence, and relatedness, while efficiently and effectively addressing basic human needs. Accomplishing this will require creation of genuine primary care teams that distribute tasks, allow each member to function at the top of his or her license, and facilitate partnerships with the larger community. © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Brule C.E.,University of Rochester | Grayhack E.J.,University of Rochester
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2017

The genetic code, which defines the amino acid sequence of a protein, also contains information that influences the rate and efficiency of translation. Neither the mechanisms nor functions of codon-mediated regulation were well understood. The prevailing model was that the slow translation of codons decoded by rare tRNAs reduces efficiency. Recent genome-wide analyses have clarified several issues. Specific codons and codon combinations modulate ribosome speed and facilitate protein folding. However, tRNA availability is not the sole determinant of rate; rather, interactions between adjacent codons and wobble base pairing are key. One mechanism linking translation efficiency and codon use is that slower decoding is coupled to reduced mRNA stability. Changes in tRNA supply mediate biological regulationfor instance, changes in tRNA amounts facilitate cancer metastasis. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Jenkins J.L.,University of Rochester | Kielkopf C.L.,University of Rochester
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2017

Somatic mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors recur among patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and related malignancies. Although these MDS-relevant mutations alter the splicing of a subset of transcripts, the mechanisms by which these single amino acid substitutions change gene expression remain controversial. New structures of spliceosome intermediates and associated protein complexes shed light on the molecular interactions mediated by 'hotspots' of the SF3B1 and U2AF1 pre-mRNA splicing factors. The frequently mutated SF3B1 residues contact the pre-mRNA splice site. Based on structural homology with other spliceosome subunits, and recent findings of altered RNA binding by mutant U2AF1 proteins, we suggest that affected U2AF1 residues also contact pre-mRNA. Altered pre-mRNA recognition emerges as a molecular theme among MDS-relevant mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors. Mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors are common acquired mutations among patients with MDS and related myeloid neoplasms, and also recur in some solid tumors.'Hotspot' mutations of pre-mRNA splicing factors alter the splicing of a subset of transcripts.Structures of the activated B-stage spliceosome show that SF3B1 hotspots contact the pre-mRNA splice site.Hotspot mutations of U2AF1 alter its binding affinity for splice-site RNAs in a manner that correlates with changes in pre-mRNA splicing.An apo-structure of a fission yeast homolog shows U2AF1 hotspot locations on zinc-knuckle surfaces, and structural homology suggests that these residues contact RNA. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Background/objectives:Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children.Subjects/methods:139 (86 female) healthy children, 7–10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months. Participants randomized to the BM-NE intervention attended five sessions over a 6-week period designed to increase calcium intake to 1500 mg/day. Participants randomized to the usual care (UC) group received a single nutritional counseling session. The Calcium Counts Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to assess calcium intake; dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone mineral content (BMC). Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to assess for an effect of the intervention on calcium intake, BMC and aBMD.Results:BM-NE participants had greater increases in calcium intake that persisted for 12 months following the intervention compared with UC. The intervention had no effect on BMC or aBMD accrual. Secondary analyses found a negative association between calcium intake and adiposity such that greater calcium intake was associated with lesser gains in body mass index and fat mass index.Conclusions:A family-centered BM-NE intervention program in healthy children was successful in increasing calcium intake for up to 12 months but had no effect on bone accrual. A beneficial relationship between calcium intake and adiposity was observed and warrants future study.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 22 February 2017; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2017.5. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.


D'Angio C.T.,University of Rochester
Journal of Perinatology | Year: 2017

Objective:We hypothesized that, among parents of potential neonatal research subjects, an accompanying cover sheet added to the permission form (intervention) would increase understanding of the research, when compared to a standard form (control).Study Design:This pilot study enrolled parents approached for one of two index studies: one randomized trial and one observational study. A one-page cover sheet described critical study information. Families were randomized 1:1 to receive the cover sheet or not. Objective and subjective understanding and satisfaction were measured.Results:Thirty-two parents completed all measures (17 control, 15 intervention). There were no differences in comprehension score (16.8±5.7 vs 16.3±3.5), subjective understanding (median 6 vs 6.5), or overall satisfaction with consent (median 7 vs 6.5) between control and intervention groups (all P>0.50).Conclusion:A simplified permission form cover sheet had no effect on parents’ understanding of studies for which their newborns were being recruited.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 30 March 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2017.26. © 2017 Nature America, Inc., part of Springer Nature.


Aluie H.,University of Rochester
New Journal of Physics | Year: 2017

We formulate a coarse-graining approach to the dynamics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids at a continuum of length-scales ℓ. In this methodology, effective equations are derived for the observable velocity and magnetic fields spatially-averaged at an arbitrary scale of resolution. The microscopic equations for the 'bare' velocity and magnetic fields are 'renormalized' by coarse-graining to yield macroscopic effective equations that contain both a subscale stress and a subscale electromotive force (EMF) generated by nonlinear interaction of eliminated fields and plasma motions. Particular attention is given to the effects of these subscale terms on the balances of the quadratic invariants of ideal incompressible MHD - energy, cross-helicity and magnetic helicity. At large coarse-graining length-scales, the direct dissipation of the invariants by microscopic mechanisms (such as molecular viscosity and Spitzer resistivity) is shown to be negligible. The balance at large scales is dominated instead by the subscale nonlinear terms, which can transfer invariants across scales, and are interpreted in terms of work concepts for energy and in terms of topological flux-linkage for the two helicities. An important application of this approach is to MHD turbulence, where the coarse-graining length ℓ lies in the inertial cascade range. We show that in the case of sufficiently rough velocity and/or magnetic fields, the nonlinear inter-scale transfer need not vanish and can persist to arbitrarily small scales. Although closed expressions are not available for subscale stress and subscale EMF, we derive rigorous upper bounds on the effective dissipation they produce in terms of scaling exponents of the velocity and magnetic fields. These bounds provide exact constraints on phenomenological theories of MHD turbulence in order to allow the nonlinear cascade of energy and cross-helicity. On the other hand, we prove a very strong version of the Woltjer-Taylor conjecture on conservation of magnetic helicity. Our bounds show that forward cascade of magnetic helicity to asymptotically small scales is impossible unless 3rd-order moments of either velocity or magnetic field become infinite. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.


Morrell C.N.,University of Rochester
Blood | Year: 2017

In this issue of Blood, Gramaglia et al1 have provided valuable data on whether platelets are protective in malaria infection by directly killing Plasmodium parasites, or deleterious by driving adverse immune responses. Platelets are the cellular mediators of thrombosis. Although this is a very important biologic role, platelets are also the most numerous circulating cell with an inflammatory and immune modulatory function. The first, and still the best understood, disease context for platelet-driven inflammation is atherosclerosis. More recently, platelets have been shown to have important, largely adverse roles, in infectious disease processes such as sepsis, bacterial infections, viral infections, and parasitic infections, including infections with the malaria causative agent Plasmodium. With an increased appreciation for the immune and inflammatory functions of platelets in many diseases, there have been an increased number of studies, including study into platelets in malaria infection. There have been conflicting conclusions on whether platelets are "good or bad" players in malaria infection. Although there is a broad sense that platelets are proinflammatory and initiate or accelerate immune cell responses to infection in general, some reports have indicated a potential direct anti- Plasmodium parasite-killing role for platelets (see figure). This paper by Gramaglia et al provides a further understanding of whether platelets directly kill Plasmodium parasites, and if they do, does it actually limit the in vivo parasite burden. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.


Gelbard H.A.,University of Rochester
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology | Year: 2017

It has been almost nine years since the 1st edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology was published on May 23rd, 2008. The 2nd edition of Neuroimmune Pharmacology by Ikezu and Gendelman (Editors) with Przedborski, Masliah and Cosentino (Associate Editors) manages to fulfill two separate missions: to provide comprehensive, but highly topical access to a rapidly evolving field and to serve as a standalone reference for scientists and clinicians in need of guidance regarding questions pertinent to neuroimmune pharmacology. Doing a PubMed search on the terms neuroimmune and pharmacology yields 1090 publications, with a first publication by Dougherty and Dafny, published in the Journal of Neuroscience Research in 1988, entitled “Neuroimmune intercommunication, central opioids, and the immune response to bacterial endotoxin.” Since 2000, there have been 979 publications using these search terms, with 137 published since the beginning of 2016. The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that this is a burgeoning field that represents the cusp between our understanding of relationships between the immune and nervous systems and how we might treat disease with pharmacologic approaches when normal homeostatic mechanisms go awry. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Palis J.,University of Rochester
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2017

Two distinct forms of erythropoiesis, primitive and definitive, are found in mammals. Definitive erythroid precursors in the bone marrow mature in the physical context of macrophage cells in "erythroblastic islands." In the murine embryo, overlapping waves of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors, each containing macrophage potential, arise in the yolk sac prior to the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells. Primitive erythroblasts mature in the bloodstream as a semi-synchronous cohort while macrophage cells derived from the yolk sac seed the fetal liver. Late-stage primitive erythroblasts associate with macrophage cells in erythroblastic islands in the fetal liver, indicating that primitive erythroblasts can interact with macrophage cells extravascularly. Like definitive erythroblasts, primitive erythroblasts physically associate with macrophages through a4 integrin-vascular adhesion molecule 1-mediated interactions and a4 integrin is redistributed onto the plasma membrane of primitive pyrenocytes. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that fetal liver macrophage cells engulf primitive pyrenocytes. Taken together, these studies indicate that several aspects of the interplay between macrophage cells and maturing erythroid precursor cells are conserved during the ontogeny of mammalian organisms. © 2017 Palis.


Barr P.M.,University of Rochester
Blood | Year: 2016

In this issue of Blood, Mansouri et al1 report on the distribution of NFKBIE aberrations in lymphoid malignancies and suggest they play an important role in lymphomagenesis. They demonstrate a high frequency of NFKBIE deletions in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and report that they predict for poor outcomes in this population. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.


Walker J.L.,University of Rochester
Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND:: Obesity as a cause of lower extremity deformity in children has been well established. This deformity is most often seen as tibia vara, however, at our institution we have observed more obese children and adolescents over age 7 years with excessive or progressive idiopathic genu valgum. Our hypothesis is that children with idiopathic genu valgum have high rates of obesity which impact the severity of their disease. METHODS:: Retrospective review of existing data was performed on 66 consecutive children/112 limbs over age 7 years with idiopathic genu valgum, seen from 2010 to 2013. Children with known metabolic or skeletal disease were excluded. Genu valgum was defined as mechanical axis in zone II or III and mechanical tibiofemoral angle ≥4 degrees on standing anteroposterior radiograph of the lower extremities. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and classified by Center for Disease Control percentiles. Skeletal maturation was rated by closure of pelvic and peri-genu physes. Severity of genu valgum was also assessed by femoral and tibial mechanical axes and the mechanical axis deviation. RESULTS:: Mean patient age was 12.2±2.2 years. 47% of patients had BMI≥30 and 71% were categorized as obese (>95th percentile). No sex differences were identified. Skeletal maturation explained 25% of the variance in the mechanical axis deviation and 22% of the mechanical tibiofemoral angle. BMI predicted 9.8% of the tibial valgus. Because of its skewed distribution, BMI percentile was a less useful parameter for assessment. CONCLUSIONS:: The 71% obesity rate found in our children with idiopathic genu valgum is significantly higher than the normal population. Higher BMI is associated with more tibial valgum but skeletal maturation was the main predictor of overall valgus severity. This suggests that obesity may play a role in the etiology of idiopathic genu valgum which progresses with skeletal maturation, thereby increasing the risk of osteoarthritis in adulthood. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Level III. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Kelly E.A.,University of Rochester
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2017

The central extended amygdala (CEA) has been conceptualized as a ‘macrosystem’ that regulates various stress-induced behaviors. Consistent with this, the CEA highly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), an important modulator of stress responses. Stress alters goal-directed responses associated with striatal paths, including maladaptive responses such as drug seeking, social withdrawal, and compulsive behavior. CEA inputs to the midbrain dopamine (DA) system are positioned to influence striatal functions through mesolimbic DA-striatal pathways. However, the structure of this amygdala-CEA-DA neuron path to the striatum has been poorly characterized in primates. In primates, we combined neuronal tracer injections into various arms of the circuit through specific DA subpopulations to assess: (1) whether the circuit connecting amygdala, CEA, and DA cells follows CEA intrinsic organization, or a more direct topography involving bed nucleus vs central nucleus divisions; (2) CRF content of the CEA-DA path; and (3) striatal subregions specifically involved in CEA-DA-striatal loops. We found that the amygdala-CEA-DA path follows macrostructural subdivisions, with the majority of input/outputs converging in the medial central nucleus, the sublenticular extended amygdala, and the posterior lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. The proportion of CRF+ outputs is >50%, and mainly targets the A10 parabrachial pigmented nucleus (PBP) and A8 (retrorubal field, RRF) neuronal subpopulations, with additional inputs to the dorsal A9 neurons. CRF-enriched CEA-DA projections are positioned to influence outputs to the ‘limbic-associative’ striatum, which is distinct from striatal regions targeted by DA cells lacking CEA input. We conclude that the concept of the CEA is supported on connectional grounds, and that CEA termination over the PBP and RRF neuronal populations can influence striatal circuits involved in associative learning.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 22 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.38. © 2017 The Author(s)


Bancos I.,University of Rochester
Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity | Year: 2017

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adrenal masses are highly prevalent, found in 5% of the population. Differentiation of benign adrenocortical adenoma from adrenocortical carcinoma is currently hampered by the poor specificity and limited evidence base of imaging tests. This review summarizes the results of studies published to date on urine steroid metabolite profiling for distinguishing benign from malignant adrenal masses. RECENT FINDINGS: Three studies have described cohorts of at least 100 patients with adrenal tumors showing significant differences between urinary steroid metabolite excretions according to the nature of the underlying lesion, suggesting significant value of steroid metabolite profiling as a highly accurate diagnostic test. SUMMARY: Steroid profiling is emerging as a powerful novel diagnostic tool with a significant potential for improving the management for patients with adrenal tumors. Although the current studies use gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for proof of concept, widespread use of the method in routine clinical care will depend on transferring the approach to high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry platforms. The use of computational data analysis in conjunction with urine steroid metabolite profiling, that is, steroid metabolomics, adds accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


The annual death toll from Alzheimer's disease has increased exponentially over the last decade and a half, a new study reveals. The disease is now responsible for twice as many annual victims than in the early 2000s. These findings are all the more alarming considering the expected increase in Alzheimer's prevalence during the next 30 years, as the Alzheimer's Association estimates 16 million people over 65 years of age could be diagnosed by 2050. The report also cites Alzheimer's disease as the fifth leading cause of fatality among the elderly, ranking first in the top 10 terminal incurable illnesses for which there are no available means of prevention or curtailing progression. With the nation's age demographic registering an increase in the old population, this type of dementia has now become the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. According to Keith Fargo, Alzheimer's Association's director of scientific programs and outreach, the general supposition puts the inflated number of Alzheimer's-related fatalities down to the population's increased life expectancy. Although he admits that to be partially true, Fargo contradicts the growing assumption that Alzheimer's is inherent to old age. "Most people do not get Alzheimer's, even if they live into their 80s or 90s. It's not normal," Fargo says. Another reason why Alzheimer's has claimed twice the number of lives compared to 15 years ago may be related to the large amount of effort required to look after diagnosed patients, especially in the later stages of the disease. Proving strenuous to caregivers, the struggle of tending to their loved ones' mental and physical decline leaves them facing their own health deterioration, as 35 percent experience a worsening of their state of well-being in the aftermath. The report showed caregivers are now more affected by depression and anxiety than in the past. By comparison, only 19 percent of caretakers of elderly patients without dementia suffer the same problems. The last decade has brought substantial progress in monitoring the disease's onset, however. The Alzheimer's Association notes the illness' early signs are being better kept in check. Dr. Anton Porsteinsson, the director of the Alzheimer's Disease Care, Research and Education Program at the University of Rochester, attributes this to the growing percentage of older people, as well as the "increasing awareness that AD is a lethal disease." The success seen in the treatment of other leading causes of death may have also played its part, he adds. In the absence of viable Alzheimer's treatment options, the study suggests early diagnosis could give patients an extra fighting chance. Rapid detection of the disease, before symptoms set in, could help them make timely caregiving arrangements. To this effect, the main objective for the future is closely monitoring biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease - all neurological signs that indicate changes in brain size, shifts in spinal fluid content, and the presence of nerve plaques. "We believe that in the coming years we'll have tests that you can do in the doctor's office that will let you know your risk for Alzheimer's," says Fargo, who thinks this "could open the door for prevention." © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


News Article | April 21, 2017
Site: cen.acs.org

A trifluoromethyl-substituted cyclopropane group can play a key role in a drug candidate. The group’s rigid cyclopropyl ring can increase the compound’s lipophilicity and metabolic stability while its fluorines can boost the candidate’s stability and ability to permeate membranes. But installing trifluoromethylcyclopropyl groups in a highly enantioselective manner is hard. A team led by Rudi Fasan at the University of Rochester now reports a combined chemical and biocatalytic approach that could make it easier to add trifluoromethylcyclopropyl groups to compounds enantioselectively for drug design (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b00768). Erick M. Carreira of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, and coworkers developed the only previous method for adding the fluorinated groups in a fairly stereoselective manner. In that technique, cobalt catalysts generate trans-trifluoromethylcyclopropyl derivatives of arene substrates with enantiomeric excesses between 84 and 94% (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2011, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201004269). Fasan notes that medicinal chemists prefer to use reactions with enantiomeric excesses greater than 98% to minimize the difficulties of purifying away unwanted enantiomers. Fasan’s new method provides enantiomeric excesses between 97 and 99.9% and has much shorter reaction times and 50 times the catalytic efficiency of the earlier method. In the Fasan group’s technique, the researchers first convert trifluoroethylamine to a carbene donor reagent, diazotrifluoroethane. They then mix the reagent with bacterial cells expressing an engineered myoglobin, which catalyzes carbene addition to aryl olefin substrates, yielding trans-trifluoromethylcyclopropyl arenes. The scientists created multiple versions of the engineered myoglobins that can catalyze the synthesis of each of the two enantiomers for each addition product. The chemical and biocatalytic reactions are not compatible. So the chemists carry out the two steps sequentially in two different pots to keep them separate. Researchers have used myoglobin and other biocatalysts to transfer carbenes to substrates before, but those previous methods all used α-diazoacetate carbene donors. The new technique expands the range of biocatalytic carbene transformations to diazotrifluoroethane carbene donors. “It is a great piece of work,” Carreira says. “It combines chemical and biocatalytic steps to make nontrivial, highly enantioselective cyclopropanation reactions possible. It is a win-win for chemistry, biology, and catalysis in general.”


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

Jessica Cedillo, a 16-year-old student who attends Pacifica High School in Garden Grove won the top business award at the StandUp For Kids’ Young Entrepreneur (YEA!) Investor Panel. Not only does she receive $1,200 to launch her business but also she will be going to Rochester, New York on May 7 - 8 to compete amongst 26 YEA! participants from across the nation. Each participant proposed a business plan that included financial strategies, marketing plans, selling and general operations in front of a panel of investors that took place at The Cove, located at the University of California, Irvine. “I am excited to go to New York, I have never been but I was mostly excited to win because of my mom, everything I did was for her,” said Jessica Cedillo. “My business initials stand for my mother’s name, it is dedicated to her.” Cedillo was inspired by her mother; a 23-year-old college student who got kicked out of her home after becoming pregnant and had to drop out of college. She devoted her life to her daughter, which has given Cedillo many opportunities and motivated her to succeed in life. Cedillo proposed The BB Organization, a non-profit dedicated to help young mothers with resources such as job and resume building workshops, completing education such as trade schools or college, confidence building, parenting and to provide opportunities for themselves and their babies. “I was so impressed with Jessica because you can tell she put a huge amount of time and thought into her business plan and I know she will carry the same confidence when she competes,” said Investor Panel Presentation guest Zaira Becerra. Cedillo is a community service advocate, where she has volunteered over 3,000 hours. She is currently an Orange County Sheriff's Department Explorer Sergeant, which has motivated her to pursue a career in in criminal justice and political science within the FBI. The Young Entrepreneurs Academy The Young Entrepreneurs Academy (YEA!) is a 501(C) 3 offering groundbreaking year-long classes that teach middle and high school students how to start and run their own businesses. Throughout the class, students develop business ideas, write business plans, conduct market research, pitch their plans to a panel of investors for startup funds, and launch and run their own, fully formed companies and social movements. The project-based program empowers students to take charge of their futures. Founded in 2004 at the University of Rochester with support from the Kauffman Foundation, YEA! today serves thousands of students nationwide. In 2011, the United States Chamber of Commerce Foundation became a national sponsor and partner of the Academy to help celebrate the spirit of enterprise among today's youth and tomorrow's future leaders. YEA! bridges the business and educational communities to fulfill its mission of teaching more students how to make a job, not just take a job. YEA! is made possible by The Kauffman Foundation, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation and the E. Philip Saunders Foundation. For more information, visit yeausa.org. StandUp For Kids STANDUP FOR KIDS (SUFK), founded in 1990, is a national non-profit organization whose target population is assisting homeless and at risk individuals between the ages of 12 and 24. Our core mission is to end the cycle of youth homelessness. Trained counselors help find, stabilize, and assist homeless and at-risk kids to attain productive and fulfilling lives off the streets. Our organization’s focus is on prevention, outreach support, transitional housing and providing an array of resources and services to help homeless and at-risk youth on their journey to becoming self-sufficient adults. The SUFK – Orange County Chapter was launched in 2003. In 2016, Orange County volunteers logged over 1,400 incidences of support and over 5,000 hours of service. From a youth support standpoint, 63 were provided housing support, and over 250 were tutored and/or assisted with figuring out their educational goals.


​Dr. Christopher Gitzelmann, Associate Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, has joined The Expert Network©, an invitation-only service for distinguished professionals. Dr. Gitzelmann has been chosen as a Distinguished Doctor™ based on peer reviews and ratings, numerous recognitions, and accomplishments achieved throughout his career. Dr. Gitzelmann outshines others in his field due to his extensive educational background, numerous awards and recognitions, and career longevity. After receiving his M.D. from the University Medical School of Zurich in Switzerland, Dr. Gitzelmann completed a surgery residency at the University Hospital of Zurich. He then undertook fellowships in pediatric surgery at both the University Children’s Hospital in Zurich and John’s Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Over the course of his rigorous training, Dr. Gitzelmann cultivated the tools necessary to become one of the top experts in his specialty. He is certified in Surgery and Pediatric Surgery and is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons. With over 25 years dedicated to medicine, Dr. Gitzelmann brings a wealth of knowledge to his industry, and in particular, to his area of expertise, pediatric surgery. When asked why he decided to pursue a career in this specialty, Dr. Gitzelmann said: "Children are innocent. They don’t smoke, drink, or do drugs. In some ways, this made me feel like it was an honorable goal to work with children. I also think the procedures we perform in pediatric surgery are challenging, especially in newborns: we build complex reconstructions that, if done well, will last a lifetime." In addition to his prolific and compassionate practice, Dr. Gitzelmann is credited with groundbreaking research and advancements in the field of pediatric laparoscopic surgery. By treating patients with minimally-invasive surgery rather than open surgery, he was able to achieve immunological benefits and lasting results. His innovative research in this field was recognized as a “Top Ten” Research Contribution by the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Gitzelmann also holds teaching positions at the University of Rochester Medical School, as well as being the Director of quality and safety at the Department of Surgery. As a thought-leader in his specialty, Dr. Gitzelmann pays careful attention to prevailing trends that could improve the health of his young patients. In particular, he has been focused on ensuring higher quality surgical outcomes at URMC. He noted: "On the one hand, this is very en vogue right now, but it is also highly beneficial to the patients. A focus on quality and outcomes has an immediate and measurable effect. Besides my work as a surgeon, I have been very active in promoting quality and better outcomes in the pediatric field." For more information, visit Dr. Gitzelmann's profile on the Expert Network here: http://expertnetwork.co/members/christopher-gitzelmann/0c41d3ed27b36fec The Expert Network© has written this news release with approval and/or contributions from Dr. Christopher Gitzelmann. The Expert Network© is an invitation-only reputation management service that is dedicated to helping professionals stand out, network, and gain a competitive edge. The Expert Network selects a limited number of professionals based on their individual recognitions and history of personal excellence.


News Article | April 26, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

When children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) receive a multi-component intervention, both the children and their parents see the benefits, a new pilot study suggests. Children who received the intervention showed lower levels of anxiety and modest, but significant, gains in their ability to control emotions better. The biggest change, however, came in the parents’ understanding of their children’s disabilities and their improved ability to respond to their children’s needs. “The biggest impact is the effect on parents,” says Christie Petrenko, a research psychologist at the University of Rochester’s Mt. Hope Family Center and the lead author of the study. “The intervention really helps parents understand their children’s behavior and lets them understand why their kids are the way they are.” Before the intervention, says Petrenko, “parents felt they were often just pulling at straws”—guessing at what might work best. “After program completion, having been given these tools, they feel more confident in their parenting approach.” People with FASD are at increased risk for developing costly and debilitating problems if the underlying disability goes unrecognized. Primary disabilities manifest themselves in problems with executive functioning, which includes skills such as information processing, emotion regulation, impulse control, and task planning, as well as social and adaptive skills. When these primary disabilities are not addressed, people with FASD are at high risk for secondary problems, such as mental health issues, behaving disruptively at school or dropping out, abusing illegal substances, getting into trouble with the law, and being incarcerated. They often have difficulty holding down a job and living independently. Nationwide, estimates for the number of people with FASD range from 1 percent to 4.8 percent. The pilot study tested a multi-component intervention—called the Families on Track Integrated Preventive Intervention Program—to try to avoid those secondary problems, and to improve the way affected families respond to their children. The study appears in the journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. Often the behavior of children with FASD is misunderstood, says Petrenko. “Many of their disabilities, including difficulties with executive skills like impulsivity control, processing sensory information, problem solving, and following multiple-step instruction—can result in behavior that often looks disruptive, or oppositional, when in fact it’s a reflection of their underlying neurodevelopmental disabilities.” The pilot program is designed to help parents, caregivers, and teachers accurately understand the child’s neurodevelopmental weaknesses as well as their strengths, and to put more effective accommodations into place, adds Petrenko. The caregivers and parents who received the multi-component intervention experienced medium to large effects on their ability to interpret the children’s behavior correctly, finding social support, and taking care of themselves. They also reported feeling more confident in their parenting. The researchers observed medium-sized improvements in both groups when it came to reducing the children’s disruptive behavior. The study included 30 children with FASD, aged four through eight, and their primary caregivers. The researchers randomized the families to either the Families on Track program, or an active control group that received neuropsychological assessments and personalized community referrals only. The next step, Petrenko says, is a larger sample, randomized control trial of the Families on Track program. The pilot builds on earlier research that looked at program characteristics most helpful to parents and caregivers of children with FASD, and problems families face in accessing relevant services, which can make it harder to prevent secondary conditions. A grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism funded the study.


News Article | April 24, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Lost letters found in an old wooden crate inside a Connecticut barn are changing our view of the women’s suffrage movement in America. Originally owned by suffragist Isabella Beecher Hooker, the collection includes dozens of letters from fellow movement leaders Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, along with photos, speeches, and pamphlets. Part of a notable family of reformers, Hooker was the daughter of the Reverend Lyman Beecher and a half-sister of social reformer and abolitionist Henry Ward Beecher, educator Catharine Beecher, and novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe. Written between 1869 and 1880 by suffragist luminaries to Hooker, the collection is staggering not just for its content but also its size, numbering more than a hundred letters and artifacts. “Something that I’ve been really struck by is just how exhausting it must have been to try to keep going for this long,” says Lori Birrell, special collections librarian for historical manuscripts at the University of Rochester where the collection is now housed. According to Birrell, the fear of the women who saw their chances of being included in the 15th Amendment quickly slipping away is vividly present in their correspondence. “You get to this period in the 1870s and they’ve tried everything – state, national, they tried voting and then got arrested for it in 1872. They’ve tried all of these things and they just kept at it. To read that year after year after year in these letters is simply amazing.” The story of their discovery sounds straight out of PBS’s Antiques Roadshow. George and Libbie Merrow were cleaning out their Bloomfield, Connecticut, home last year when they came across an open wooden crate among family detritus and some antiques. “It was just mixed in with old magazines, old funny tools, all sorts of things,” Libbie Merrow recalls. Listen to Jessica Lacher-Feldman read two of the letters Inside the roughly two-foot-by-one-and-a-half-foot box, the Merrows found stacks of letters, newspaper clippings, and photographs, all seasoned liberally with mouse droppings. Dusty and probably undisturbed for decades, the small crate had survived two prior moves over the span of about 70 years, having been passed down through the Merrow family twice. In 1895, George Merrow’s grandfather had purchased the former Beecher Hooker house in Hartford, Connecticut. The Hookers had left personal papers behind in the attic when the big, elegant home they had built for themselves became too costly, forcing them to sell it. After the elder Merrow died in 1943, the papers moved with his son Paul Gurley Merrow to his farm in Mansfield, Connecticut. In 1973, his nephew– Libbie’s husband, George—inherited the property. Hear the story behind the discovery It wasn’t until 2015, that the couple started to clean out the last of the farm buildings—the big barn. Stuffed to the brim with old furniture, tools, two boats, wagons, farm equipment, strange contraptions, books and magazines, the barn unwittingly had played a natural hiding spot to the Beecher Hooker papers. They discovered a wooden crate with wedding invitations to the marriage of the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Hooker. Nothing clicked. Nevertheless, the Merrows decided to keep the box. “I don’t think that we attached anywhere near the significance to that collection at that time,” says George Merrow, “But we had so many things show up that might be of interest, that we didn’t throw it away at that time.” Anthony was clearly frustrated The Merrows took the musty crate to their home in Bloomfield where they left it—gasp—for about a year on their porch, covered only by a tarp. Finally, they reached out to rare book and manuscript dealers who painstakingly dusted, researched, and organized the jumbled contents over the span of months. “I can’t tell you how thrilling it was to hold a letter that she had held more than a hundred years before,” recalls rare book dealer Adrienne Horowitz Kitts when she discovered the first letter signed “Susan B. Anthony.” The letters show the methods and machinations of (mostly) women bent on changing the status quo that heretofore had relegated them to steerage. At times, they betray Anthony’s frustration over chronic funding problems, and with women who left the movement for marriage and children. At their rawest, they show her indignation at the general apathy for the cause of equality. “Now wouldn’t it be splendid for us to be free & equal citizens–with the power of the ballot to back our hearts, heads & hands.” In a letter to Hooker, dated March 19, 1873, Anthony’s impatience is palpable. She tells Hooker of her planning for the suffragists’ regular May meeting in New York City. Writing stream of consciousness, Anthony admonishes Hooker to show up: “But you must not fail to be there–for we must make the Welkin ring anew with our War cry for freedom–& our constitutional right to protect it by the ballot– I hear nothing from nobody– All I can do is to run & jump to accomplish the half I see waiting before me—” The frequent laments of the suffragists for what was lost by excluding women from public discourse began to sound a newly auspicious note in a letter dated April 9, 1874. “Now wouldn’t it be splendid for us to be free & equal citizens–with the power of the ballot to back our hearts, heads & hands–and we could just go into all the movements to better the conditions of the poor, the insane, the criminal– Wouldn’t we be happy mortals thus to work with power too,” Anthony muses to Hooker. “I can hardly wait– The good fates though are working together to bring us into this freedom & that rapidly.” Alas, not rapidly enough. Anthony died 14 years before Congress ratified the 19th Amendment in 1920, granting women finally the national right to vote. Anthony’s home state, New York, had done so three years earlier. Source: University of Rochester The post Lost letters from Susan B Anthony found in old barn appeared first on Futurity.


News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Mothers with depression who receive therapy pass the benefits of treatment to their children in a number of ways, say researchers. One mother involved in the study, Laianna Baker, says that she could barely make it out of bed some mornings. Feeling lonely and depressed, she found it hard to perform everyday tasks, including taking care of her newborn. “How do I start my day? Nobody was there for me. Lots of unresolved issues,” Baker remembers. But it wasn’t just the 21-year-old who was suffering. “When I’m sad, not in my element, he feels it,” says the mother of Corey, now 18 months. “He’s more agitated, he keeps falling down to the ground, he whines and cries more.” Shortly after her son’s birth, Baker started therapy at the Mt. Hope Family Center in Rochester, New York. She’s been receiving interpersonal psychotherapy there, learning how to cope, and to look for something that will lift her up. “When I feel low I play with my kid, watch movies—just do things that clear the stress that I have off my mind,” Baker says. Sometimes, she wrestles with Corey on the ground. He loves it. She feels better. The study in Development and Psychopathology concludes that mothers who receive interpersonal psychotherapy after showing signs of major depression fare significantly better than the control group, which received just community referrals. The mothers weren’t the only ones to benefit—their children did, too. The moms become better at parenting—and their children improved across a host of important developmental measures. Lessening the mothers’ depression, researchers discovered, meant improved attachment security for their toddlers. Overall, the researchers found that post-treatment the moms in the study became better at reading and understanding their toddler’s temperament, essentially making them better parents, while the toddlers became less fussy and angry, making them easier to parent. “It’s a cascading effect for the family,” says lead researcher Elizabeth Handley, research associate and assistant professor at the Mt. Hope Family Center. Interpersonal psychotherapy is a time-limited therapy that focuses on resolving interpersonal issues and the symptomatic recovery of the patient. The therapy is highly structured and lasts just 12 to 16 weeks. Using a randomized controlled trial of 125 mothers, each paired with her own child, the study looked at reduced maternal depression after psychotherapy and its effect on the children. Study subjects were low-income moms with an average age of 25. The children’s mean age was 13 months at the start of the study. More than half of the mothers, 54.4 percent, were African American. The current research builds on a 2013 University of Rochester study of moms representing similar demographics, which concluded that screening for depression and providing short-term, relationship-focused therapy can relieve their depression, even in the face of poverty and personal histories of abuse or violence. According to Handley, part of the improvement is a result of shifting the mother’s vantage point. Moms who view their kids as difficult tend to engage in harsher forms of parenting, she says, which down the road can lead to more problematic behavior in the children. “If you can change the moms’ lens in the way that they see their children, then you can set the kids off on a more positive trajectory,” says Handley. “Rose-colored lenses are preferable to gray ones, because a positive perception of their children is actually predictive of better outcomes later in life.” Prior research shows that children of depressed mothers are at greater risk for a variety of developmental problems, and establishing a secure attachment relationship with a parent is a critical developmental milestone during the early years of life. “An insecure attachment relationship is associated with a whole host of negative outcomes,” Handley says. One of the most critical aspects of development within a child’s first year, a healthy attachment makes it possible for children to cope with stressful situations. “They know mom as a secure base from where to explore the world. Without that secure attachment toddlers are more likely to be aggressive, to have conduct problems, and a whole array of negative mental health outcomes.” Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant health concern in the US, with 13 to 16 percent of the general populace experiencing an episode during their lifetime. Generally, women are more likely to suffer from depression, with the highest rates occurring among women of childbearing age and during the child-raising years. For economically-disadvantaged mothers the likelihood of depression jumps to one in four moms. Besides finding a way to head off likely problems for the children in later life, there is also a personal component, says Handley, herself a mother of two daughters, ages one and five. “Seeing the depression alleviated and seeing moms be more sensitive with their children, more responsive, less impatient and harsh—and seeing the kids respond more positively to their moms, well, that’s the warm and fuzzy of it.” To Baker, it means an achievement that she’s clearly proud of: “Good mother, good person. It’s good Laianna all over again.” “I take care of my child, I now have a better job, an apartment, a car,” she says. “I take care of my responsibilities. He changed me.” Wiping away tears, Baker adds quietly, “I don’t think I was raised right. But I want to do right with him.”


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

University of California, Berkeley, researchers have described 10 new CRISPR enzymes that, once activated, behave like Pac-Man to chew up RNA in a way that could be used as sensitive detectors of infectious viruses. The new CRISPR enzymes are variants of a CRISPR protein, Cas13a, which the UC Berkeley researchers reported last September in Nature could be used to detect specific sequences of RNA, such as from a virus. They showed that once CRISPR-Cas13a binds to its target RNA, it begins to indiscriminately cut up all RNA, easily cutting RNA linked to a reporter molecule, making it fluoresce to allow signal detection. Two teams of researchers at the Broad Institute subsequently paired CRISPR-Cas13a with RNA amplification, and showed that the system, which they dubbed SHERLOCK, could detect viral RNA at extremely low concentrations, detecting the presence of dengue and Zika viral RNA, for example. Such a system could be used to detect any type of RNA, including RNA distinctive of cancer cells. While the original Cas13a enzyme used by the UC Berkeley and Broad teams cuts RNA at one specific nucleic acid, uracil, three of the new Cas13a variants cut RNA at adenine. This difference allows simultaneous detection of two different RNA molecules, such as from two different viruses. "We have taken our foundational research a step further in finding other homologs of the Cas13a family that have different nucleotide preferences, enabling concurrent detection of different reporters with, say, a red and a green fluorescent signal, allowing a multiplexed enzymatic detection system," said first author Alexandra East-Seletsky, a UC Berkeley graduate student in the laboratory of Jennifer Doudna, one of the inventors of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool. East-Seletsky was also a co-first author of the September Nature paper. East-Seletsky, Doudna and their UC Berkeley colleagues will report their findings May 4 in the journal Molecular Cell. The CRISPR-Cas13a family, formerly referred to as CRISPR-C2c2, is related to CRISPR-Cas9, which is already revolutionizing biomedical research and treatment because of the ease of targeting it to unique DNA sequences to cut or edit. While the Cas9 protein cuts double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, the Cas13a protein - a nucleic acid-cutting enzyme referred to as a nuclease - latches onto specific RNA sequences, and not only cuts that specific RNA, but runs amok to cut and destroy all RNA present. "Think of binding between Cas13a and its RNA target as an on-off switch -- target binding turns on the enzyme to go be a Pac-Man in the cell, chewing up all RNA nearby," East-Seletsky said. This RNA killing spree can kill the cell. In their September Nature paper, the UC Berkeley researchers argued that the Pac-Man activity of CRISPR-Cas13a is its main role in bacteria, aimed at killing infectious viruses or phages. As part of the immune system of some bacteria, it allows infected cells to commit suicide to save their sister microbes from infection. Similar non-CRISPR suicide systems exist in other bacteria. The UC Berkeley researchers subsequently searched databases of bacterial genomes and found 10 other Cas13a-like proteins, which they synthesized and studied to assess their ability to find and cut RNA. Of those, seven resembled the original Cas13a, while three differed in where they cut RNA. RNA, which serves many functions inside the cell, including as messenger RNA - working copies of DNA - consists of four different nucleotides: adenine, cytosine, guanine and uracil. "Building on our original work, we now show that it is possible to multiplex these enzymes together, extending the scope of the technology," East-Seletsky said. "There is so much diversity within the CRISPR-Cas13a family that can be utilized for many applications, including RNA detection." Doudna, a professor of molecular biology and of chemistry and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, noted that detection of infectious RNA may or may not require amplification, which is a complicated step. "Our intention is to develop the Cas13a family of enzymes for point-of-care diagnostics that are robust and simple to deploy", Doudna said. Co-authors with East-Seletsky and Doudna are former UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow Mitchell O'Connell, now an assistant professor at the University of Rochester, and UC Berkeley postdocs David Burstein and Gavin Knott. The work was supported in part by a Frontiers Science award from the Paul Allen Institute and by the National Science Foundation (MCB-1244557).


News Article | May 8, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

LearnHowToBecome.org, a leading resource provider for higher education and career information, has evaluated the top colleges in New York state for 2017. Of the 50 four-year schools who made the site’s “Best” list, Columbia University in the City of New York, Cornell University, Yeshiva University, University of Rochester and New York University were in the top five. Of the 39 two-year schools that were included, Monroe Community College, Hudson Valley Community College, Niagara County Community College, SUNY Westchester Community College and Genesee Community college took the top five spots. A full list of schools is included below. “New York state offers a wide variety of educational options, but the schools on our list are those going the extra mile for students,” said Wes Ricketts, senior vice president of LearnHowToBecome.org. “Not only do they offer outstanding certificate and degree programs, they also provide students with resources that help them make successful career choices after college.” To be included on the “Best Colleges in New York” list, institutions must be regionally accredited, not-for-profit schools. Each college is ranked on additional statistics including the number of degree programs offered, the availability of career and academic resources, the opportunity for financial aid, graduation rates and annual alumni earnings 10 years after entering college. Complete details on each college, their individual scores and the data and methodology used to determine the LearnHowToBecome.org “Best Colleges in New York” list, visit: The Best Four-Year Colleges in New York for 2017 include: Adelphi University Alfred University Barnard College Canisius College Clarkson University Colgate University College of Mount Saint Vincent Columbia University in the City of New York Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art Cornell University CUNY Bernard M Baruch College CUNY City College CUNY Hunter College CUNY Queens College Daemen College D'Youville College Fordham University Hamilton College Hartwick College Hobart William Smith Colleges Hofstra University Houghton College Iona College Ithaca College Le Moyne College LIU Post Manhattan College Manhattanville College Marist College Molloy College Nazareth College New York University Niagara University Pace University-New York Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rochester Institute of Technology Saint John Fisher College Saint Joseph's College-New York Siena College St Bonaventure University St John's University-New York St Lawrence University Stony Brook University SUNY at Binghamton Syracuse University Union College University at Buffalo University of Rochester Vassar College Yeshiva University The Best Two-Year Colleges in New York for 2017 include: Adirondack Community College Bramson ORT College Bronx Community College Cayuga County Community College Clinton Community College Columbia-Greene Community College Corning Community College CUNY Borough of Manhattan Community College CUNY LaGuardia Community College Dutchess Community College Erie Community College Finger Lakes Community College Fulton-Montgomery Community College Genesee Community College Herkimer County Community College Hostos Community College Hudson Valley Community College Jamestown Community College Jefferson Community College Kingsborough Community College Mohawk Valley Community College Monroe Community College Nassau Community College New York Methodist Hospital Center for Allied Health Education Niagara County Community College North Country Community College Onondaga Community College Professional Business College Queensborough Community College Rockland Community College Schenectady County Community College Stella and Charles Guttman Community College Suffolk County Community College SUNY Broome Community College SUNY Orange SUNY Sullivan SUNY Ulster SUNY Westchester Community College Tompkins Cortland Community College ### About Us: LearnHowtoBecome.org was founded in 2013 to provide data and expert driven information about employment opportunities and the education needed to land the perfect career. Our materials cover a wide range of professions, industries and degree programs, and are designed for people who want to choose, change or advance their careers. We also provide helpful resources and guides that address social issues, financial aid and other special interest in higher education. Information from LearnHowtoBecome.org has proudly been featured by more than 700 educational institutions.


News Article | May 7, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Once activated, 10 newly described CRISPR enzymes behave like Pac-Man to run amok and destroy RNA. The findings could be useful for detecting infectious viruses. The new enzymes are variants of a CRISPR protein, Cas13a. In September, scientists reported in the journal Nature that Cas13a could be used to detect specific sequences of RNA, such as those from a virus. They showed that once it binds to its target RNA, it begins to indiscriminately cut up all RNA linked to a reporter molecule, making it fluoresce to allow signal detection. Researchers subsequently paired CRISPR-Cas13a with RNA amplification, and showed that the system—which they dubbed Sherlock—could see viral RNA at extremely low concentrations to detect the presence of dengue and Zika, for example. Such a system could be used to detect any type of RNA, including RNA distinctive of cancer cells, researchers say. While the original Cas13a enzyme cuts RNA at one specific nucleic acid, uracil, three of the new Cas13a variants cut RNA at adenine. This difference allows simultaneous detection of two different RNA molecules, such as from two different viruses. “We have taken our foundational research a step further in finding other homologs of the Cas13a family that have different nucleotide preferences, enabling concurrent detection of different reporters with, say, a red and a green fluorescent signal, allowing a multiplexed enzymatic detection system,” says first author Alexandra East-Seletsky, a graduate student in the laboratory of Jennifer Doudna at the University of California, Berkeley. Doudna is one of the inventors of the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing tool. The new findings appear in Molecular Cell. The CRISPR-Cas13a family, formerly referred to as CRISPR-C2c2, is related to CRISPR-Cas9, which is already revolutionizing biomedical research and treatment because of the ease of targeting it to unique DNA sequences to cut or edit. While the Cas9 protein cuts double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, the Cas13a protein—a nucleic acid-cutting enzyme referred to as a nuclease—latches onto specific RNA sequences, and not only cuts that specific RNA, but runs amok to cut and destroy all RNA present. “Think of binding between Cas13a and its RNA target as an on-off switch—target binding turns on the enzyme to go be a Pac-Man in the cell, chewing up all RNA nearby,” East-Seletsky says. This RNA killing spree can kill the cell. In the Nature paper, researchers argued that the Pac-Man activity of CRISPR-Cas13a is its main role in bacteria, aimed at killing infectious viruses or phages. As part of the immune system of some bacteria, it allows infected cells to commit suicide to save their sister microbes from infection. Similar non-CRISPR suicide systems exist in other bacteria. The researchers subsequently searched databases of bacterial genomes and found 10 other Cas13a-like proteins, which they synthesized and studied to assess their ability to find and cut RNA. Of those, seven resembled the original Cas13a, while three differed in where they cut RNA. RNA, which serves many functions inside the cell, including as messenger RNA—working copies of DNA—consists of four different nucleotides: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. “Building on our original work, we now show that it is possible to multiplex these enzymes together, extending the scope of the technology,” East-Seletsky says. “There is so much diversity within the CRISPR-Cas13a family that can be utilized for many applications, including RNA detection.” Doudna, a professor of molecular biology and of chemistry and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, says detection of infectious RNA may or may not require amplification, which is a complicated step. “Our intention is to develop the Cas13a family of enzymes for point-of-care diagnostics that are robust and simple to deploy.” Former UC Berkeley postdoctoral fellow Mitchell O’Connell, now an assistant professor at the University of Rochester, and UC Berkeley postdocs David Burstein and Gavin Knott are coauthors of the study. The work was supported in part by a Frontiers Science award from the Paul Allen Institute and by the National Science Foundation.


News Article | May 5, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

The June 16th release of "Dreaming Big" (GoldFox Records), which marks the recording debut of the Brett Gold New York Jazz Orchestra and features the compositions of Brett Gold, illuminates a most intriguing jazz odyssey. A star trombonist in high school in his native Baltimore, Gold was steered away from a music career by his parents as well as his trombone teacher, of all people. Gold became an attorney and went on to achieve formidable success in the field of international and corporate tax law. But 25 years into his legal career, Gold changed course and reestablished contact with his musical muse. "Dreaming Big" is remarkable not only for its very existence but also for the striking sounds it offers. A tour de force, the music ranges from 12-tone melodies to playful Monkisms to a stirring political statement. While the album introduces one of jazz’s most challenging new instrumental voices, at the same time its warmth, humor, and accessibility convey an easy sophistication one would associate with an artist of far greater experience. Gold enlisted first-call players from New York’s jazz, studio, and Broadway scenes to produce the recording, including saxophonists Charles Pillow and Tim Ries, trumpeter Scott Wendholt, trombonist John Allred, bassist Phil Palombi, and drummer Scott Neumann. Many jazz composers and arrangers, including Gold, cite Gil Evans and Bill Holman as influences. But Gold’s affinity for the odd time-signature music of the late Don Ellis is reflected in a number of pieces on the CD. Among the compositions on "Dreaming Big," the Middle Eastern-themed “Al-Andalus” (featuring a virtuosic turn by trumpeter Jon Owens) is partly in 11/4 and partly in 5/4. “That Latin Tinge” is a 7/4 mambo, not the usual time signature for a salsa piece. Even the fairly straightforward “Stella’s Waltz” can trip someone up with its occasional judiciously placed bar of 5/4. And then there’s “Nakba,” the powerful 11-minute finale, which was composed partly with Gold’s Moroccan sister-in-law in mind. The song is named after the Arabic word for “catastrophe,” used by the Palestinians to describe the Arab-Israeli War of 1948. Featuring Ries on soprano saxophone, it traces the tragic history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. “I found out that you can stop playing music, but it’s still there circulating in your head,” Gold says of the years when he was not involved in music full-time. After finishing high school a year early, he attended the University of Rochester as a double major in history and film studies (Magna Cum Laude and Phi Beta Kappa) and continued his music studies at the Eastman School of Music where he played with one of its nationally recognized jazz ensembles. But he soon placed his jazz activities on the back burner, earning a J.D. from Columbia University Law School (1980) and an LL.M in tax law from New York University Law School (1983). When Gold returned to jazz, he had no problem coming up with ideas for compositions—his brain was full of them—but his sabbatical from music left him unprepared to execute those ideas both on paper and on his horn, which he hadn’t touched in 10 years. He first sketched his pieces out and hired professional musicians to record demo-like CDs of them. Then, studying privately with distinguished teachers like Pete McGuinness, Neal Kirkwood, and David Berger, he learned how to write complex compositions for big band. Eventually, in 2007, Gold was accepted into the esteemed BMI Jazz Composers Workshop, under the direction of Mike Abene, Jim McNeely, and Mike Holober. During his tenure there, he developed a book of more than two dozen arrangements, of which 11 of the best appear on Dreaming Big. “As a member of BMI, I was pushed to write longer, more abstract orchestral pieces, something I resisted,” he says. “Instead, I looked to the way Duke Ellington wrote for his band—his best pieces were seldom more than three to five minutes long. I also admired his idea of writing for individual members of the band.” Over the years, Gold has absorbed and strongly personalized any number of influences, some more than just musical. A study in diminished chords featuring clarinets and flutes, “Theme from an Unfinished Film” reveals his debt to what he calls the “internalized lyricism” of movie composers such as Bernard Herrmann, David Raksin, and Ennio Morricone. “Exit, Pursued by a Bear (Slow Drag Blues),” was inspired by Shakespeare’s most famous stage direction. And “Al-Andalus” was originally inspired by the hopes raised by the Arab Spring. Gold does not play in the trombone section on "Dreaming Big." “I actually function a lot better in a dark room writing music,” he says. The roles he plays on the new album are those of composer, arranger, producer—and big dreamer.


News Article | April 23, 2017
Site: www.PR.com

"GTO: Race to Oblivion," a New Novel by Local Author, Roger Corea Rochester, NY, April 23, 2017 --( The novel GTO begins its story fifty-two years later with a young financial advisor named Tommy Grimaldi. Tommy is leading a quiet, uneventful life in Fairchester, New York, when his best friend, Mike Bender inherits millions. Suddenly, Mike becomes a target of others’ avaricious interests. Ensnared by a mysterious woman with unknown objectives linked to the GTO, Mike is about to be thrown into a perilous game—and Tommy along with him. The dangers of the present are tied up with the deadly legacy of the GTO’s past as the cryptic figure of Paul Charone, the leader of a French secret society, threatens to enact his vision of a new world order. If he succeeds, Monaco’s royal family will be the first to fall. GTO is a fun, fast-paced adventure and a special treat for the classic car enthusiast. This new offering follows up on Roger Corea’s well-received novel, "The Duesenberg Caper," and it reaffirms his extraordinary skill at weaving in a vast technical knowledge of automobiles with an action-packed plot that will leave thriller fans and car buffs alike asking for more. Bill Warner, chairman and founder of the classic car enthusiast mecca, the Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance, provided the foreword for Mr. Corea’s new book. He states: Whenever a group of car people get together and the subject of the "favorite car" comes up, very infrequently, if ever, do they all agree on one particular car. To some, the 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 is their favorite. To others, it could be a Ferrari 250 GT SWB Berlinetta. But nearly all would have the Ferrari 250 GTO somewhere in their top two or three cars... Writing a fictional novel based on such an important and historic vehicle requires some latitude in times, places, and people. The author spins a tale of intrigue that encompasses the GTO, the Andrea Doria, and royalty (the Grimaldi family) that is both entertaining and full of suspense and surprises. Roger Corea writes about things, people, and places he is passionate about. His first novel, "Scarback: There Is So Much More to Fishing Than Catching Fish," published in 2014, tells the story of a critical time in the life of a mentally challenged man from the Italian neighborhood of Roger’s youth. Writing is a natural outgrowth of Roger’s formal education. He earned a bachelor’s degree in English from St. Bonaventure University and com­pleted graduate work in English literature at the University of Rochester. Before entering the business world to work for a large financial services company, Roger taught English literature at Canandaigua Academy and Penfield High School, where he also served as assistant football coach. Roger Corea lives in Rochester, NY, he has three children and three grandchildren. Press contact: SelectBooks of New York (212) 206-1997 Kenichi@selectbooks.com Rochester, NY, April 23, 2017 --( PR.com )-- SelectBooks, Inc. announces the paperback publication of "GTO: Race to Oblivion" (March 2017; $16.95; ISBN: 978-1-59079-397-8) by Roger Corea. When the SS Andrea Doria sank near Nantucket Island in 1956, the manifest revealed something that devastated the car world—the invaluable Ferrari 250 GTO Prototype was listed among the cargo.The novel GTO begins its story fifty-two years later with a young financial advisor named Tommy Grimaldi. Tommy is leading a quiet, uneventful life in Fairchester, New York, when his best friend, Mike Bender inherits millions. Suddenly, Mike becomes a target of others’ avaricious interests. Ensnared by a mysterious woman with unknown objectives linked to the GTO, Mike is about to be thrown into a perilous game—and Tommy along with him.The dangers of the present are tied up with the deadly legacy of the GTO’s past as the cryptic figure of Paul Charone, the leader of a French secret society, threatens to enact his vision of a new world order. If he succeeds, Monaco’s royal family will be the first to fall.GTO is a fun, fast-paced adventure and a special treat for the classic car enthusiast. This new offering follows up on Roger Corea’s well-received novel, "The Duesenberg Caper," and it reaffirms his extraordinary skill at weaving in a vast technical knowledge of automobiles with an action-packed plot that will leave thriller fans and car buffs alike asking for more.Bill Warner, chairman and founder of the classic car enthusiast mecca, the Amelia Island Concours d’Elegance, provided the foreword for Mr. Corea’s new book. He states:Whenever a group of car people get together and the subject of the "favorite car" comes up, very infrequently, if ever, do they all agree on one particular car. To some, the 1938 Alfa Romeo 8C 2900 is their favorite. To others, it could be a Ferrari 250 GT SWB Berlinetta. But nearly all would have the Ferrari 250 GTO somewhere in their top two or three cars... Writing a fictional novel based on such an important and historic vehicle requires some latitude in times, places, and people. The author spins a tale of intrigue that encompasses the GTO, the Andrea Doria, and royalty (the Grimaldi family) that is both entertaining and full of suspense and surprises.Roger Corea writes about things, people, and places he is passionate about. His first novel, "Scarback: There Is So Much More to Fishing Than Catching Fish," published in 2014, tells the story of a critical time in the life of a mentally challenged man from the Italian neighborhood of Roger’s youth.Writing is a natural outgrowth of Roger’s formal education. He earned a bachelor’s degree in English from St. Bonaventure University and com­pleted graduate work in English literature at the University of Rochester. Before entering the business world to work for a large financial services company, Roger taught English literature at Canandaigua Academy and Penfield High School, where he also served as assistant football coach.Roger Corea lives in Rochester, NY, he has three children and three grandchildren.Press contact:SelectBooks of New York(212) 206-1997Kenichi@selectbooks.com Click here to view the list of recent Press Releases from Roger Corea


News Article | April 27, 2017
Site: phys.org

Our bodies are constantly under siege by foreign invaders; viruses, bacteria and parasites that want to infiltrate our cells. Using rooster testes, scientists shed light on how germ cells -- sperm and egg -- protect themselves from viruses so that they can pass accurate genetic information to the next generation. The findings could help researchers better fight viruses in chickens and in people. Credit: University of Rochester Medical Center Our bodies are constantly under siege by foreign invaders; viruses, bacteria and parasites that want to infiltrate our cells. A new study in the journal eLife sheds light on how germ cells - sperm and egg - protect themselves from these attackers so that they can pass accurate genetic information to the next generation. Researchers from the University of Rochester Center for RNA Biology: From Genome to Therapeutics examined the role of piRNA in safeguarding the integrity of the genetic information in germ cells. It's known that piRNA—a type of ribonucleic acid (RNA) that's found most readily in the testes and ovaries—shields germ cells by silencing the genetic sequences of viral intruders. It's also known that defects or mutations in piRNA lead to infertility in humans and other animals. What's not known is how piRNAs are generated in the first place. A team led by Xin Li, Ph.D., assistant professor in the departments of Biochemistry and Biophysics and Urology at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, analyzed rooster testes to find out. Chickens acquire and harbor a wide variety of viruses. When a virus infects a host, like a chicken, it does everything it can to survive. One method of survival is inserting its genetic material into the chicken's genome. Over generations, the inserted virus accumulates mutations and eventually becomes harmless to the animal, but it's still a part of the chicken's genetic material. Li's team focused on avian leukosis virus, which commonly infects and can lead to cancer in domestic chickens. Through molecular and genetic analysis, they discovered that chickens turn these old, existing viruses into piRNA-producing machines. When faced with a new avian leucosis virus (there are many different viruses in the family), the old viruses pump out piRNAs that defend the germ cells, ensuring the passage of intact genetic material to the next round of offspring. "Our study shows how a host can turn a virus into a weapon to fight future viruses," says Li, whose work is partially funded by a National Institute of Health grant designed to support the early careers of new scientists. "Better understanding piRNA may help us target more viruses, both in chickens and in people." In the United States, 8 billion domestic chickens are consumed each year, and more knowledge of how these birds defend themselves against viral infections could increase the productivity of the poultry industry around the world. Because other viruses trapped in the chicken's genetic code are related to similar viruses in humans, future discoveries in this area could help guide research benefiting human health, too. Explore further: Researchers develop mouse that could provide advance warning of next flu pandemic More information: Yu Huining Sun et al. Domestic chickens activate a piRNA defense against avian leukosis virus, eLife (2017). DOI: 10.7554/eLife.24695


"With more than 10,000 Americans turning 65 every day, we know that our current healthcare system and our country as a whole are not at all prepared for this dramatic demographic shift.  It already creates a tremendous need for skilled labor inputs and exponentially accelerating clinical care costs. We must, therefore, look at innovative technologies as a way to mitigate these personal care challenges and help more Americans safely age in place whenever they wish that," said Summit Co-chair Abraham (Avi) Seidmann, Xerox Professor of Computers & Information Systems, Electronic Commerce; and Operations Management at the Simon Business School. For the first time, the University of Rochester-developed Summit will be co-hosted by West Health, a nationally recognized nonprofit organization dedicated to enabling seniors to successfully age in place, with access to high-quality, affordable health and support services that preserve and protect their dignity, quality of life and independence. Delivering this year's keynote address is Dr. David Blumenthal, President and CEO of The Commonwealth Fund and former National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (2009-2011). Dr. Blumenthal will share his insights on The Future of Aging: Optimizing Healthcare Systems from the dual-perspective of an academic physician and healthcare policy expert. World-renowned thought leaders, including Terry Fulmer, PhD, RN, FAAN, President of the John A. Hartford Foundation; Joanne Kenen, Executive Editor of Health for Politico and Mark E. Miller, PhD, Executive Director of the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission will share the work they are doing to disrupt and optimize the future of aging within the healthcare, finance, technology and policy spaces. Several of our speakers straddle more than one of these sectors, representing the exciting and necessary collaboration that is already underway. Panel discussions include: An addition to this year's d.health Summit is West Health's visioning session in advance of the conference, which will bring together healthcare leaders and experts at a first-of-its-kind workgroup to develop a roadmap for improving the patient experience, based on a senior's personal goals and preferences. West Health will present key takeaways from the session during a panel at the Summit and explore the ideal healthcare system that will incorporate technology innovations, social supportive services, care coordination, community assets and more to enable older adults to age in place with dignity, quality of life and independence. "It will take new thinking, more collaboration and deliberate action by a wide range of stakeholders to ensure successful aging in America," said Summit Co-chair Shelley Lyford, President and CEO of West Health. "Effective, low-cost senior-specific models of holistic care are urgently needed and must be widely available. Some of them exist today, but are limited in scale and scope. We hope to change that." "Aging Americans and their 40 million care givers need new care models. We hope this Summit will foster novel partnerships, disseminate thoughtful ideas, and lead to new care models that address the unique and specific healthcare needs of seniors by 2030," added Summit Co-chair Ray Dorsey, Professor of Neurology at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The d.health Summit 2017 will take place on Wednesday, May 10 at the New York Academy of Sciences, 7 World Trade Center (250 Greenwich St., 40th Floor), New York, NY. Visit the d.health Summit website for more information and registration; and follow on Twitter @dhealth2017 or #dhealth2017. About the d.health Summit 2017 Bringing together world-class healthcare leaders, entrepreneurs, technology firms, policy makers, financiers and forward thinkers, the third annual d.health Summit will discuss and foster the adoption of technology-enabled solutions to dramatically improve the health of aging Americans. By focusing on high engagement and networking, attendees will learn, share and evaluate transformative approaches, as well as create new partnerships to improve care and generate economic value for one of the country's largest industries, in one of its most vibrant cities. Visit the d.health Summit website for more information and registration; and follow on Twitter @dhealth2017 or #dhealth2017. Registration Information To register, click here. Requests for complimentary press registration can be directed to Anna Stevenson. d.health Summit 2017 Sponsors Grand Rounds, Home Instead Senior Care, Pfizer, Simon Business School, VNA Health Group, and Welltower. Organized by the University of Rochester in collaboration with West Health. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/dhealth-summit-showcases-disruptive-innovations-to-support-successful-aging-now-and-into-the-future-300449727.html


More than 1,200 national and international surgeons, anesthesiologists and their teams have come to UAB to learn his techniques and the way in which he engages his teams to provide efficient, high-quality and patient-centered care.  During his tenure at UAB, he developed a four-arm robotic approach to treat patients needing lung cancer excisions, removal of cancerous esophageal tumors and tumor resections within the thoracic region. His robotic techniques have reduced complications, increased survival and shortened hospital stays. In addition to his position at UAB, Cerfolio serves as the director of the American Association of Thoracic Surgery's Robotic Graham Fellowship, and has trained a large percentage of thoracic surgeons in the U.S. and abroad. "We are excited to welcome Dr. Cerfolio to lead our Clinical Thoracic Surgery Division," said Aubrey C. Galloway, MD, the Seymour Cohn Professor and chair of the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery. "He has a proven track record of exceptional patient outcomes, and will strengthen our robust thoracic surgery and lung cancer programs with his extraordinary expertise in robotic thoracic surgery." According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more Americans die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer – approximately 155,000 annually.  In 2013, the most recent year for statistics, more than 212,500 individuals were diagnosed with lung cancer – almost equally divided between men and women. At Perlmutter Cancer Center, Cerfolio will lead a new multidisciplinary lung cancer center, bolstered by nationally renowned surgeons, medical and radiation oncologists, radiologists, pulmonologists and other specialists. Some have long tenure at NYU Langone and others are newly-recruited clinical and investigative leaders – all committed to developing a program that rivals the very best in the country. "Lung cancer is an insidious disease that is difficult to treat, especially when it progresses to more advanced stages," said Benjamin G. Neel, MD, PhD, director of NYU Langone's Perlmutter Cancer Center.  "Dr. Cerfolio will provide a new level of excellence to our rapidly expanding lung cancer program. Patients who turn to us can rest assured they will have access to the finest clinical care, the latest treatments and the most advanced cutting-edge research." Cerfolio earned both his undergraduate and medical degrees from the University of Rochester where he was a First Team Academic All-American baseball player and a Rhodes Scholar Candidate. He received his first two years of post-doctoral surgical training at The University of Connecticut St. Francis Hospital. After a year of urologic surgical training at Cornell and Memorial Sloan Kettering, he completed the last two years of his general surgical residency at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where he also completed a cardiothoracic surgical fellowship. In 2013, he received his MBA from the University of Tennessee. He joined UAB in 1996, where he served in numerous academic and clinical positions before being named Division Chief in Thoracic Surgery in 2002. He also serves as the chair of UAB's Business Intelligence Committee. Cerfolio has published over 150 original peer-reviewed articles, 40 book chapters, and has given over 400 lectures and presentations at major international and national scientific meetings.  He also has been an invited visiting professor at hundreds of major academic institutions in more than 22 countries. In 2014, he authored his first book, Super Performing at Work and at Home: The Athleticism of Surgery and Life, and has recently completed his second book on leadership entitled, Inspire. "I'm honored to join NYU Langone and its Perlmutter Cancer Center, and to be asked to be part of a team that brings together all elements of lung cancer care to provide the very best to our patients, many of whom are in the fight of their lives," Cerfolio says. "We plan for innovative ways to serve patients in the New York tri-state and those all over the world." This news release was issued on behalf of Newswise(TM). For more information, visit http://www.newswise.com. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-lung-cancer-center-at-nyu-langone-welcomes-renowned-thoracic-surgeon-as-its-director-300452614.html


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

New patients can now receive reliable All-on-4® dental implants in Danbury, CT from Dr. Richard Amato, without first receiving a referral. Dr. Amato is an experienced periodontist, who has performed thousands of dental implant placement procedures. He offers All-on-4 implants to patients who are in need of full-arch tooth replacements. When it comes to long-term, full-arch tooth replacement options, many patients still opt for traditional dentures. While dentures can help patients restore some function, there are alternative tooth replacement options available for those who prefer more custom and reliable treatments. As a skilled periodontist dedicated to his patients, Dr. Amato offers the leading, long-term solution, All-on-4 dental implants, in Danbury, CT. This revolutionary alternative to traditional dentures provides the support and look of natural teeth. Instead of sitting on top of the gums, the All-on-4 system is secured in place by four implants that are precisely placed in the jaw. This means that patients who receive the All-on-4 system do not need to use denture creams or have concerns about their teeth coming loose and falling out. To improve the long-term success of All-on-4 placement, Dr. Amato uses the latest Cone Beam CT technology to guide his placement procedures. Cone Beam imaging systems generate clear, 3D X-rays that allow Dr. Amato to visualize oral anatomy and create more accurate treatment plans for patients. CBCT technology exposes patients to minimal radiation, up to 10 times less radiation than traditional X-rays, and has a faster scan time. In addition to using leading technology in his practice, Dr. Amato also offers bone grafting procedures, when needed, to ensure that patients have sufficient bone density to support their All-on-4 implants for a lifetime. Patients who are looking for a full-arch tooth replacement that is reliable, comfortable and aesthetically appealing, are encouraged to meet with Dr. Amato, a leading periodontist, to learn more about All-on-4 dental implants in Danbury, CT. Consultations can be arranged by calling Advanced Periodontics and Dental Implant Center of Connecticut at 203-712-0917. Dr. Richard Amato is a periodontist and dental implant specialist who provides personalized dental care using the most advanced technology for patients in Monroe, Connecticut. He has placed thousands of dental implants since 1989. Dr. Amato earned a DDS degree from Stony Brook University. He then completed a full-time multi-year specialty residency and received his Certificate of Proficiency in Periodontics from Eastman Dental Center at the University of Rochester. He belongs to the one percent of dentists in the USA currently providing the first FDA-cleared laser procedure for gum disease treatment. Dr. Amato is the first and most experienced provider of LANAP® therapy in Fairfield County, Connecticut as well as the only Periodontist to provide the Pinhole Surgical technique in CT. To learn more about Dr. Amato and his dental services, visit his website at http://www.connecticutperiodontist.com and call 203-712-0917.


News Article | April 19, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

IMAGE:  Philip Guo surveyed adults between the ages of 60 and 85 who were users of pythontutor.com and learning how to code. They were mix of retired, semi-retired and still working.... view more Philip Guo caught the coding bug in high school, at a fairly typical age for a Millennial. Less typical is that the UC San Diego cognitive scientist is now eager to share his passion for programming with a different demographic. And it's not one you're thinking of - it's not elementary or middle school-aged kids. Guo wants to get adults age 60 and up. In the first known study of older adults learning computer programming, Guo outlines his reasons: People are living and working longer. This is a growing segment of the population, and it's severely underserved by learn-to-code intiatives, which usually target college students and younger. Guo wants to change that. He would like this in-demand skill to become more broadly accessible. "Computers are everywhere, and digital literacy is becoming more and more important," said Guo, assistant professor in the Department of Cognitive Science, who is also affiliated with UC San Diego's Design Lab and its Department of Computer Science and Engineering. "At one time, 1,000 years ago, most people didn't read or write - just some monks and select professionals could do it. I think in the future people will need to read and write in computer language as well. In the meantime, more could benefit from learning how to code." Guo's study was recently awarded honorable mention by the world's leading organization in human-computer interaction, ACM SIGCHI. Guo will present his findings at the group's premier international conference, CHI, in May. When prior human-computer interaction studies have focused on older adults at all, Guo said, it has been mostly as consumers of new technology, of social networking sites like Facebook, say, or ride-sharing services. While a few have investigated the creation of content, like blogging or making digital music, these have involved the use of existing apps. None, to his knowledge, have looked at older adults as makers of entirely new software applications, so he set out to learn about their motivations, their frustrations and if these provided clues to design opportunities. For his study, Guo surveyed users of pythontutor.com. A web-based education tool that Guo started in 2010, Python Tutor helps those learning to program visualize their work. Step by step, it displays what a computer is doing with each line of code that it runs. More than 3.5 million people in more than 180 countries have now used Python Tutor, including those around the world taking MOOCs (massive open online courses). Despite its legacy name, the tool helps people supplement their studies not only of the Python programming language but also Java, JavaScript, Ruby, C and C++, all of which are commonly used to teach programing. The users of Python Tutor represent a wide range of demographic groups. Guo's survey included 504 people between the ages of 60 and 85, from 52 different countries. Some were retired and semi-retired while others were still working. What Guo discovered: Older adults are motivated to learn programming for a number of reasons. Some are age-related. They want to make up for missed opportunities during youth (22 percent) and keep their brains "challenged, fresh and sharp" as they age (19 percent). A few (5 percent) want to connect with younger family members. Reasons not related to age include seeking continuing education for a current job (14 percent) and wanting to improve future job prospects (9 percent). A substantial group is in it just for personal enrichment: 19 percent to implement a specific hobby project idea, 15 percent for fun and entertainment, and 10 percent out of general interest. Interestingly, 8 percent said they wanted to learn to teach others. Topping the list of frustrations for older students of coding was bad pedagogy. It was mentioned by 21 percent of the respondents and ranged from the use of jargon to sudden spikes in difficulty levels. Lack of real-world relevance came up 6 percent of the time. A 74-year-old retired physician wrote: "Most [tutorials] are offered by people who must know how to program but don't seem to have much training in teaching." Other frustrations included a perceived decline in cognitive abilities (12 percent) and no human contact with tutors and peers (10 percent). The study's limitations are tied in part to the instrument - self-reporting on an online survey - and in part to the survey respondents themselves. Most hailed from North America and other English-speaking nations. Most, 84 percent, identified themselves as male; this stat is consistent with other surveys of online learning, especially in math and science topics. There was a diverse array of occupations reported, but the majority of those surveyed were STEM professionals, managers and technicians. These learners, Guo said, likely represent "early adopters" and "the more technology-literate and self-motivated end of the general population." He suggests future studies look both at in-person learning and at a broader swath of the public. But he expects the lessons learned from this group will generalize. Based on this first set of findings and using a learner-centered design approach, Guo proposes tailoring computer-programming tools and curricula specifically for older learners. He notes, for example, that many of his respondents seemed to take pride in their years and in their tech-savvy, so while it may be good to advertise products as targeting this age group, they should not appear patronizing. It might make sense to reframe lessons as brain-training games, like Lumosity, now popular among the older set. Just as it's key to understand who the learners are so is understanding where they have trouble. Repetition and frequent examples might be good to implement, as well as more in-person courses or video-chat-based workshops, Guo said, which may lead to improvements in the teaching of programming not just for older adults but across the board. Context matters, too. Lessons are more compelling when they are put into domains that people personally care about. And Guo recommends coding curricula that enable older adults to tell their life stories or family histories, for example, or write software that organizes health information or assists care-givers. Guo, who is currently working on studies to extend coding education to other underrepresented groups, advocates a computing future that is fully inclusive of all ages. "There are a number of social implications when older adults have access to computer programming - not merely computer literacy," he said. "These range from providing engaging mental stimulation to greater gainful employment from the comfort of one's home." By moving the tech industry away from its current focus on youth, Guo argues, we all stand to gain. Guo joined the UC San Diego cognitive science faculty in 2016 after two years as an assistant professor at the University of Rochester. He received his bachelor's and master's degrees in computer science from MIT in 2006 and his Ph.D. from Stanford in 2012. Before becoming a professor, he built online learning tools as a software engineer at Google and a research scientist at edX. He also blogs, vlogs and podcasts at http://pgbovine.


BROOKLYN, N.Y., April 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “Dime”) (NASDAQ:DCOM), the parent company of Dime Community Bank (the “bank”), is pleased to announce today that Avinash "Avi" Reddy, has joined the bank as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development and Treasurer. According to Mr. Mahon, "I'm delighted to announce the appointment of Avi to this new strategic role. Avi's financial and investment banking experience will serve as a great compliment to Dime's organic growth objectives." Working across all business lines, Avi will be charged with identifying, evaluating, and executing on strategic business opportunities. Avi will report to Robert Volino, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Dime. Mr. Reddy joins Dime from Macquarie Capital, where he was Senior Vice President in Investment Banking - Financial Institutions Group. Prior to Macquarie, Mr. Reddy held positions in Investment Banking at Evercore Partners and Lehman Brothers. Mr. Reddy is a graduate of the University of Rochester where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Mathematics. The Company had $6.01 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2016, and is the parent company of the bank. The bank was founded in 1864, is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, and currently has twenty-seven branches located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Nassau County, New York. More information on the Company and the bank can be found on Dime's website at www.dime.com.


BROOKLYN, N.Y., April 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “Dime”) (NASDAQ:DCOM), the parent company of Dime Community Bank (the “bank”), is pleased to announce today that Avinash "Avi" Reddy, has joined the bank as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development and Treasurer. According to Mr. Mahon, "I'm delighted to announce the appointment of Avi to this new strategic role. Avi's financial and investment banking experience will serve as a great compliment to Dime's organic growth objectives." Working across all business lines, Avi will be charged with identifying, evaluating, and executing on strategic business opportunities. Avi will report to Robert Volino, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Dime. Mr. Reddy joins Dime from Macquarie Capital, where he was Senior Vice President in Investment Banking - Financial Institutions Group. Prior to Macquarie, Mr. Reddy held positions in Investment Banking at Evercore Partners and Lehman Brothers. Mr. Reddy is a graduate of the University of Rochester where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Mathematics. The Company had $6.01 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2016, and is the parent company of the bank. The bank was founded in 1864, is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, and currently has twenty-seven branches located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Nassau County, New York. More information on the Company and the bank can be found on Dime's website at www.dime.com.


BROOKLYN, N.Y., April 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “Dime”) (NASDAQ:DCOM), the parent company of Dime Community Bank (the “bank”), is pleased to announce today that Avinash "Avi" Reddy, has joined the bank as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development and Treasurer. According to Mr. Mahon, "I'm delighted to announce the appointment of Avi to this new strategic role. Avi's financial and investment banking experience will serve as a great compliment to Dime's organic growth objectives." Working across all business lines, Avi will be charged with identifying, evaluating, and executing on strategic business opportunities. Avi will report to Robert Volino, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Dime. Mr. Reddy joins Dime from Macquarie Capital, where he was Senior Vice President in Investment Banking - Financial Institutions Group. Prior to Macquarie, Mr. Reddy held positions in Investment Banking at Evercore Partners and Lehman Brothers. Mr. Reddy is a graduate of the University of Rochester where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Mathematics. The Company had $6.01 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2016, and is the parent company of the bank. The bank was founded in 1864, is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, and currently has twenty-seven branches located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Nassau County, New York. More information on the Company and the bank can be found on Dime's website at www.dime.com.


BROOKLYN, N.Y., April 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “Dime”) (NASDAQ:DCOM), the parent company of Dime Community Bank (the “bank”), is pleased to announce today that Avinash "Avi" Reddy, has joined the bank as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development and Treasurer. According to Mr. Mahon, "I'm delighted to announce the appointment of Avi to this new strategic role. Avi's financial and investment banking experience will serve as a great compliment to Dime's organic growth objectives." Working across all business lines, Avi will be charged with identifying, evaluating, and executing on strategic business opportunities. Avi will report to Robert Volino, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Dime. Mr. Reddy joins Dime from Macquarie Capital, where he was Senior Vice President in Investment Banking - Financial Institutions Group. Prior to Macquarie, Mr. Reddy held positions in Investment Banking at Evercore Partners and Lehman Brothers. Mr. Reddy is a graduate of the University of Rochester where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Mathematics. The Company had $6.01 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2016, and is the parent company of the bank. The bank was founded in 1864, is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, and currently has twenty-seven branches located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Nassau County, New York. More information on the Company and the bank can be found on Dime's website at www.dime.com.


BROOKLYN, N.Y., April 17, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Kenneth J. Mahon, President and Chief Executive Officer of Dime Community Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company” or “Dime”) (NASDAQ:DCOM), the parent company of Dime Community Bank (the “bank”), is pleased to announce today that Avinash "Avi" Reddy, has joined the bank as Senior Vice President of Corporate Development and Treasurer. According to Mr. Mahon, "I'm delighted to announce the appointment of Avi to this new strategic role. Avi's financial and investment banking experience will serve as a great compliment to Dime's organic growth objectives." Working across all business lines, Avi will be charged with identifying, evaluating, and executing on strategic business opportunities. Avi will report to Robert Volino, Senior Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of Dime. Mr. Reddy joins Dime from Macquarie Capital, where he was Senior Vice President in Investment Banking - Financial Institutions Group. Prior to Macquarie, Mr. Reddy held positions in Investment Banking at Evercore Partners and Lehman Brothers. Mr. Reddy is a graduate of the University of Rochester where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics and Mathematics. The Company had $6.01 billion in consolidated assets as of December 31, 2016, and is the parent company of the bank. The bank was founded in 1864, is headquartered in Brooklyn, New York, and currently has twenty-seven branches located throughout Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx and Nassau County, New York. More information on the Company and the bank can be found on Dime's website at www.dime.com.


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: marketersmedia.com

Global Photonic Sensors Market, By Type (Fiber Optic Sensors, Image Sensors, Bio Photonic Sensors), By Technology (Fiber Optic Technology, Imaging Technology, Bio photonic Technology), By End-User (Consumer Electronics, Oil & Gas, Defense, Transport, Energy, Healthcare) - Forecast 2022Pune, India - April 25, 2017 /MarketersMedia/ — Market Research Future published a half cooked research report on Photonic Sensors Market. Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 30 market data tables and figures spread over 100 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on “Global Photonic Sensors Market Research Report - Forecast to 2022”. Market Highlights: The study reveals that photonic sensors is trending the electronics market. Innovation is the key driver for photonic sensors. Photonic Sensors has many benefits as, lightweight, cost effective, portable, power saving and many more. Investments and technological developments in fiber optics is the key factor driving the Photonic Sensors market. The study indicates that needs for enhanced safety and security solution is also boosting the photonic sensors market. The study indicates that the ongoing trend of factory automation is also boosting the photonic sensors market. It has been observed that the high initial investments required for the photonic sensors is a major challenge for the photonic sensors market. Apart from it the study indicates that the lack of technological and industrial standards is also a restraining factor for the photonic sensors market. As per a recent news U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) says that they are investing for developing photonic sensors for applications such as environmental monitoring, disease diagnosis, chemical and biological weapons detection, and food safety. The news says that this $900,000 project will be supported by $1.41 million in funds from the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics) industrial members led by the University of Rochester. The Photonic Sensors Market is growing rapidly over 15% of CAGR and is expected to reach at USD ~20 billion by the end of forecast period. Request a Sample Copy @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/sample_request/2644 Key Players of Photonic Sensors Market: • Oxsensis (UK) • Intevac, Inc. (U.S.) • Prime Photonics (U.S.) • Smart Fibres (UK) • Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Japan) • Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.(South Korea) • Toshiba Corporation (Japan) • General Electric Company (U.S.) • Banpil Photonics, Inc (U.S.) • NP Photonics, Inc.(U.S.) Photonic Sensors Market Segmentation: The Photonic Sensors Market has been segmented on the basis of type, technology, end-user and region. Looking through the type segment it has been observed that bio photonic sensors are expected to show substantial increase in Photonic Sensors market. It has been observed that recently the Bio photonic sensors are widely used for military and homeland security applications. By the end-users segment, defense sector would dominate the Photonic Sensors market. The study reveals that healthcare segment is expected to show a positive growth during the forecast period 2016-2022. Brief TOC: 1 Market Introduction 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Scope Of Study 1.2.1 Research Objective 1.2.2 Assumptions 1.2.3 Limitations 1.3 Market Structure 2 Research Methodology 2.1 Research Network Solution 2.2 Primary Research 2.3 Secondary Research 2.4 Forecast Model 2.4.1 Market Data Collection, Analysis & Forecast 2.4.2 Market Size Estimation 3 Market Dynamics 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Market Drivers 3.3 Market Challenges 3.4 Market Opportunities 3.5 Market Restraints 4 Executive Summary 5. Market Factor Analysis 5.1 Porter’s Five Forces Analysis 5.2 Supply Chain Analysis Continue… Market Research Analysis: On geographic basis, Photonic Sensors market is studied in different regions as Americas, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of world. It has been observed that North America region is leading in the Photonic Sensors market owing to the high developments in fiber optics. Study shows that European region has a positive growth in the Photonic Sensors market. Whereas the Asia-pacific region is expected to show a significant growth in the photonic sensors market by the end of forecast period. Access Report Details @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/photonic-sensors-market-2644 About Market Research Future: At Market Research Future (MRFR), we enable our customers to unravel the complexity of various industries through our Cooked Research Report (CRR), Half-Cooked Research Reports (HCRR), Raw Research Reports (3R), Continuous-Feed Research (CFR), and Market Research & Consulting Services. MRFR team have supreme objective to provide the optimum quality market research and intelligence services to our clients. Our market research studies by Components, Application, Logistics and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help to answer all their most important questions. In order to stay updated with technology and work process of the industry, MRFR often plans & conducts meet with the industry experts and industrial visits for its research analyst members. Contact Info:Name: Akash Anand Organization: Market Research Future Address: Hadapsar, PunePhone: +1 646 845 9312Source URL: http://marketersmedia.com/photonic-sensors-market-is-expected-to-reach-usd-20-billion-by-2022/189903For more information, please visit https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/Source: MarketersMediaRelease ID: 189903


News Article | April 25, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

A protein implicated in human longevity may also play a role in restoring hearing after noise exposure, say researchers. Their findings could one day lead to new tools to prevent hearing loss. The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, reveals that a gene called Forkhead Box O3 (Foxo3) appears to play a role in protecting outer hair cells in the inner ear from damage. The outer hair cells act as a biological sound amplifier and are critical to hearing. When exposed to loud noises, these cells undergo stress. In some individuals, these cells are able to recover, but in others the outer hair cells die, permanently impairing hearing. While hearing aids and other treatments can help recover some range of hearing, there is currently no biological cure for hearing loss. “While more than a hundred genes have been identified as being involved in childhood hearing loss, little is known about the genes that regulate hearing recovery after noise exposure,” says Patricia White, a research associate professor in the University of Rochester Medical Center’s neuroscience department and lead author of the study. “Our study shows that Foxo3 could play an important role in determining which individuals might be more susceptible to noise-induced hearing loss,” White adds. Hearing loss from noise may be in the genes Approximately one-third of people who reach retirement age have some degree of hearing loss, primarily due to noise exposure over their lifetimes. The problem is even more acute in the military, with upwards of 60 percent of individuals who have been deployed in forward areas experiencing hearing loss, making it the most common disability for combat veterans. Foxo3 is known to play an important role in cell’s stress response. For example, in the cardiovascular system, Foxo3 helps heart cells stay healthy by clearing away debris when the cells are damaged. Additionally, people with a genetic mutation that confers higher levels of Foxo3 protein have been shown to live longer. White and her team carried out a series of experiments involving knock-out mice who were genetically engineered to lack the Foxo3 gene. The researchers found that, compared to normal mice, these animals were unable to recover hearing after being exposed to loud noises. The team also observed that during the experiment the Foxo3 knock-out mice lost most of their outer hair cells. In the normal mice, outer hair cell loss was not significant. To treat hearing loss, listen to your favorite voices “Discovering that Foxo3 was important for the survival of outer hair cells is a significant advance,” says senior author Patricia White. “We are also excited about the results because Foxo3 is a transcription factor, which regulates the expression of many target genes. We are currently investigating what its targets might be in the inner ear, and how they could act to protect the ear from damage.” Additional coauthors are from the University of Rochester Medical Center and University College London. The National Institute of Deafness and Other Communication Disorders and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council of the United Kingdom supported the research. Source: University of Rochester The post Gene could let hearing recover from loud noises appeared first on Futurity.


Dr. Hayes B. Gladstone, Board Certified Dermatologist Fellowship Trained Dermatologic Surgeon, Gladstone Clinic, has joined The Expert Network©, an invitation-only service for distinguished professionals. Dr. Gladstone has been chosen as a Distinguished Doctor™ based on peer reviews and ratings, numerous recognitions, and accomplishments achieved throughout his career. Dr. Gladstone outshines others in his field due to his extensive educational background, numerous awards and recognitions, and career longevity. He earned his medical degree from the University of Rochester School of Medicine, and went on to complete his surgical internship and a research fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco. After training in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery at the University of Washington, he decided to transition to Dermatology and completed an NIH fellowship also at the University of Washington. He followed with a fellowship in Mohs Surgery, Reconstruction and Cosmetic surgery under the mentorship of renowned dermatologic surgeon Ronald L. Moy, MD at the University of California, Los Angeles. He holds a medical license in California and Hawaii and is certified by the board of Dermatology through 2021. Dr. Gladstone's immense training and subsequent success has not gone unnoticed, as he has been the recipient of many prestigious awards, including the Theodore Tromvitch Award from the American College of Mohs Micrographic Surgery, the Career Development Award from the Dermatology Foundation, Marquis Who’s Who in America, and Best Dermatologists in America by Consumer’s Guide, among others. With 20 years dedicated to medicine, Dr. Gladstone is one of the Bay Area's leading experts in the field of dermatology. When asked why he decided to pursue a career in medicine, Dr. Gladstone said: "I was fascinated with the sense of discovery in medicine and the possibility of pushing the frontiers of medical scientific research in order to help people." ​Dr. Gladstone is perhaps most renowned for co-founding the nonprofit Blade and Light International alongside Dr. Muram Alam of Northwestern in 2003. The organization aims to provide patients in developing countries with limited resources comprehensive surgical dermatologic treatment including Mohs surgery, as well as education and training for physicians in those parts of the world. As a thought-leader in his specialty, Dr. Gladstone keeps a close eye on prevailing trends in the medical industry. In particular, he has found that new technologies are increasingly changing practices. He noted: "I am particularly interested in the role of personalized medicine including nanotechnology and molecular targeting, and on the macro level, computers, virtual reality and robotics. The human body is amazingly complex, and it will require multidisciplinary approaches between clinicians, scientists, engineers, computational experts, social scientists and humanists in order to solve many of the diseases that we face and improve the quality of life for our population." For more information, visit Dr. Gladstone's profile on the Expert Network here: http://expertnetwork.co/members/hayes-b-gladstone,-md/313c61cf3fd68772 The Expert Network© has written this news release with approval and/or contributions from Dr. Hayes B. Gladstone. The Expert Network© is an invitation-only reputation management service that is dedicated to helping professionals stand out, network, and gain a competitive edge. The Expert Network selects a limited number of professionals based on their individual recognitions and history of personal excellence.


Dressel J.,University of Rochester | Malik M.,University of California at Riverside | Miatto F.M.,University of Rochester | Jordan A.N.,Austrian Academy of Sciences | Boyd R.W.,University of Ottawa
Reviews of Modern Physics | Year: 2014

Since its introduction 25 years ago, the quantum weak value has gradually transitioned from a theoretical curiosity to a practical laboratory tool. While its utility is apparent in the recent explosion of weak value experiments, its interpretation has historically been a subject of confusion. Here a pragmatic introduction to the weak value in terms of measurable quantities is presented, along with an explanation for how it can be determined in the laboratory. Further, its application to three distinct experimental techniques is reviewed. First, as a large interaction parameter it can amplify small signals above technical background noise. Second, as a measurable complex value it enables novel techniques for direct quantum state and geometric phase determination. Third, as a conditioned average of generalized observable eigenvalues it provides a measurable window into nonclassical features of quantum mechanics. In this selective review, a single experimental configuration to discuss and clarify each of these applications is used. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Sanada T.M.,National Institute for Physiological science | DeAngelis G.C.,University of Rochester
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Neural processing of 2D visual motion has been studied extensively, but relatively little is known about how visual cortical neurons represent visual motion trajectories that include a component toward or away from the observer (motion in depth). Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that humans perceive motion in depth based on both changes in binocular disparity over time (CD cue) and interocular velocity differences (IOVD cue). However, evidence for neurons that represent motion in depth has been limited, especially in primates, and it is unknown whether such neurons make use of CD or IOVD cues. We show that approximately one-half of neurons in macaque area MT are selective for the direction of motion in depth, and that this selectivity is driven primarily by IOVD cues, with a small contribution from the CD cue. Our results establish that area MT, a central hub of the primate visual motion processing system, contains a 3D representation of visual motion. © 2014 the authors.


Morrell C.N.,University of Rochester | Chapman L.M.,University of Rochester | Modjeski K.L.,University of Rochester
Blood | Year: 2014

Despite their small size and anucleate status, platelets have diverse roles in vascular biology. Not only are platelets the cellular mediator of thrombosis, but platelets are also immune cells that initiate and accelerate many vascular inflammatory conditions. Platelets are linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, malaria infection, transplant rejection, and rheumatoid arthritis. In some contexts, platelet immune functions are protective, whereas in others platelets contribute to adverse inflammatory outcomes. In this review, we will discuss platelet and platelet-derived mediator interactions with the innate and acquired arms of the immune system and platelet-vessel wall interactions that drive inflammatory disease. There have been many recent publications indicating both important protective and adverse roles for platelets in infectious disease. Because of this new accumulating data, and the fact that infectious disease continues to be a leading cause of death globally, we will also focus on new and emerging concepts related to platelet immune and inflammatory functions in the context of infectious disease. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.


Patent
British Columbia Cancer Agency Bcca, Catalan Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, Rikshospitalet Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Barcelona, University of Nebraska Medical Center, University of Rochester and Powell | Date: 2011-03-23

Gene expression data provides a basis for more accurate identification and diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders. In addition, gene expression data can be used to develop more accurate predictors of survival. The present invention discloses methods for identifying, diagnosing, and predicting survival in a lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disorder on the basis of gene expression patterns. The invention discloses a novel microarray, the Lymph Dx microarray, for obtaining gene expression data from a lymphoma sample. The invention also discloses a variety of methods for utilizing lymphoma gene expression data to determine the identity of a particular lymphoma and to predict survival in a subject diagnosed with a particular lymphoma. This information will be useful in developing the therapeutic approach to be used with a particular subject.


Patent
The United States Of America, University of Arizona, University of London, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, University of Oslo, University of Oregon, University of Rochester, Hospital Clinic Of Barcelona, University of Barcelona, British Columbia Cancer Agency Branch and University of Würzburg | Date: 2014-11-13

The invention provides methods and materials related to a gene expression-based survival predictor for DLBCL patients.


Caine E.D.,University of Rochester
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

Suicide prevention must be transformed by integrating injury prevention and mental health perspectives to develop a mosaic of common risk public health interventions that address the diversity of populations and individuals whose mortality and morbidity contribute to the burdens of suicide and attempted suicide. Emphasizing distal preventive interventions, strategies must focus on people and places-and on related interpersonal factors and social contexts-to alter the life trajectories of people before they become suicidal. Attention also must be paid to those in the middle years-the age with the greatest overall burden. We need scientific and social processes that define priorities and assess their potential for reducing what has been a steadily increasing rate of suicide during the past decade.


As the use of nanoparticles becomes more prevalent, it is clear that human exposure will inevitably increase. Considering the rapidly ageing European population and the resulting increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, there is an urgent need to address the risk presented by nanoparticles towards neurodegenerative diseases. It is believed that nanoparticles can pass through the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, nanoparticles have two potential major effects. They can induce oxidative activity (production of Reactive Oxygen Species), and can induce anomalous protein aggregation behaviour (fibrillation). There are multiple disease targets for the nanoparticles, including all of the known fibrillation diseases (e.g. Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases). The factors that determine which nanoparticles enter the brain are not known. Nanoparticle size, shape, rigidity and composition are considered important, and under physiological conditions, the nature of the adsorbed biomolecule corona (proteins, lipids etc.) determines the biological responses. The NeuroNano project will investigate the detailed mechanisms of nanoparticle passage through the blood-brain barrier using primary cell co-cultures and animal studies. Using nanoparticles that are shown to reach the brain, we will determine the mechanisms of ROS production and protein fibrillation, using state-of-the-art approaches such as redox proteomics and isolation/characterisation of the critical pre-fibrillar species. Animal models for Alzheimers diseases will confirm the effects of the nanoparticles in vivo. At all stages the exact nature of the nanoparticle biomolecule corona will be determined. The result will be a risk-assessment framework for assessing the safety of nanoparticles towards neurodegenerative diseases, based on the connection of their biological effects to their biomolecule corona, which determines the biological response in vivo and reports on the nanoparticles history.


News Article | February 14, 2017
Site: www.sciencemag.org

Amid the uncertainty over U.S. immigration policy, one fact is sending a chill through U.S. higher education: Some U.S. graduate programs in engineering, Science has learned, are seeing a sharp drop this year in the number of applications from international students. University administrators worry that the declines, as much as 30% from 2016 levels in some programs, reflect heightened fears among foreign-born students that the United States is tightening its borders. A continued downturn, officials say, could threaten U.S. global leadership in science and engineering by shrinking the pool of talent available to carry out academic research. It could also hinder innovation in industry, given that most foreign-born engineering students take jobs with U.S. companies after graduation. “It’s a precipitous drop,” says Philippe Fauchet, dean of engineering at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, of the 18% decline his department has seen in international graduate applications as last month’s deadlines passed. “Your first thought is, ‘Is it just us?’” adds Tim Anderson, engineering dean at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, where international applications for the electrical and computer engineering departments fell 30% this year. But after speaking with other deans, Anderson believes “it’s a pattern.” Given the timing, he and others suspect the cause is President Donald Trump’s anti-immigrant rhetoric during the campaign and his election, rather than the White House’s 27 January travel ban against seven Muslim-majority countries, which is now in legal limbo. And the deans wonder whether the impact will ripple through the next step in the admissions process. Acceptance letters are going out in the coming weeks, Fauchet notes, “and when we make the offers, who knows how many [students] will show up?” The 200 or so colleges and universities that do the bulk of federally funded research compete for a talent pool that is increasingly international. At Cornell University, for example, the number of applications from international students has increased by 30% annually for the past 5 years, says Graduate School Dean Barbara Knuth, whereas domestic applications have dropped by 9% a year. As a result, she says, international students now make up two-thirds of Cornell’s graduate applicants. Schools of engineering and computer science programs are especially reliant on international students, in some cases drawing up to 90% of their applicants from abroad. And though students on temporary visas make up only 19% of all U.S. graduate students, they compose 55% of those studying engineering and computer science, according to 2015 enrollment data from the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) in Washington, D.C. It will be several months before CGS compiles final statistics on international applications for 2017. And some universities declined to provide Science with their numbers, perhaps out of fear that it could damage their reputation and give competitors a recruiting edge. But many schools told Science that they are concerned. At Vanderbilt, the overall number of international students applying for engineering master’s programs is down 28% from 2016, and the number seeking engineering Ph.D.s dropped 11%. Dartmouth College saw a 30% plunge in international applications for its venerable master’s program in engineering management (MEM), a professional degree. “That’s never happened before” in the program’s 25-year history, says engineering dean Joseph Helble. At Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, one of the nation’s largest engineering schools, engineering applications overall are up 3%, says Director of Graduate Admissions Lee Gordon. But applications for the electrical and computer engineering department fell by 8.2%, and applications from Middle Eastern students interested in engineering are down by 12%. At the University of California (UC), Irvine, overall international applications “are on par with last year,” says Frances Leslie, dean of the graduate school. International applications to its school of information and computer sciences are actually up by 9%, thanks to a new professional master’s program. But engineering has seen a drop of 10%. Cornell’s Knuth says that international applications are up 2% across the university. She didn’t provide a breakdown for engineering but noted that applications from Iran and Pakistan were down 10% and 23%, respectively. Such declines could have a major impact on a university’s bottom line, although calculating its magnitude is not straightforward. The federal government heavily subsidizes graduate education in the sciences and engineering, so most doctoral students don’t have to worry about tuition bills. But universities generate considerable revenue from professional master’s degree programs, a subset of all master’s training. And in those programs, international students at public universities pay tuition rates that are much higher than for in-state students. Kevin Moore, engineering dean at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) in Golden, explains how things could play out on his campus. This year, CSM’s international applications are down 19%, he says. And almost 9% of the 698 foreign applicants hail from the seven countries fingered in Trump’s travel ban, reflecting the school’s strong history of attracting students from oil-rich nations. If some form of the ban is upheld, those students won’t be able to enroll. And if the proportion of applicants who wind up on campus this fall holds steady, “we could be down almost 60 students,” Moore says. “And I’ve been told that 30 students equals $1 million in tuition revenue.” University officials do have some options, as demand far exceeds supply at top graduate programs. Even with this year’s sharp decline, for example, Dartmouth’s Helble has almost six applicants for each one of the MEM program’s 50 slots. Such ratios give administrators the option of admitting students who previously might not have made the cut, including more domestic students. But educators are loath to move the bar if it would lower the quality of the talent pool. Instead, some deans plan to step up the wooing of top applicants. “We’re going to do more touches,” says Anderson, such as having an adviser or a current student contact a foreign applicant who has been accepted. “We’ll be trying to reassure folks that the United States is still a free country,” he says, “and that we’d love to have them attend our institution.” At the same time, they don’t want to make promises they can’t keep. “Our legal counsel has told us to continue the admissions process as normal and that it’s illegal to discriminate by nationality,” says UC Irvine’s Leslie, who notes that the 400 Iranian students are part of this year’s pool of nearly 15,000 graduate applications. “But we have no control over what happens in Washington. And we have warned our faculty to expect a lower yield.” (The yield is the number of accepted students who end up enrolling.) A few months away from earning his Ph.D. in electrical engineering at Vanderbilt, Stanley Lo knows what it is like to be an international student weighing an offer from a U.S. institution. Lo says he didn’t worry about negative public attitudes toward immigrants when he came in 2011 from Hong Kong, China, to work with Fauchet, then at the University of Rochester in New York. “It was a big step, but I thought the United States was the best place for me to reach my potential,” Lo says. He believes that’s still the case, but notes the political culture has changed. “I would tell them to come here if they want to,” Lo says. “There are so many students from around the world, and there are still many opportunities to make the world a better place through innovation. I think tech companies are still welcoming to immigrants. But the problem is the larger U.S. policy.”


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: news.mit.edu

Graduate student Hong Sio has gotten used to being somewhere else. His research as part of the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) High-Energy-Density Physics (HEDP) team has rotated him from his Albany Street home facilities in Cambridge, Massachusetts, to projects on the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester in New York, to collaborations on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California. “I spent 120 days in hotel rooms last year,” he laughs. “Four months on the road.” All this travel has been necessary to support the kind of research that recently earned his fusion diagnostic a spot on the cover of an American Institute of Physics journal. Sio has been taking significant journeys since the age of 10, when his family emigrated from Macau to the U.S., settling in southern California. Sio credits a high school summer program at the University of California at Irvine with cementing his interest in science and specifically fusion, a potential source of abundant energy that has been an elusive goal of scientists for decades. “UCI has an underground, research-grade nuclear reactor for producing medical isotopes — not meant to produce power, but still a really nice reactor. Touring that facility made an impression on me. It made me think about how we generate electricity. It made me think about how we are going to generate electricity 30, 50 years from now.” Sio continued his interest in energy research as a physics major at Harvey Mudd College. He worked at the department’s high-intensity laser lab, which deepened his interest in lasers, fusion, and graduate study in physics. When he interviewed at MIT with HEDP division head Richard Petrasso, Sio had found a situation, and a research group, that “checked off all the boxes.” “I thought, ‘Well, this group shoots lasers at things; this group works on fusion. What’s there to think about?’”  And his decision was made. The decision immersed him in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and has led to his particle X-ray temporal diagnostic (PTXD) being featured on the cover of the AIP Review of Scientific Instruments (from the Proceedings of the 21st Topical Conference on High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics). Sio describes the ICF process: “At the simplest level, we fill a tiny capsule with fusion fuel and fire many lasers at it simultaneously, compressing and heating the fuel. The hotter and more dense the fuel becomes, the more fusion reactions are generated.” Researchers measure the nuclear products from these fusion reactions with special diagnostics in order to understand what is happening in the capsule and improve performance. In experiments on OMEGA, Sio’s PXTD has made it possible for the first time to take simultaneous measurements of X-rays and nuclear reactions during the energy-intense implosions of fusion fuel that characterize ICF fusion. The PXTD provides nuclear reaction history information during the “shock-burn” phase of the implosion, when the plasma fuel is particularly kinetic, characterized by high temperature and low density. “We want to better understand this initial stage of ICF implosion and what affect it has later on in the implosion when the shell finally collapses. And to understand whether current simulation tools are sufficient,” he says. Sio is also responsible for the magnetic particle time-of-flight (magPTOF) diagnostic on the NIF. A project worked on by MIT graduate Hans Rinderknecht when he was part of the HEDP team, the diagnostic simultaneously measures shock- and compression-bang times — the moments of peak thermonuclear burn during ICF implosions. Being able to directly measure the shock-bang and compression-bang times helps researchers understand the physics involved in ICF implosions and provides necessary feedback for the next experiments. “NIF is the most energetic laser facility in the world. OMEGA is the second largest laser facility in the U.S. The opportunity to be so deeply involved at these world-class facilities as a graduate student is nothing short of remarkable,” Sio says. Both his diagnostic and physics projects on OMEGA and the NIF support reaching ignition and a path to fusion energy. Sio recognizes that fusion energy is an immense physics and engineering challenge. He sees inertial confinement fusion as an integral part of the international fusion program, as one of several diverse approaches to making fusion work. A recipient of the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship (DOE NNSA SSGF), Sio will present his most recent research at the NNSA headquarters in Washington, D.C. on May 9, 2017. Sio anticipates graduating from MIT in the fall of 2017 and hopes to continue contributing to ICF fusion research, possibly as a postdoc at MIT, or at other national ICF facilities such as OMEGA or NIF, where his time on the road has already made him a familiar and welcome addition.


Patent
The United States Of America, University of Nebraska - Lincoln, University of Rochester, University of Arizona, University of Barcelona, University of London, University of Würzburg, British Columbia Cancer Agency Branch, University of Oslo and Fundacio Clinic | Date: 2012-03-01

Gene expression data provides a basis for more accurate identification and diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders. In addition, gene expression data can be used to develop more accurate predictors of survival. The present invention discloses methods for identifying, diagnosing, and predicting survival in a lymphoma or lymphoproliferative disorder on the basis of gene expression patterns. The invention discloses a novel microarray, the Lymph Dx microarray, for obtaining gene expression data from a lymphoma sample. The invention also discloses a variety of methods for utilizing lymphoma gene expression data to determine the identity of a particular lymphoma and to predict survival in a subject diagnosed with a particular lymphoma. This information will be useful in developing the therapeutic approach to be used with a particular subject.


Akimov A.V.,University of Rochester | Akimov A.V.,Brookhaven National Laboratory | Prezhdo O.V.,University of Rochester
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

Charge carrier multiplication in organic heterojunction systems, a process known as singlet fission (SF), holds promise for development of solar cells with enhanced photon-to-electron yields, and therefore it is of substantial fundamental interest. The efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on this principle is determined by complex dynamics involving key electronic states coupled to particular nuclear motions. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies are dedicated to this topic, generating multiple opinions on the nature of such states and motions, their properties, and mechanisms of the competing processes, including electron-phonon relaxation, SF, and charge separation. Using nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, we identify the key steps and mechanisms involved in the SF and subsequent charge separation, and build a comprehensive kinetic scheme that is consistent with the existing experimental and theoretical results. The ensuing model provides time scales that are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. We demonstrate that SF competes with the traditional photoinduced electron transfer between pentacene and C60. Efficient SF relies on the presence of intermediate dark states within the pentacene subsystem. Having multiexciton and charge transfer character, these states play critical roles in the dynamics, and should be considered explicitly when explaining the entire process from the photoexcitation to the final charge separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Schlesinger N.,UMDNJ Robert Wood Johnson Medical School | Thiele R.G.,University of Rochester
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

The characteristic radiographic hallmarks of chronic gouty arthritis are the presence of macroscopic tophi and erosions with overhanging edges and relative preservation of the joint space. In recent years there has been more insight into the processes underlying the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. This review discusses the mechanical, pathological, cellular and immunological factors that may have a role in the pathogenesis of bone erosions in gouty arthritis. It highlights the evidence suggesting that monosodium urate crystal deposition is associated with the presence of underlying osteoarthritis and the important role of osteoclasts and the receptor for activation of nuclear factor κ;B (RANK) and RANK ligand (RANK-RANKL) pathway in the pathogenesis of gouty erosions. Gouty arthritis is primarily driven by interleukin 1β (IL-1β). IL-1β has been implicated in bone destruction and erosions in other inflammatory arthridities. Thus, future IL-1 inhibitors may prevent and treat erosion formation due to tophaceous gouty arthritis. This review discusses imaging modalities and highlights ultrasongraphic evidence suggesting a significant relationship between the presence of the gouty tophus and bone erosions as well as the frequent presence of persistent low-grade inflammation in asymptomatic chronic tophaceous gouty arthritis on high-resolution ultrasonography. It is the tophus eroding the underlying bone that is pivotal for the development of bone erosions in gouty arthritis.


Bharadwaj P.,University of Rochester | Bouhelier A.,University of Burgundy | Novotny L.,University of Rochester
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We exploit a plasmon mediated two-step momentum down-conversion scheme to convert low-energy tunneling electrons into propagating photons. Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating along an extended gold nanowire are excited on one end by low-energy electron tunneling and are then converted to free-propagating photons at the other end. The separation of excitation and outcoupling proves that tunneling electrons excite gap plasmons that subsequently couple to propagating plasmons. Our work shows that electron tunneling provides a nonoptical, voltage-controlled, and low-energy pathway for launching SPPs in nanostructures, such as plasmonic waveguides. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Scott S.,King's College London | O'Connor T.G.,University of Rochester
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: The concept of differential susceptibility has challenged the potential meaning of personal traits such as poor ability to regulate emotions. Under the traditional model of diathesis/stress, personal characteristics such as liability to angry outbursts are seen as essentially disadvantageous, emerging under duress in a way that is maladaptive. In contrast, with differential susceptibility, there is the same poorer functioning under adverse conditions but, under favorable conditions, individuals with the trait function better than those without it. To date, there have been limited studies on response under positive environments. We used the experimental power of an intervention trial to test the differential susceptibility hypothesis that children with emotional dysregulation would show greater response to an experimentally induced improvement in their parenting environment. Methods: Data were from the SPOKES trial (ISRCTN 77566446), a randomized controlled trial of 112 school children who were 5-6-years old, screened for elevated levels of oppositionality, randomized to parenting groups or control; 109 (97%) were followed-up a year later. Using DSM-IV oppositional-defiant symptoms, children were divided into an Emotionally-Dysregulated type (ED, n = 68) and a Headstrong type (n = 44). The parenting intervention was the Incredible Years program supplemented by positive strategies to use when reading with children. Assessment of conduct problems and parenting was by semistructured interviews. Results: At follow-up, parents of Emotionally-Dysregulated and Headstrong children allocated to the intervention showed significant improvements in their parenting strategies to an equal extent compared to parents in the control group. However, the Emotionally-Dysregulated children showed a significantly greater decrease in conduct problems between intervention and control groups (treatment effect-size 0.84 standard deviations) than the Headstrong (es 0.20 SD), p = 0.04. Conclusions: Using the power of a controlled experiment, this study showed that children who exhibited Emotionally-Dysregulated behavior pretreatment were more responsive to improvements in parental care that were experimentally induced. The findings extend prior work on differential sensitivity in suggesting that children exhibiting irascibility and emotionality may show greater susceptibility to the caregiving environment, and may identify a subset of children who respond better to existing treatments. © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Bavelier D.,University of Rochester | Green C.S.,University of Minnesota | Dye M.W.G.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Neuron | Year: 2010

Children encounter technology constantly at home and in school. Television, DVDs, video games, the Internet, and smart phones all play a formative role in children's development. The term " technology" subsumes a large variety of somewhat independent items, and it is no surprise that current research indicates causes for both optimism and concern depending upon the content of the technology, the context in which the technology immerses the user, and the user's developmental stage. Furthermore, because the field is still in its infancy, results can be surprising: video games designed to be reasonably mindless result in widespread enhancements of various abilities, acting, we will argue, as exemplary learning tools. Counterintuitive outcomes like these, besides being practically relevant, challenge and eventually lead to refinement of theories concerning fundamental principles of brain plasticity and learning. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
University of Rochester and Foundation University | Date: 2014-06-05

Disclosed are compositions and methods related to the interaction of polyCUG and polyCCUG repeat RNA and proteins that bind to these repetitive RNA sequences. Also disclosed are methods of treating DM1 or DM2 comprising inhibiting the interaction of poly(CUG)^(exp )or poly(CCUG)^(exp )RNA with muscleblind proteins, or by causing improvement of spliceopathy in myotonic dystrophy.


Patent
University of Rochester and Foundation University | Date: 2016-06-22

Disclosed are antisense oligonucleotides for use in treating myotonic dystrophy (DM1 or DM2). The oligonucleotides either inhibit the interaction of poly(CUG)^(exp) or poly(CCUG)^(exp) RNA with muscleblind proteins (MBNL1) or may improve spliceopathy in relation to chloride ion channel ClC-1.


Patent
University of Rochester and Foundation University | Date: 2013-02-20

Disclosed are compositions and methods related to the interaction of polyCUG and polyCCUG repeat RNA and proteins that bind to these repetitive RNA sequences. Also disclosed are methods of treating DM1 or DM2 comprising inhibiting the interaction of poly(CUG)^(exp) or poly(CCUG)^(exp) RNA with muscleblind proteins, or by causing improvement of spliceopathy in myotonic dystrophy.


News Article | February 24, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

WESTBOROUGH, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Virtusa Corporation (NASDAQ GS: VRTU), a global business consulting and IT outsourcing company that combines innovation, technology leadership and industry solutions to enhance business performance, accelerate time-to-market, increase productivity and improve customer experience, today announced that Joseph G. Doody has joined its Board of Directors as an independent director, effective February 22, 2017. Kris Canekeratne, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Virtusa, stated, “On behalf of the Virtusa Board of Directors, I am very pleased to welcome Joe Doody to our Board. Joe brings a wealth of operational and management experience to Virtusa. We believe his strong track record of driving growth at a large multinational corporation will be a great asset to Virtusa as we execute on our growth strategy.” Joseph Doody has over 40 years of professional experience most recently serving as Vice Chairman of Staples, Inc. where he leads Staples’ strategic reinvention and has responsibility for strategic planning, business development, and the company’s operations in Australia, New Zealand and high-growth markets. Previously, Mr. Doody was President of North American Commercial for Staples, President of Staples Contract & Commercial, and President of North American Delivery. Before joining Staples in 1998, Mr. Doody served as President of Danka Office Imaging in North America and held various managerial positions with Eastman Kodak Company. Mr. Doody currently serves on the Board of Directors of Casella Waste Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CWST), an integrated regional solid waste services company and Paychex, Inc. (NASDAQ:PAYX), a leading provider of solutions for payroll, HR, retirement, and insurance services and is the Chairman at Staples China. Mr. Doody holds a B.S. in Economics from State University of New York at Brockport and an M.B.A. from the Simon School of Business, University of Rochester. Virtusa provides end-to-end information technology (IT) services to Global 2000 companies. These services, which include IT consulting, application maintenance, development, systems integration and managed services, leverage a unique Platforming methodology that transforms clients’ businesses through IT rationalization. Virtusa helps customers accelerate business outcomes by consolidating, rationalizing, and modernizing their core customer-facing processes into one or more core systems. Virtusa delivers cost-effective solutions through a global delivery model, applying advanced methods such as Agile and Accelerated Solution Design to ensure that its solutions meet the clients’ requirements. As a result, its clients simultaneously reduce their IT operations cost while increasing their ability to meet changing business needs. On March 3, 2016, Virtusa, through its India subsidiary, acquired an aggregate of approximately 51.7% of the fully diluted outstanding shares of Polaris Consulting & Services, Ltd., from founding shareholders, promoters, and certain other minority stockholders. In April 2016, Virtusa purchased an additional 26% of the fully diluted outstanding shares of Polaris from the company’s public shareholders in a mandatory open offer. In December 2016, to comply with applicable India rules on takeovers, Virtusa sold 3.71% of its shares of Polaris common stock through a public offering, and its ownership interest decreased from 78.6% to 74.9% of Polaris’ basic shares of common stock outstanding. Polaris is a majority owned subsidiary of Virtusa. Founded in 1996 and headquartered in Massachusetts, Virtusa has operations in North America, Europe, and Asia. Virtusa, Accelerating Business Outcomes, BPM Test Drive and Productization are registered trademarks of Virtusa Corporation. All other company and brand names may be trademarks or service marks of their respective holders.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

BASEL, Switzerland--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Therachon AG, a biotechnology company focused on rare genetic diseases, announced today the strengthening of its Board of Directors and executive management team. Hans Schikan, Pharm.D., will the join the Board as a non-executive director. Richard Porter, Ph.D., is announced as the Chief Operating Officer and Jeffrey Stavenhagen, Ph.D. as Vice President of Biology. “I am delighted to have Drs. Schikan, Porter and Stavenhagen join our team,” said Luca Santarelli, M.D., Therachon’s Chief Executive Officer and Director. “The addition of these three tenured biopharmaceutical executives extends and deepens our scientific and business expertise. With their experience and successful track record, I am confident that we will be able to harness the full therapeutic potential of our drug candidate, TA-46, for children suffering from achondroplasia.” “I am thrilled to welcome these three industry leaders to our Board and management team,” said Thomas Woiwode, Ph.D., Managing Director at Versant Ventures and Chairman of the Board at Therachon. “Hans, Richard and Jeffrey understand the potential and hope Therachon brings to patients suffering from rare, genetic diseases. Under Luca’s leadership and with the recent completion of our $40 million Series A financing, Therachon is now well positioned to accelerate TA-46 into the clinic.” Hans Schikan currently serves as Chairman at Asceneuron (Switzerland), Complix (Belgium) and InteRNA (Netherlands), and is a non-executive director at Hansa Medical (Sweden), Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (Sweden), Wilson Therapeutics (Sweden) and Dutch Top Sector Life Sciences & Health (Netherlands). Previously, he was the CEO of Prosensa, which used RNA modulation to treat rare diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). While at Prosensa, he oversaw the M&A transaction with BioMarin for up to $840 million. Prior to that, he held senior strategic and commercial positions at Genzyme and Organon. Hans Schikan received his Pharm.D. from the University of Utrecht (Netherlands). Richard Porter brings over 20 years of experience working across multiple therapeutic areas in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. He spent over 14 years at Roche in positions of increasing responsibility, most recently as the Global Head of Operations Management for Neuroscience Ophthalmology and Rare Diseases. He has also served as a Product General Manager in the Emerging Business Unit at Shire Pharmaceuticals, and held scientific leadership positions at Vernalis and ASTRA. He has brought multiple projects through development and brings extensive experience at both an operational and strategic level. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Southampton and completed his postdoctoral training at the University of Oxford (U.K.) and at the University of Rochester (U.S.). Jeffrey Stavenhagen brings 20 years of scientific leadership experience in both the U.S. and Europe using emerging technology platforms for the development of novel biologics. He most recently was a Senior Director at Lundbeck (Denmark) and led their global biologics program to treat CNS diseases. Prior to that, he served as Director, Molecular Immunology at Amplimmune and held roles of increasing responsibility at MacroGenics. Dr. Stavenhagen started his career as an assistant professor at the University of Dayton in the Department of Biology. He received his Ph.D. in molecular biology from Columbia University and conducted Post-Doctoral research at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. Therachon is a global biotechnology company focused on developing medicines for rare, genetic diseases that currently have no available treatments. The company’s lead pipeline candidate, TA-46, is a novel protein therapy in development for achondroplasia, the most common form of short-limbed dwarfism. This rare genetic condition affects about one in 25,000 children and is caused by a genetic mutation of the FGFR3 receptor, which stunts child bone growth. Therachon is committed to translating the promise of its science into new treatments for patients with high unmet medical needs. For more information, visit www.therachon.com.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

The breakdown of methane hydrates due to warming climate is unlikely to lead to massive amounts of methane being released to the atmosphere, according to a recent interpretive review of scientific literature performed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Rochester. Methane hydrate, which is also referred to as gas hydrate, is a naturally-occurring, ice-like form of methane and water that is stable within a narrow range of pressure and temperature conditions. These conditions are mostly found in undersea sediments at water depths greater than 1000 to 1650 ft and in and beneath permafrost (permanently frozen ground) at high latitudes. Methane hydrates are distinct from conventional natural gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane reservoirs and are not currently exploited for energy production, either in the United States or the rest of the world. On a global scale, gas hydrate deposits store enormous amounts of methane at relatively shallow depths, making them particularly susceptible to the changes in temperature that accompany climate change. Methane itself is also a potent greenhouse gas, and some researchers have suggested that methane released by the breakdown of gas hydrate during past climate events may have exacerbated global warming. The new review concludes that current warming of ocean waters is likely causing gas hydrate deposits to break down at some locations. However, not only are the annual emissions of methane to the ocean from degrading gas hydrates far smaller than greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere from human activities, but most of the methane released by gas hydrates never reaches the atmosphere. Instead, the methane often remains in the undersea sediments, dissolves in the ocean, or is converted to carbon dioxide by microbes in the sediments or water column. The review pays particular attention to gas hydrates beneath the Arctic Ocean, where some studies have observed elevated rates of methane transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere. As noted by the authors, the methane being emitted to the atmosphere in the Arctic Ocean has not been directly traced to the breakdown of gas hydrate in response to recent climate change, nor as a consequence of longer-term warming since the end of the last Ice Age. "Our review is the culmination of nearly a decade of original research by the USGS, my coauthor Professor John Kessler at the University of Rochester, and many other groups in the community," said USGS geophysicist Carolyn Ruppel, who is the paper's lead author and oversees the USGS Gas Hydrates Project. "After so many years spent determining where gas hydrates are breaking down and measuring methane flux at the sea-air interface, we suggest that conclusive evidence for release of hydrate-related methane to the atmosphere is lacking." Professor Kessler explains that, "Even where we do see slightly elevated emissions of methane at the sea-air interface, our research shows that this methane is rarely attributable to gas hydrate degradation." The review summarizes how much gas hydrate exists and where it occurs; identifies the technical challenges associated with determining whether atmospheric methane originates with gas hydrate breakdown; and examines the assumptions of the Intergovernmental Panels on Climate Change, which have typically attributed a small amount of annual atmospheric methane emissions to gas hydrate sources. The review also systematically evaluates different environments to assess the susceptibility of gas hydrates at each location to warming climate and addresses the potential environmental impact of an accidental gas release associated with a hypothetical well producing methane from gas hydrate deposits. Virginia Burkett, USGS Associate Director for Climate and Land Use Change, noted, "This review paper provides a truly comprehensive synthesis of the knowledge on the interaction of gas hydrates and climate during the contemporary period. The authors' sober, data-driven analyses and conclusions challenge the popular perception that warming climate will lead to a catastrophic release of methane to the atmosphere as a result of gas hydrate breakdown." The paper, "The Interaction of Climate Change and Methane Hydrates," by C. Ruppel and J. Kessler, is published in Reviews of Geophysics and is available here. The USGS and University of Rochester research that contributed to the review was largely supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. More information about the University of Rochester's Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences is available here. The USGS Gas Hydrates Project has been advancing understanding of U.S. and international gas hydrates science for over two decades. The Project focuses on natural gas hydrates and their potential as an energy resource, interaction with the climate system, and possible association with geohazards such as submarine landslides. In the last decade, the group has participated in energy resource studies on the Alaskan North Slope and in the Gulf of Mexico, Indian Ocean, and other locations. Studies of climate-hydrate interactions have been carried out in the Beaufort Sea, on the U.S. Atlantic margin, and at international sites.


Pinquart M.,University of Marburg | Duberstein P.R.,University of Rochester
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2010

Background The goal of the present study was to analyze associations between depression and mortality of cancer patients and to test whether these associations would vary by study characteristics.Method Meta-analysis was used for integrating the results of 105 samples derived from 76 prospective studies.Results Depression diagnosis and higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted elevated mortality. This was true in studies that assessed depression before cancer diagnosis as well as in studies that assessed depression following cancer diagnosis. Associations between depression and mortality persisted after controlling for confounding medical variables. The depression-mortality association was weaker in studies that had longer intervals between assessments of depression and mortality, in younger samples and in studies that used the Beck Depression Inventory as compared with other depression scales.Conclusions Screening for depression should be routinely conducted in the cancer treatment setting. Referrals to mental health specialists should be considered. Research is needed on whether the treatment of depression could, beyond enhancing quality of life, extend survival of depressed cancer patients. © 2010 Cambridge University Press.


Patrick H.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Williams G.C.,University of Rochester
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity | Year: 2012

Mounting evidence implicates health behaviors (e.g., nutrition, physical activity, tobacco abstinence) in various health outcomes. As the science of behavior change has emerged, increasing emphasis has been placed on the use of theory in developing and testing interventions. Self-determination theory (SDT)-a theoretical perspective-and motivational interviewing (MI)-a set of clinical techniques-have both been used in health behavior intervention contexts. Although developed for somewhat different purposes and in relatively different domains, there is a good deal of conceptual overlap between SDT and MI. Accordingly, SDT may offer the theoretical backing that historically has been missing from MI, and MI may offer SDT some specific direction with respect to particular clinical techniques that have not been fully borne out within the confines of health related applications of SDT. Research is needed to empirically test the overlap and distinctions between SDT and MI and to determine the extent to which these two perspectives can be combined or co-exist as somewhat distinct approaches. © 2012 Patrick and Williams; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Petrie R.J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Koo H.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Koo H.,University of Rochester | Koo H.,University of Pennsylvania | Yamada K.M.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Science | Year: 2014

Cells use actomyosin contractility to move through three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices. Contractility affects the type of protrusions cells use to migrate in 3D, but the mechanisms are unclear. In this work, we found that contractility generated high-pressure lobopodial protrusions in human cells migrating in a 3D matrix. In these cells, the nucleus physically divided the cytoplasm into forward and rear compartments. Actomyosin contractility with the nucleoskeleton-intermediate filament linker protein nesprin-3 pulled the nucleus forward and pressurized the front of the cell. Reducing expression of nesprin-3 decreased and equalized the intracellular pressure. Thus, the nucleus can act as a piston that physically compartmentalizes the cytoplasm and increases the hydrostatic pressure between the nucleus and the leading edge of the cell to drive lamellipodia-independent 3D cell migration.


Pinquart M.,University of Marburg | Sorensen S.,University of Rochester
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2011

The present meta-analysis integrates the results from 168 empirical studies on differences between caregiving spouses, adult children, and children-in-law. Spouses differ from children and children-in-law significantly with regard to sociodemographic variables; also, they provide more support but report fewer care recipient behavior problems. Spouse caregivers report more depression symptoms, greater financial and physical burden, and lower levels of psychological well-being. Higher levels of psychological distress among spouses are explained mostly-but not completely-by higher levels of care provision. Few differences emerge between children and children-in-law, but children-in-law perceive the relationship with the care recipient as less positive and they report fewer uplifts of caregiving. © 2011 American Psychological Association.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.3-2 | Award Amount: 5.27M | Year: 2009

Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP) are increasingly produced for use in a wide range of industrial and consumer products. Yet it is known that exposure to some types of particles can cause severe health effects. Therefore it is essential to ascertain whether exposure to ENP can lead to possible health risks for workers and consumers. We have formed a consortium of well-known scientists from European Universities and Research Institutes, with over 100 publications in the field of Nanotoxicology. Our aim is to develop an approach for the Risk Assessment of ENP (ENPRA). Our objectives are: (i) to obtain a bank of commercial ENP with contrasting physico-chemical characteristics and measure them; (ii) to investigate the toxic effects of ENP on 5 (pulmonary, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and developmental) target systems and 5 endpoints (oxidative stress, inflammation; immuno-toxicity; fibrogenecity; genotoxicity) using in vitro animal/human models; (iii) to validate the in vitro findings with a small set of carefully chosen in vivo animal experiments; (iv) to construct mathematical models to extrapolate the exposure-dose-response relationship from in vitro to in vivo and to humans; (v) to use QSAR like models to identify the key ENP characteristics driving the adverse effects; (vi) to implement a risk assessment of ENP using the Weight-of-Evidence approach; (vii) to disseminate our findings to potential stakeholders. To harmonise the research activities between our EU group and the US, we have established links with scientists from US Universities (Duke, Rochester) and Government Agencies (NIH/NIEHS, NIOSH and EPA) with on-going research in Nanotoxicology. Our objectives here are (vii) to share information and agree on experimental protocols; (viii) to avoid duplication of work; (ix) to further validate the findings of this proposed study.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP-2008-1.3-2 | Award Amount: 3.42M | Year: 2009

The InLiveTox project will form an interdisciplinary consortium at the European level, together with a key American research group to develop an improved in vitro model for the study of nanoparticle (NP) uptake, transport and cellular interaction, thus advancing our understanding of NP toxicity. Rather than repeat what has, or is being done in the field of aerosol NP and lung toxicology, InLiveTox will focus on the impact of NP exposure via ingestion, in the healthy and diseased gastrointestinal (GI) tract, vascular endothelium and liver. The key questions in this study are: (i) How do these tissues individually respond to NPs? (ii) How do the interactions between the different tissues modulate their responses? (iii) How does inflammation affect the toxicity of NPs and their ability cross the intestinal barrier? (iv) Which physico-chemical characteristics of NPs influence their uptake by intestinal epithelial cells and their subsequent interactions with endothelial and liver cells? The objective of InLiveTox will be to develop a novel modular microfluidics-based in vitro test system modelling the response of cells and tissues to the ingestion of NPs. Cell culture modules of target tissues such as the GI tract, the liver and the endothelium will be connected via a microfluidics system so that knock-on and cross talk effects between organs and tissues can be monitored. A major innovative aspect of the InLiveTox project pertains to the implementation of biological tissue models in a microfabricated compartmental cell culture system that allows multiple cell types to be addressed and investigated in combination. This system will be much easier, more convenient and ethically less questionable than animal testing, as well as more relevant than the in vitro single cell /co-culture models currently used. For this study, applications of the model will focus on NP toxicology, but the system could also be widely used in various applications of toxicology and pharmacology.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

BOSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Brook Venture Partners, a Boston-based growth equity firm is pleased to announce the promotions of Brennan Mulcahey, Jonathan Green and Kyle Stanbro to Partner. They join Partners and Board members Fred Morris, Ned Williams and Walter Beinecke, and Director of Finance and Operations Jenn Mosto, as members of the senior management team. The firm has also promoted Ryan Wittman and Amit Nagdev to Associate. Commenting on the promotions, Fred Morris said, “Brook has doubled its assets under management over the past five years while evolving its focus from earlier stage investments to control, growth equity investments in technology and technology-enabled service companies. These three upcoming Partners and two Associates have been integral to this growth and evolution of focus. I am very pleased to see the next generation of talent rise to the Partner level.” Brennan Mulcahey joined Brook in 2011 and focuses primarily on leading new investments in Healthcare Information Technology, B2B Software, and Tech-Enabled Services, working with companies that have a proven business model and are looking to accelerate growth through enhanced sales and marketing. Brennan serves on the Board of Directors of Brook portfolio company Medicine-On-Time and is a Board observer at seven Brook portfolio companies. Brennan earned his BA in Finance from the University of Rochester in three years and holds an MBA from the Simon School of Business at the University of Rochester. Jonathan Green joined Brook in 2004 and is the head of Investor Relations. Prior to joining Brook, Jonathan was Vice President of Investor Relations for Boston American Asset Management, Inc. where he launched the firm’s second fund, doubling assets under management. Previously he founded or turned around various technology firms including Crestec Los Angeles, Inc., Aurora Graphics, and Touchmark, Inc. He holds a B.S. in Business Administration from the Whittemore School of Business at the University of New Hampshire. Kyle Stanbro joined Brook in 2014 and is the head of the Financial Planning and Analysis team, working very closely with Brook’s portfolio companies to manage their financial reporting, analysis, and planning. He is also engaged in evaluating strategic acquisition opportunities for these companies as they arise. Prior to joining Brook, Kyle held financial management positions at Travelers and Kodak. Kyle earned his BS in Corporate Finance from St. John Fisher College in Rochester, NY and holds an MBA from the Simon Graduate School of Business at the University of Rochester, completing concentrations in Finance and Corporate Accounting. Ryan Wittman joined Brook in 2014 and works closely with several of Brook’s portfolio companies to help with their financial reporting, analysis and planning. Prior to Brook, Ryan worked as a Financial Analyst at CSM Corporation, a Minneapolis based Real Estate Acquisition Company. Ryan earned his BA in Applied Economics and Management from Cornell University and holds an MBA from Boston College with a specialization in Corporate Finance. Amit Nagdev joined Brook in 2015 and works closely with several of Brook’s portfolio companies to help with their financial reporting, analysis and planning. Prior to joining Brook, Amit held corporate finance positions at Liberty Mutual, Constellation Brands, and Remy Cointreau. Amit earned his BA from Bentley University, holds an MBA from the University of Rochester, and has completed all three levels of the CFA exam. Brook Venture Partners makes growth equity control investments in Information Technology and IT-enabled service companies located in the eastern United States. The firm focuses on initial acquisition investments of $2-15 million and specializes in both financing and providing the strategic and planning support necessary to effectively manage growth. Brook is headquartered outside Boston in Wakefield, MA. For more information on Brook Venture Partners, see www.brookventure.com.


News Article | February 17, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

FREMONT, Calif., Feb. 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- BioGenex, a global leader in molecular pathology, is pleased to announce development of a novel system for quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC). The system was developed in collaboration with the University of Rochester (NY, USA) and...


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.newscientist.com

It was there at the birth of our planet 4.5 billion years ago. Now we know how magma from that formative period has survived to the present day, occasionally making it to the surface. And the tale it tells should help us better understand Earth’s formation. “This deep reservoir is a time capsule preserving signatures of the earliest history of the Earth that are not recorded in any other part of the planet that we have access to,” says Matt Jackson at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His team has now discovered how these rocky relics survived intact for so long, and how they get lifted from deep in the mantle by hot plumes then spewed onto the surface through volcanic eruptions. The relic lava rocks contain helium isotopes in proportions that can only be explained if they formed inside primordial Earth. Helium-3 is a rare isotope, usually at least as old as Earth itself, unlike its abundant sister isotope helium-4, which is produced by the decay of elements that formed on Earth much later, like uranium and thorium. This means that the greater the ratio of helium-3 to helium-4 in a lava sample, the older that sample probably is. Geologists first discovered mantle plume-fed lavas with a high proportion of helium-3 in the 1980s, around volcanic hotspots.  But they were often found alongside lavas that didn’t have the “ancient” helium signature. “For over three decades, geologists have been trying to figure out why some plumes have high amounts of helium-3, while others don’t,” says Jackson. Now Jackson and his colleagues have analysed published data to explore relationships between the helium ratios in “relic” rocks from relatively shallow plumes beneath 38 well-known volcanic hotspots, whose buoyancy, temperature and speed could be measured or inferred. He thinks they have the answer. “Only the hottest plumes have the high helium-3 content,” Jackson says. “Cooler plumes do not.” The team concludes that since the birth of Earth, these hot plumes have retained the ancient helium signature, occasionally bursting onto the surface in volcanic eruptions. Jackson suggests that there are extremely dense domains within the mantle that have kept the hot, slow-moving plumes and their precious helium cargo intact.  In contrast, cooler plumes are more porous and have become infiltrated by the more recently formed helium-4, which eventually dwarfs the amount of ancient helium-3 there. “Jackson and his colleagues nicely resolve a major discrepancy – the occurrence of both high and low helium-3 proportions from hotspots,” says John Tarduno at the University of Rochester in New York. “Their explanation is elegant and simple: that hot plumes with high buoyancy preferentially transport helium-3-rich lavas which can be observed at the surface.” “Their data strongly weigh in favour of a primordial origin, an astounding and challenging conclusion, considering the potential stirring induced by billions of years of plate tectonics,” Tarduno says. “Understanding the source of these geochemical signatures in hotspot lavas has very important implications for our understanding of the dynamics of the Earth’s interior,” says Rizo Hanika of the University of Quebec at Montreal, Canada. It could help geologists establish the locations and sizes of the ancient “relic” reservoirs in the mantle, she says. “Having a record of this early history is important to understanding how our planet formed and evolved in the earliest days after formation,” says Jackson. Jackson says the ancient, helium-3-rich lavas often contain another signature of their early origin – the isotopes xenon-129 and tungsten-182. Both could only have been formed in the first 100 to 50 million years of Earth’s genesis, because the radioactive isotopes from which they originate – iodine-130 and hafnium-182 – would both have decayed and become extinct within that time frame. “Once these were extinct, no further traces of the xenon and tungsten isotopes could be generated,” he says.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.businesswire.com

SAINT-PREX, Switzerland--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Ferring today announced the recipients of the 2016-2017 Ferring Innovation Grants program, an annual initiative of the Ferring Research Institute (FRI) which provides grants of up to $100,000 for early stage research. The program focuses on novel extracellular drug targets addressable with peptides or proteins within Ferring’s core therapeutic areas: reproductive health, gastroenterology, urology, and endocrinology. The 2016-2017 awardees and their research subjects are: Stuart Brierley - Flinders University, Australia Venom-derived NaV1.1 inhibitors as novel candidates for treating chronic visceral pain associated with IBS James Deane - Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Australia Investigating the requirement for Notch and Hedgehog signalling in the endometrial stem/progenitor populations that cause endometriosis Marie van Dijk - University of Amsterdam, Netherlands ELABELA as a potential biomarker and therapeutic for pre-eclampsia Florenta Kullmann - University of Pittsburgh, USA Artemin: a novel target for treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome Mireille Lahoud - Monash University, Australia The development of Clec12A-ligands as a therapeutic approach to regulate gastrointestinal inflammation Padma Murthi - Monash University, Australia Investigating the role of novel peptide receptor as an effective target to improve placental function in preeclampsia Markus Muttenthaler - The University of Queensland, Australia Mapping the location and function of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors throughout the gut Rodrigo Pacheco – Fundación Ciencia & Vida and Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Chile Targeting heteromers formed by G-protein coupled receptors involved in the gut-homing of T-cells in inflammatory bowel diseases Aritro Sen – The University of Rochester, USA Regulation of AMH expression by GDF9+BMP15 and FSH during follicular development as a novel therapeutic option “We look forward to the outcomes of the research being carried out by our grant awardees,” said Keith James, President of FRI and Senior Vice President, Research and Development. “Ferring is committed to stimulating basic research, with the ultimate aim of developing innovative products that improve the lives of patients.” Applications for the 2017-2018 Ferring Innovation Grants programme will open in spring/summer 2017. For more information on this year’s program, visit www.ferring-research.com/ferring-grants. About Ferring Research Institute Inc Located in San Diego, California Ferring Research Institute Inc. (FRI) is the global peptide therapeutics research center for Ferring Pharmaceuticals. FRI is committed to building a portfolio of novel, innovative peptide-based drugs and biologicals to address the high unmet medical need for patients in our therapeutic areas of interest. For more detailed information please visit www.ferring-research.com. About Ferring Pharmaceuticals Headquartered in Switzerland, Ferring Pharmaceuticals is a research-driven, specialty biopharmaceutical group active in global markets. The company identifies, develops and markets innovative products in the areas of reproductive health, urology, gastroenterology, endocrinology and orthopaedics. Ferring has its own operating subsidiaries in nearly 60 countries and markets its products in 110 countries. To learn more about Ferring or its products please visit www.ferring.com.


Epstein R.M.,University of Rochester
Patient Education and Counseling | Year: 2013

Objective: To review the theory, research evidence and ethical implications regarding "whole mind" and "shared mind" in clinical practice in the context of chronic and serious illnesses. Methods: Selective critical review of the intersection of classical and naturalistic decision-making theories, cognitive neuroscience, communication research and ethics as they apply to decision-making and autonomy. Results: Decision-making involves analytic thinking as well as affect and intuition (" whole mind") and sharing cognitive and affective schemas of two or more individuals (" shared mind"). Social relationships can help processing of complex information that otherwise would overwhelm individuals' cognitive capacities. Conclusions: Medical decision-making research, teaching and practice should consider both analytic and non-analytic cognitive processes. Further, research should consider that decisions emerge not only from the individual perspectives of patients, their families and clinicians, but also the perspectives that emerge from the interactions among them. Social interactions have the potential to enhance individual autonomy, as well as to promote relational autonomy based on shared frames of reference. Practice implications: Shared mind has the potential to result in wiser decisions, greater autonomy and self-determination; yet, clinicians and patients should be vigilant for the potential of hierarchical relationships to foster coercion or silencing of the patient's voice. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Koo H.,University of Rochester
Journal of dental research | Year: 2013

Many infectious diseases in humans are caused or exacerbated by biofilms. Dental caries is a prime example of a biofilm-dependent disease, resulting from interactions of microorganisms, host factors, and diet (sugars), which modulate the dynamic formation of biofilms on tooth surfaces. All biofilms have a microbial-derived extracellular matrix as an essential constituent. The exopolysaccharides formed through interactions between sucrose- (and starch-) and Streptococcus mutans-derived exoenzymes present in the pellicle and on microbial surfaces (including non-mutans) provide binding sites for cariogenic and other organisms. The polymers formed in situ enmesh the microorganisms while forming a matrix facilitating the assembly of three-dimensional (3D) multicellular structures that encompass a series of microenvironments and are firmly attached to teeth. The metabolic activity of microbes embedded in this exopolysaccharide-rich and diffusion-limiting matrix leads to acidification of the milieu and, eventually, acid-dissolution of enamel. Here, we discuss recent advances concerning spatio-temporal development of the exopolysaccharide matrix and its essential role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. We focus on how the matrix serves as a 3D scaffold for biofilm assembly while creating spatial heterogeneities and low-pH microenvironments/niches. Further understanding on how the matrix modulates microbial activity and virulence expression could lead to new approaches to control cariogenic biofilms.


Howland G.A.,University of Rochester | Howell J.C.,University of Rochester
Physical Review X | Year: 2013

We implement a double-pixel compressive-sensing camera to efficiently characterize, at high resolution, the spatially entangled fields that are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. This technique leverages sparsity in spatial correlations between entangled photons to improve acquisition times over raster scanning by a scaling factor up to n2= log(n) for n-dimensional images.We image at resolutions up to 1024 dimensions per detector and demonstrate a channel capacity of 8.4 bits per photon. By comparing the entangled photons' classical mutual information in conjugate bases, we violate an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen separability criterion for all measured resolutions. More broadly, our result indicates that compressive sensing can be especially effective for higher-order measurements on correlated systems.


Georas S.N.,University of Rochester | Rezaee F.,University of Rochester
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology | Year: 2014

Airway epithelial cells form a barrier to the outside world and are at the front line of mucosal immunity. Epithelial apical junctional complexes are multiprotein subunits that promote cell-cell adhesion and barrier integrity. Recent studies in the skin and gastrointestinal tract suggest that disruption of cell-cell junctions is required to initiate epithelial immune responses, but how this applies to mucosal immunity in the lung is not clear. Increasing evidence indicates that defective epithelial barrier function is a feature of airway inflammation in asthmatic patients. One challenge in this area is that barrier function and junctional integrity are difficult to study in the intact lung, but innovative approaches should provide new knowledge in this area in the near future. In this article we review the structure and function of epithelial apical junctional complexes, emphasizing how regulation of the epithelial barrier affects innate and adaptive immunity. We discuss why defective epithelial barrier function might be linked to TH2 polarization in asthmatic patients and propose a rheostat model of barrier dysfunction that implicates the size of inhaled allergen particles as an important factor influencing adaptive immunity. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Zareba W.,University of Rochester
Kidney International | Year: 2015

Initiation of dialysis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, a question could be asked whether these events are caused by initiation of dialysis or whether dialysis serves as a trigger unveiling or worsening underlying preexisting cardiovascular comorbidities that could be pre-treated. © 2015 International Society of Nephrology.


Wang X.,University of Rochester | Eberly J.H.,University of Rochester
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

The degree of elliptical polarization of intense short laser pulses is shown to be related to the timing of strong-field nonsequential double ionization. Higher ellipticity is predicted to force the initiation of double ionization into a narrower time window, and this "pins" the ionizing field strength in an unexpected way, leading to the first experimentally testable formula for double ionization probability as a function of ellipticity. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Li P.,University of Rochester | Dery H.,University of Rochester
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010

Silicon is an ideal material choice for spintronics devices due to its relatively long spin relaxation time and mature technology. To date, however, there are no parameter-free methods to accurately determine the degree of spin polarization of electrons in silicon. This missing link is established with a theory that provides concise relations between the degrees of spin polarization and measured circular polarization for each of the dominant phonon-assisted optical transitions. The phonon symmetries play a key role in elucidating recent spin injection experiments in silicon. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Jones W.D.,University of Rochester
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2014

Organometallic compounds have been found to be of use in cleaving C–C bonds, as strong metal–carbon bonds can be formed to replace the bond that is broken. Studies of the mechanism of C–C cleavage can provide insight into how these bonds can be cleaved, and can give valuable information that can be used to develop new strategies for breaking C–C bonds and using the products in catalysis. In this chapter, we will examine a number of systems where mechanistic information has been obtained in C–C cleavage. ©Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013


Dolgaleva K.,King's College | Boyd R.W.,University of Ottawa | Boyd R.W.,University of Rochester
Advances in Optics and Photonics | Year: 2012

It is well known that the optical response of a medium depends on the local field acting on an individual emitter rather than on the macroscopic average field in the medium. The local field depends very sensitively on the microcopic environment in an optical medium. It is thus possible to achieve a significant control over the local field by intermixing homogeneous materials on a nanoscale to produce composite optical materials. A combination of local-field effects and nanostructuring provides new degrees of freedom for manipulating the optical properties of photonic materials. Especially interesting opportunities open up in the nonlinear optical regime where the material response depends on the local-field correction as a power law. The goal of this review is to present a conceptual overview of the influence of local-field effects on the optical properties of photonic materials, both homogeneous and composite. We also give a summary of recent achievements in controlling the optical properties by local-field effects and nanostructuring. © 2010 Optical Society of America.


Fintzi A.R.,University of Rochester | Mahon B.Z.,University of Rochester
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2014

Orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is known to play a role in object recognition by generating "first-pass" hypotheses about the identity of naturalistic images based on low spatial frequency (SF) information. These hypotheses are evaluated by more detailed (and slower) ventral visual pathway processes. While it has been suggested on theoretical grounds, it remains unknown whether OFC also receives postrecognition feedback about stimulus identity. We used a novel paradigm in the context of functional magnetic resonance imaging that permits the first few hundred milliseconds of object recognition to be spread out over 120 s. OFC shows a robust response to low and relatively high SFs, whereas ventral stream regions display unimodal response distributions shifted toward high SFs. These findings in OFC were modulated by hemisphere, with right OFC differentially responding to low SFs and left OFC differentially responding to high SFs. Psychophysical experiments confirmed that the same ranges of SFs preferred by ventral stream regions are critical for determining the accuracy and speed of object recognition. Our findings indicate that OFC accesses global form (low SF information, right OFC) and object identity (high SF information, left OFC), and suggest that OFC receives feedback about the accuracy of its initial hypothesis regarding stimulus identity. © 2013 The Author.


Han Z.,University of Rochester | Eisenberg R.,University of Rochester
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusHydrogen has been labeled the fuel of the future since it contains no carbon, has the highest specific enthalpy of combustion of any chemical fuel, yields only water upon complete oxidation, and is not limited by Carnot considerations in the amount of work obtained when used in a fuel cell. To be used on the scale needed for sustainable growth on a global scale, hydrogen must be produced by the light-driven splitting of water into its elements, as opposed to reforming of methane, as is currently done. The photochemical generation of H2, which is the reductive side of the water splitting reaction, is the focus of this Account, particularly with regard to work done in the senior authors laboratory over the last 5 years. Despite seminal work done more than 30 years ago and the extensive research conducted since then on all aspects of the process, no viable system has been developed for the efficient and robust photogeneration of H2 from water using only earth abundant elements. For the photogeneration of H2 from water, a system must contain a light absorber, a catalyst, and a source of electrons. In this Account, the discovery and study of new Co and Ni catalysts are described that suggest H2 forms via a heterocoupling mechanism from a metal-hydride and a ligand-bound proton. Several complexes with redox active dithiolene ligands are newly recognized to be effective in promoting the reaction.A major new development in the work described is the use of water-soluble CdSe quantum dots (QDs) as light absorbers for H2 generation in water. Both activity and robustness of the most successful systems are impressive with turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 106, activity maintained over 15 days, and a quantum yield for H2 of 36% with 520 nm light. The water solubilizing capping agent for the first system examined was dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) anion, and the catalyst was determined to be a DHLA complex of Ni(II) formed in situ. Dissociation of DHLA from the QD surface proved problematic in assessing other catalysts and stimulated the synthesis of tridentate trithiolate (S3) capping agents that are inert to dissociation. In this way, CdSe QDs having these S3 capping agents were used in systems for the photogeneration of H2 that allowed meaningful comparison of the relative activity of different catalysts for the light-driven production of H2 from water. This new chemistry also points the way to the development of new photocathodes based on S 3-capped QDs for removal of the chemical sacrificial electron donor and its replacement electrochemically in photoelectrosynthetic cells. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Mamajek E.E.,University of Rochester | Bell C.P.M.,University of Rochester
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Binks & Jeffries and Malo et al. have recently reported Li depletion boundary (LDB) ages for the β Pictoris moving group (BPMG) which are twice as old as the oft-cited kinematic age of ~12 Myr. In this study, we present (1) a new evaluation of the internal kinematics of the BPMG using the revised Hipparcos astrometry and best available published radial velocities, and assess whether a useful kinematic age can be derived, and (2) derive an isochronal age based on the placement of the A-, F-, and G-type stars in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). We explore the kinematics of the BPMG looking at velocity trends along Galactic axes, and conducting traceback analyses assuming linear trajectories, epicyclic orbit approximation, and orbit integration using a realistic gravitational potential. None of the methodologies yield a kinematic age with small uncertainties using modern velocity data. Expansion in the Galactic X and Y directions is significant only at the 1.7σ and 2.7σ levels, and together yields an overall kinematic age with a wide range (13-58 Myr; 95 per cent CL). The A-type members are all on the zero-age main sequence, suggestive of an age of >20 Myr, and the loci of the CMD positions for the late-F- and G-type pre-main-sequence BPMG members have a median isochronal age of 22 Myr (± 3Myr statistical, ±1 Myr systematic) when considering four sets of modern theoretical isochrones. The results from recent LDB and isochronal age analyses are now in agreement with a median BPMG age of 23 ± 3 Myr (overall 1s uncertainty, including ±2 Myr statistical and ±2Myr systematic uncertainties). © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.


Heilbronner S.R.,University of Rochester | Hayden B.Y.,University of Rochester
Frontiers in Neuroscience | Year: 2013

In contrast to humans and most other animals, rhesus macaques strongly prefer risky rewards to safe ones with similar expected value. Why macaques prefer risk while other animals typically avoid it remains puzzling and challenges the idea that monkeys provide a model for human economic behavior. Here we argue that monkeys' risk-seeking preferences are neither mysterious nor unique. Risk-seeking in macaques is possibly induced by specific elements of the tasks that have been used to measure their risk preferences. The most important of these elements are (1) very small stakes, (2) serially repeated gambles with short delays between trials, and (3) task parameters that are learned through experience, not described verbally. Together, we hypothesize that these features will readily induce risk-seeking in monkeys, humans, and rats. Thus, elements of task design that are often ignored when comparing studies of risk attitudes can easily overwhelm basal risk preferences. More broadly, these results highlight the fundamental importance of understanding the psychological basis of economic decisions in interpreting preference data and corresponding neural measures. © 2013 Heilbronner and Hayden.


Blackman E.G.,University of Rochester
Space Science Reviews | Year: 2015

Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object’s history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Shah M.N.,University of Rochester
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2013

To document the experiences of patients, their caregivers, healthcare personnel, and staff members with a program that provides telemedicine-enhanced emergency care to older adults residing in senior living communities (SLCs) and to delineate perceived barriers and facilitators. Qualitative study. A primary care geriatric medicine practice. Stakeholders associated with telemedicine visits: patients, family caregivers, telemedicine dispatcher, certified telemedicine assistants, telemedicine providers, and SLC staff. Between June and August 2011, telemedicine encounters were observed, and field notes were recorded. After each telemedicine visit, all participants were interviewed using a semistructured guide. Discrete statements from interviews and field notes were coded and arranged into themes. Concordance or discordance in field notes and stakeholder responses were grouped for analysis. After 10 telemedicine visits and 34 interviews from 21 unique participants, redundancy was achieved. Participants and their families overwhelmingly reported satisfaction with their care, remarking particularly on the convenience, speed, and completeness of the evaluation. Participants reported some unmet expectations regarding provider presence at home and visit length. Providers thought telemedicine made them more efficient overall and improved diagnostic certainty but considered in-person visits to be superior. All stakeholders, including patients, noted inadequate telemedicine technician training, leading to low confidence levels and performance difficulties. Participants, providers, and telemedicine technicians cited problems with the reliability, weight, and size of the equipment as serious challenges, decreasing their satisfaction and increasing their frustration. Telemedicine-enhanced emergency care is an acceptable method of providing emergency care to older adults in SLCs. Stakeholders report a number of advantages. Training and technology barriers require particular attention. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.


Szilagyi P.G.,University of Rochester
Future of Children | Year: 2012

Few people would disagree that children with disabilities need adequate health insurance. But what kind of health insurance coverage would be optimal for these children? Peter Szilagyi surveys the current state of insurance coverage for children with special health care needs and examines critical aspects of coverage with an eye to helping policy makers and clinicians improve systems of care for them. He also reviews the extent to which insurance enhances their access to and use of health care, the quality of care received, and their health outcomes.


Choi J.S.,University of Rochester | Howell J.C.,University of Rochester
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Despite much interest and progress in optical spatial cloaking, a three-dimensional (3D), transmitting, continuously multidirectional cloak in the visible regime has not yet been demonstrated. Here we experimentally demonstrate such a cloak using ray optics, albeit with some edge effects. Our device requires no new materials, uses isotropic off-the-shelf optics, scales easily to cloak arbitrarily large objects, and is as broadband as the choice of optical material, all of which have been challenges for current cloaking schemes. In addition, we provide a concise formalism that quantifies and produces perfect optical cloaks in the small-angle ('paraxial') limit. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Bauer A.,University of Rochester | Rolland J.P.,University of Rochester
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Head-worn displays have begun to infiltrate the commercial electronics scene as mobile computing power has decreased in price and increased in availability. A prototypical head-worn display is both lightweight and compact, while achieving high quality optical performance. In off-axis geometries, freeform optical surfaces allow an optical designer additional degrees of freedom necessary to create a device that meets these conditions. In this paper, we show two optical see-through head-worn display designs, both comprising two freeform elements with an emphasis on visual space assessment and parameters. © 2014 Optical Society of America.


Weis J.M.,University of Rochester | Levy P.C.,University of Rochester
Chest | Year: 2014

The modern medical record is not only used by providers to record nuances of patient care, but also is a document that must withstand the scrutiny of insurance payers and legal review. Medical documentation has evolved with the rapid growth in the use of electronic health records (EHRs). The medical software industry has created new tools and more efficient ways to document patient care encounters and record results of diagnostic testing. While these techniques have resulted in efficiencies and improvements in patient care and provider documentation, they have also created a host of new problems, including authorship attribution, data integrity, and regulatory concerns over the accuracy and medical necessity of billed services. Policies to guide provider documentation in EHRs have been developed by institutions and payers with the goal of reducing patient care risks as well as preventing fraud and abuse. In this article, we describe the major content-importing technologies that are commonly used in EHR documentation as well as the benefi ts and risks associated with their use. We have also reviewed a number of institutional policies and offer some best practice recommendations. © 2014 American College of Chest Physicians.


Haber S.N.,University of Rochester | Knutson B.,Stanford University
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2010

Although cells in many brain regions respond to reward, the cortical-basal ganglia circuit is at the heart of the reward system. The key structures in this network are the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbital prefrontal cortex, the ventral striatum, the ventral pallidum, and the midbrain dopamine neurons. In addition, other structures, including the dorsal prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and lateral habenular nucleus, and specific brainstem structures such as the pedunculopontine nucleus, and the raphe nucleus, are key components in regulating the reward circuit. Connectivity between these areas forms a complex neural network that mediates different aspects of reward processing. Advances in neuroimaging techniques allow better spatial and temporal resolution. These studies now demonstrate that human functional and structural imaging results map increasingly close to primate anatomy. © 2010 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved.


Anandarajah A.,University of Rochester
Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2013

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis, is often associated with significant inflammation and joint damage leading to a decrease in quality of life measures. Plain radiographs have traditionally been used to detect and estimate the extent of joint damage. Newer imaging modalities such as ultrasound and MRI however, have provided the ability to detect joint damage earlier and measure the extent of joint damage more accurately, than with radiographs. These imaging modalities also provide a sensitive means of assessing for the presence of and quantifying the amount of inflammation. Furthermore, these imaging modalities can help with the identification of enthesitis, tendonitis, and dactylitis, features that can help make a diagnosis of PsA. Additionally, MRI and scintigraphy can help in the early detection and assessment of sacroiliitis and axial disease. In addition to benefits with diagnosis and prognosis, recent advances in imaging techniques have led to their increased use in the assessment of efficacy of novel therapies for psoriatic arthritis. Imaging modalities therefore allow for early detection, assessment of joint inflammation and joint damage as well as in the estimation of disease activity of PsA and thereby enable the clinician to treat PsA early, adequately, and safely. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Reuter J.S.,University of Rochester | Mathews D.H.,University of Rochester
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2010

Background: To understand an RNA sequence's mechanism of action, the structure must be known. Furthermore, target RNA structure is an important consideration in the design of small interfering RNAs and antisense DNA oligonucleotides. RNA secondary structure prediction, using thermodynamics, can be used to develop hypotheses about the structure of an RNA sequence.Results: RNAstructure is a software package for RNA secondary structure prediction and analysis. It uses thermodynamics and utilizes the most recent set of nearest neighbor parameters from the Turner group. It includes methods for secondary structure prediction (using several algorithms), prediction of base pair probabilities, bimolecular structure prediction, and prediction of a structure common to two sequences. This contribution describes new extensions to the package, including a library of C++ classes for incorporation into other programs, a user-friendly graphical user interface written in JAVA, and new Unix-style text interfaces. The original graphical user interface for Microsoft Windows is still maintained.Conclusion: The extensions to RNAstructure serve to make RNA secondary structure prediction user-friendly. The package is available for download from the Mathews lab homepage at http://rna.urmc.rochester.edu/RNAstructure.html. © 2010 Reuter and Mathews; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Kaminski D.A.,University of Rochester | Randall T.D.,University of Rochester
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2010

Studies of immunity typically focus on understanding how hematopoietic cells interact within conventional secondary lymphoid tissues. However, immune reactions and their regulation occur in various environments within the body. Adipose tissue is one tissue that can influence and be influenced by adjacent and embedded lymphocytes. Despite the abundance and wide distribution of such tissue, and despite a growing obesity epidemic, studies of these interactions have been only marginally appreciated in the past. Here, we review advances in understanding of lymphoid structures within adipose tissue, the relationship between adipose tissue and adaptive immune function, and evidence for how this relationship contributes to obesity-associated diseases. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Randall T.D.,University of Rochester
Advances in Immunology | Year: 2010

Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) is a constitutive mucosal lymphoid tissue adjacent to major airways in some mammalian species, including rats and rabbits, but not humans or mice. A related tissue, inducible BALT (iBALT), is an ectopic lymphoid tissue that is formed upon inflammation or infection in both mice and humans and can be found throughout the lung. Both BALT and iBALT acquire antigens from the airways and initiate local immune responses and maintain memory cells in the lungs. Here, we discuss the development and function of BALT and iBALT in the context of pulmonary immunity to infectious agents, tumors, and allergens as well as autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases of the lung. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Oberdorster G.,University of Rochester
Journal of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010

Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanotoxicology are complementary disciplines aimed at the betterment of human life. However, concerns have been expressed about risks posed by engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), their potential to cause undesirable effects, contaminate the environment and adversely affect susceptible parts of the population. Information about toxicity and biokinetics of nano-enabled products combined with the knowledge of unintentional human and environmental exposure or intentional delivery for medicinal purposes will be necessary to determine real or perceived risks of nanomaterials. Yet, results of toxicological studies using only extraordinarily high experimental doses have to be interpreted with caution. Key concepts of nanotoxicology are addressed, including significance of dose, dose rate, and biokinetics, which are exemplified by specific findings of ENM toxicity, and by discussing the importance of detailed physico-chemical characterization of nanoparticles, specifically surface properties. Thorough evaluation of desirable versus adverse effects is required for safe applications of ENMs, and major challenges lie ahead to answer key questions of nanotoxicology. Foremost are assessment of human and environmental exposure, and biokinetics or pharmacokinetics, identification of potential hazards, and biopersistence in cells and subcellular structures to perform meaningful risk assessments. A specific example of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating toxicological results. MWCNT were found to cause asbestos-like effects of the mesothelium following intracavitary injection of high doses in rodents. The important question of whether inhaled MWCNT will translocate to sensitive mesothelial sites has not been answered yet. Even without being able to perform a quantitative risk assessment for ENMs, due to the lack of sufficient data on exposure, biokinetics and organ toxicity, until we know better it should be made mandatory to prevent exposure by appropriate precautionary measures/regulations and practicing best industrial hygiene to avoid future horror scenarios from environmental or occupational exposures. Similarly, safety assessment for medical applications as key contribution of nanotoxicology to nanomedicine relies heavily on nano-specific toxicological concepts and findings and on a multidisciplinary collaborative approach involving material scientists, physicians and toxicologists. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Hadjiargyrou M.,New York Institute of Technology | O'Keefe R.J.,University of Rochester
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research | Year: 2014

The complexity of fracture repair makes it an ideal process for studying the interplay between the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ level events involved in tissue regeneration. Additionally, as fracture repair recapitulates many of the processes that occur during embryonic development, investigations of fracture repair provide insights regarding skeletal embryogenesis. Specifically, inflammation, signaling, gene expression, cellular proliferation and differentiation, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and remodeling represent the complex array of interdependent biological events that occur during fracture repair. Here we review studies of bone regeneration in genetically modified mouse models, during aging, following environmental exposure, and in the setting of disease that provide insights regarding the role of multipotent cells and their regulation during fracture repair. Complementary animal models and ongoing scientific discoveries define an increasing number of molecular and cellular targets to reduce the morbidity and complications associated with fracture repair. Last, some new and exciting areas of stem cell research such as the contribution of mitochondria function, limb regeneration signaling, and microRNA (miRNA) posttranscriptional regulation are all likely to further contribute to our understanding of fracture repair as an active branch of regenerative medicine. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Novotny L.,University of Rochester | Van Hulst N.,Institute Of Ciencies Fotoniques | Van Hulst N.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Nature Photonics | Year: 2011

Optical antennas are devices that convert freely propagating optical radiation into localized energy, and vice versa. They enable the control and manipulation of optical fields at the nanometre scale, and hold promise for enhancing the performance and efficiency of photodetection, light emission and sensing. Although many of the properties and parameters of optical antennas are similar to their radiowave and microwave counterparts, they have important differences resulting from their small size and the resonant properties of metal nanostructures. This Review summarizes the physical properties of optical antennas, provides a summary of some of the most important recent developments in the field, discusses the potential applications and identifies the future challenges and opportunities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Bharadwaj P.,University of Rochester | Novotny L.,University of Rochester
Nano Letters | Year: 2011

Photon emission from quantum dots (QDs) and other quantum emitters is characterized by abrupt jumps between an "on" and an "off" state. In contrast to ions and atoms however, the durations of bright and dark periods in colloidal QDs curiously defy a characteristic time scale and are best described by a power-law probability distribution, i.e., ρ(τ) ∞ τ-β. We controllably couple a single colloidal QD to a single gold nanoparticle and find that power-law blinking is preserved unaltered even as the gold nanoparticle drastically modifies the excitonic decay rate of the QD. This resilience of the power law to change provides evidence that blinking statistics are not swayed by environment-induced variations in kinetics and provides clues toward the mechanism responsible for universal fluorescence intermittency. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Welte M.A.,University of Rochester
Current Biology | Year: 2015

Lipid droplets are the intracellular sites for neutral lipid storage. They are critical for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction has been linked to many diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that the roles lipid droplets play in biology are significantly broader than previously anticipated. Lipid droplets are the source of molecules important in the nucleus: they can sequester transcription factors and chromatin components and generate the lipid ligands for certain nuclear receptors. Lipid droplets have also emerged as important nodes for fatty acid trafficking, both inside the cell and between cells. In immunity, new roles for droplets, not directly linked to lipid metabolism, have been uncovered, with evidence that they act as assembly platforms for specific viruses and as reservoirs for proteins that fight intracellular pathogens. Until recently, knowledge about droplets in the nervous system has been minimal, but now there are multiple links between lipid droplets and neurodegeneration: many candidate genes for hereditary spastic paraplegia also have central roles in lipid-droplet formation and maintenance, and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons can lead to transient accumulation of lipid droplets in neighboring glial cells, an event that may, in turn, contribute to neuronal damage. As the cell biology and biochemistry of lipid droplets become increasingly well understood, the next few years should yield many new mechanistic insights into these novel functions of lipid droplets. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


Meiklejohn C.D.,University of Rochester | Tao Y.,Emory University
Trends in Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2010

Chromosomal sex determination systems create the opportunity for the evolution of selfish genetic elements that increase the transmission of one sex chromosome at the expense of its homolog. Because such selfish elements on sex chromosomes can reduce fertility and distort the sex ratio of progeny, unlinked suppressors are expected to evolve, bringing different regions of the genome into conflict over the meiotic transmission of the sex chromosomes. Here we argue that recurrent genetic conflict over sex chromosome transmission is an important evolutionary force that has shaped a wide range of seemingly disparate phenomena including the epigenetic regulation of genes expressed in the germline, the distribution of genes in the genome, and the evolution of hybrid sterility between species. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


17β-Estradiol (E(2)) plays important roles in functions of many tissues. E(2) effects are mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α and β. ERs regulate transcriptions through estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-dependent and ERE-independent modes of action. ER binding to ERE constitutes the basis of the ERE-dependent pathway. Direct/indirect ER interactions with transcription complexes define ERE-independent signaling. ERs share functional features. Ligand-bound ERs nevertheless induce distinct transcription profiles. Live cell imaging indicates a dynamic nature of gene expressions by highly mobile ERs. However, the relative contribution of ER mobility at the ERE-independent pathway to the overall kinetics of ER mobility remains undefined. We used fluorescent recovery after a photo-bleaching approach to assess the ligand-mediated mobilities of ERE binding-defective ERs, ER(EBD). The decrease in ERα mobility with E(2) or the selective ER modulator 4-hydroxyl-tamoxifen (4HT) was largely due to the interaction of the receptor with ERE. Thus, ERα bound to E(2) or 4HT mediates transcriptions from the ERE-independent pathway with remarkably fast kinetics that contributes fractionally to the overall motility of the receptor. The antagonist Imperial Chemical Industries 182 780 immobilized ERαs. The mobilities of ERβ and ERβ(EBD) in the presence of ligands were indistinguishable kinetically. Thus, ERβ mobility is independent of the nature of ligands and the mode of interaction with target sites. Chimeric ERs indicated that the carboxyl-termini are critical regions for subtype-specific mobility. Therefore, while ERs are highly mobile molecules interacting with target sites with fast kinetics, an indication of the hit-and-run model of transcription, they differ mechanistically to modulate transcriptions.


Deane R.J.,University of Rochester
Future Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor involved in inflammatory disorders, tumor outgrowth, diabetic complications and Alzheimers disease (AD). RAGE transports circulating amyloid- toxins across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the brain. RAGE-amyloid- toxin interaction at the BBB leads to oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and reduced cerebral blood flow. Thus, regulating RAGE activity at the BBB and/or within brain could be beneficial to AD patients. Herein, the structure-function relation for RAGE-ligand interaction and the role of RAGE as a potential target in the development of treatments for AD and other RAGE-associated disorders are discussed. Despite recent setbacks in the development of RAGE-based therapies for AD, a new generation of compounds that regulate RAGE activity could be efficacious. Careful studies are needed in rodent and nonrodent animal models of AD with new the generation of RAGE antagonists to ensure safety and efficacy in chronic treatment before clinical trials. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Torres A.,University of Rochester
Science signaling | Year: 2012

Defining the pathways through which neurons and astrocytes communicate may contribute to the elucidation of higher central nervous system functions. We investigated the possibility that decreases in extracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca(2+)](e)) that occur during synaptic transmission might mediate signaling from neurons to glia. Using noninvasive photolysis of the photolabile Ca(2+) buffer diazo-2 {N-[2-[2-[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]-5-(diazoacetyl)phenoxy]ethoxy]-4-methylphenyl]-N-(carboxymethyl)-, tetrapotassium salt} to reduce [Ca(2+)](e) or caged glutamate to simulate glutamatergic transmission, we found that a local decline in extracellular Ca(2+) triggered astrocytic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling. In turn, activation of purinergic P2Y1 receptors on a subset of inhibitory interneurons initiated the generation of action potentials by these interneurons, thereby enhancing synaptic inhibition. Thus, astrocytic ATP release evoked by an activity-associated decrease in [Ca(2+)](e) may provide a negative feedback mechanism that potentiates inhibitory transmission in response to local hyperexcitability.


Presgraves D.C.,University of Rochester
Current Biology | Year: 2010

Theory predicts that, as species diverge from one another, the number of genetic incompatibilities causing sterility or inviability in interspecies hybrids grows faster than linearly, or snowballs. Two new genetic analyses now provide the first empirical support for this snowball effect. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Gong C.,University of Rochester | Tang Y.,University of Rochester | Maquat L.E.,University of Rochester
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

We report a new mechanism by which human mRNAs cross-talk: an Alu element in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of one mRNA can base-pair with a partially complementary Alu element in the 3′ UTR of a different mRNA, thereby creating a Staufen1 (STAU1)-binding site (SBS). STAU1 binding to a 3′-UTR SBS was previously shown to trigger STAU1-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) by directly recruiting the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, which is also a key factor in the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway. In the case of a 3′-UTR SBS created by mRNA-mRNA base-pairing, we show that SMD targets both mRNAs in the duplex, provided that both mRNAs are translated. If only one mRNA is translated, then it alone is targeted for SMD. We demonstrate the functional importance of mRNA-mRNA-triggered SMD in cell migration and invasion. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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