Barta M.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research |
Barta M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Buchner J.,Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research |
Karlicky M.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
And 2 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011
Magnetic reconnection is commonly considered to be a mechanism of solar (eruptive) flares. A deeper study of this scenario reveals, however, a number of open issues. Among them is the fundamental question of how the magnetic energy is transferred from large, accumulation scales to plasma scales where its actual dissipation takes place. In order to investigate this transfer over a broad range of scales, we address this question by means of a high-resolution MHD simulation. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic-energy transfer to small scales is realized via a cascade of consecutively smaller and smaller flux ropes (plasmoids), analogous to the vortex-tube cascade in (incompressible) fluid dynamics. Both tearing and (driven) "fragmenting coalescence" processes are equally important for the consecutive fragmentation of the magnetic field (and associated current density) into smaller elements. At the later stages, a dynamic balance between tearing and coalescence processes reveals a steady (power-law) scaling typical of cascading processes. It is shown that cascading reconnection also addresses other open issues in solar-flare research, such as the duality between the regular large-scale picture of (eruptive) flares and the observed signatures of fragmented (chaotic) energy release, as well as the huge number of accelerated particles. Indeed, spontaneous current-layer fragmentation and the formation of multiple channelized dissipative/acceleration regions embedded in the current layer appear to be intrinsic to the cascading process. The multiple small-scale current sheets may also facilitate the acceleration of a large number of particles. The structure, distribution, and dynamics of the embedded potential acceleration regions in a current layer fragmented by cascading reconnection are studied and discussed. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source
Stofik M.,University Of rkinje |
Semeradtova A.,University Of rkinje |
Maly J.,University Of rkinje |
Kolska Z.,University Of rkinje |
And 3 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2015
Polymers with functionalized surfaces have attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. Due to the progress in the techniques of polymer micro-patterning, miniaturized bioanalytical assays and biocompatible devices can be developed. In the presented work, we performed surface modification of polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) foil by an excimer laser beam through a photolithographic contact mask. The aim was to fabricate micro-patterned areas with surface functional groups available for localized covalent immobilization of biotin. It was found out that depending on the properties of the laser scans, a polymer surface exhibits different degrees of modification and as a consequence, different degrees of surface biotinylation can be achieved. Several affinity tests with optical detection of fluorescently labeled streptavidin were successfully performed on biotinylated micro-patterns of a PEN foil. The polymer surface properties were also evaluated by electrokinetic analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results have shown that PEN foils can be considered suitable substrates for construction of micro-patterned bioanalytical affinity assays. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source