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Richmond, VA, United States

The University of Richmond is a private, nonsectarian, liberal arts university located on the border of the city of Richmond and Henrico County, Virginia. The University of Richmond is a primarily undergraduate, residential university with approximately 4,350 undergraduate and graduate students in five schools: the School of Arts and science, the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies, the University of Richmond School of Law and the School of Professional & Continuing Studies. Wikipedia.

Over the last ten years we have seen great efforts focused on revising amphibian systematics. Phylogenetic reconstructions derived from DNA sequence data have played a central role in these revisionary studies but have typically under-sampled the diverse frog family Microhylidae. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic study focused on expanding previous hypotheses of relationships within this cosmopolitan family. Specifically, we placed an emphasis on assessing relationships among New World genera and those taxa with uncertain phylogenetic affinities (i.e., incertae sedis). One mitochondrial and three nuclear genes (about 2.8 kb) were sequenced to assess phylogenetic relationships. We utilized an unprecedented sampling of 200 microhylid taxa representing 91% of currently recognized subfamilies and 95% of New World genera. Our analyses do not fully resolve relationships among subfamilies supporting previous studies that have suggested a rapid early diversification of this clade. We observed a close relationship between Synapturanus and Otophryne of the subfamily Otophryninae. Within the subfamily Gastrophryninae relationships between genera were well resolved. Otophryninae is distantly related to all other New World microhylids that were recovered as a monophyletic group, Gastrophryninae. Within Gastrophryninae, five genera were recovered as non-monophyletic; we propose taxonomic re-arrangements to render all genera monophyletic. This hypothesis of relationships and updated classification for New World microhylids may serve as a guide to better understand the evolutionary history of this group that is apparently subject to convergent morphological evolution and chromosome reduction. Based on a divergence analysis calibrated with hypotheses from previous studies and fossil data, it appears that microhylid genera inhabiting the New World originated during a period of gradual cooling from the late Oligocene to mid Miocene. Source

Runyen-Janecky L.J.,University of Richmond
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology | Year: 2013

Bacteria that reside in animal tissues and/or cells must acquire iron from their host. However, almost all of the host iron is sequestered in iron-containing compounds and proteins, the majority of which is found within heme molecules. Thus, likely iron sources for bacterial pathogens (and non-pathogenic symbionts) are free heme and heme-containing proteins. Furthermore, the cellular location of the bacterial within the host (intra or extracellular) influences the amount and nature of the iron containing compounds available for transport. The low level of free iron in the host, coupled with the presence of numerous different heme sources, has resulted in a wide range of high-affinity iron acquisition strategies within bacteria. However, since excess iron and heme are toxic to bacteria, expression of these acquisition systems is highly regulated. Precise expression in the correct host environment at the appropriate times enables heme iron acquisitions systems to contribute to the growth of bacterial pathogens within the host. This mini-review will highlight some of the recent findings in these areas for gram-negative pathogens. © 2013 Runyen-Janecky. Source

Seeman J.I.,University of Richmond
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2012

Storkisms: In honor of the 90th birthday of Professor Gilbert Stork, a collection of poignant quotes and anecdotes have been gathered which illustrate his philosophies of life and his unique qualities of intensity, humor, and gentleness. These stories are both entertaining and didactic, while revealing aspects of the academic life of a chemist from 1940 to 2011. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Sanyal A.J.,University of Richmond
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2015

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a common cause of liver related morbidity and mortality. It is closely linked to underlying insulin resistance. It has recently been shown that bile acids modulate insulin signaling and can improve insulin resistance in cell based and animal studies. These effects are mediated in part by activation of farnesoid x receptors by bile acids. In human studies, FXR agonists improve insulin resistance and have recently been shown to improve NAFLD. The basis for the use of FXR agonists for the treatment of NAFLD and early human experience with such agents is reviewed in this paper. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Eisen J.B.,University of Richmond
Harvard Environmental Law Review | Year: 2013

This Article examines the "Smart Grid," a set of concepts, technologies, and operating practices that may transform America's electric grid as much as the Internet has done, redefining every aspect of electricity generation, distribution, and use. While the Smart Grid's promise is great, this Article examines numerous key barriers to its development including early stage resistance, a lack of incentives for consumers, and the adverse impacts of the federal-state tension in energy regulation. Overcoming these barriers requires both new technologies and transformative regulatory change, beginning with the development of a foundation of interoperability standards (rules of the road governing interactions on the Smart Grid) that will influence development for many years. This Article describes the federally coordinated standard-setting process started in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, leading to a collaborative dialogue among hundreds of participants, with leadership from the National Institute of Standards and Technology ("NIST"). After setting forth the need for interoperability standards and elaborating on the standard-setting process, the Article focuses on a 2011 order by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") that declined to adopt an initial group of standards. While this may appear a step backward, the Article argues to the contrary, finding that FERC's order supports the flexibility of the Smart Grid Interoperability Panel, the NIST-led process that will produce interoperability standards critical to a wide range of energy saving technologies. FERC's order allows this process, not a regulator's imprimatur, to give standards credibility. By holding of on forcing adoption of the standards, but preserving the potential for more significant federal intervention later, it may lead to state adoption of the resulting standards. In this adaptive approach to energy law federalism, neither top-down federal regulation nor private sector standard setting is the exclusive means of overseeing Smart Grid development. FERC's approach may promote a more positive federal-state relationship in the development of the Smart Grid, and may even portend a more collaborative relationship in energy law federalism generally, avoiding the disruptive jurisdictional clashes that have marked recent attempts to innovate in the electric grid. Source

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