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Kingston, RI, United States

The University of Rhode Island is the principal public research as well as the land grant and sea grant university for the state of Rhode Island. Its main campus is located in the village of Kingston in southern Rhode Island. Additionally, smaller campuses include the Feinstein Campus in Providence, the Narragansett Bay Campus in Narragansett, and the W. Alton Jones Campus in West Greenwich.The university offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees in 79 undergraduate and 49 graduate areas of study through seven academic colleges. These colleges include Arts and science, Business Administration, Engineering, Human Science and Services, Environment and Life science, Nursing and Pharmacy. Another college, University College serves primarily as an advising college for all incoming undergraduates and follows them through their enrollment at URI.The University currently enrolls about 13,589 undergraduate and 2,900 graduate students. US News and World Report classifies URI as a tier 1 national university, ranking it 152nd overall. Wikipedia.

The present invention describes phytochemicals present in maple syrup and maple tree extracts by butanol, ethyl acetate and methanol. Novel compounds are isolated from maple syrups, including one compound Quebecol generated in the maple syrup manufacturing process. Also described are digesting extract of maple syrup. The phytochemicals may be used for the treatment or prevention of cancers, metabolic syndromes, diabetes, microorganism infections and/or antioxidants.

Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in North America. Growing evidence supports the concept that AD is fundamentally a metabolic disease that results in progressive impairment in the brains capacity to utilize glucose and respond to insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) stimulation. Moreover, the heterogeneous nature of AD is only partly explained by the brains propensity to accumulate aberrantly processed, misfolded and aggregated oligomeric structural proteins, including amyloid-β peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau. Evidence suggests that other factors, including impaired energy metabolism, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, insulin and IGF resistance, and insulinIGF deficiency in the brain should be incorporated into an overarching hypothesis to develop more realistic diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD. In this review, the interrelationship between impaired insulin and IGF signalling and amyloid-β pathology is discussed along with potential therapeutic approaches. Impairments in brain insulinIGF signalling lead to increased expression of amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and accumulation of AβPP-Aβ. In addition, they promote oxidative stress and deficits in energy metabolism, leading to the activation of pro-AβPP-Aβ-mediated neurodegeneration cascades. Although brain insulinIGF resistance and deficiency can be induced by primary or secondary disease processes, the soaring rates of peripheral insulin resistance associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome quite likely play major roles in the current AD epidemic. Both clinical and experimental data have linked chronic hyperinsulinaemia to cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration with increased AβPP-Aβ accumulationreduced clearance in the CNS. Correspondingly, both the restoration of insulin responsiveness and the use of insulin therapy can lead to improved cognitive performance, although with variable effects on brain AβPP-Aβ load. On the other hand, experimental evidence supports the concept that the toxic effects of AβPP-Aβ can promote insulin resistance. Together, these findings suggest that a positive feedback loop of progressive neurodegeneration can develop whereby insulin resistance drives AβPP-Aβ accumulation, and AβPP-Aβ fibril toxicity drives brain insulin resistance. This phenomenon could explain why measuring AβPP-Aβ levels in cerebrospinal fluid or imaging of the brain has proven to be inadequate as a stand-alone biomarker for diagnosing AD, and why the clinical trial results of anti-AβPP-Aβ monotherapy have been disappointing. Instead, the aggregate data suggest that brain insulin resistance and deficiency must also be therapeutically targeted to halt AD progression or reverse its natural course. The positive therapeutic effects of different treatments that address the role of brain insulinIGF resistance and deficiency, including the use of intranasal insulin delivery, incretins and insulin sensitizer agents are discussed along with potential benefits of lifestyle changes to modify risk for developing mild cognitive impairment or AD. Altogether, the data strongly support the notion that we must shift toward the implementation of multimodal rather than unimodal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for AD. © 2012 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved. Source

For the first time, large quantities of water are identified throughout the length of a subducting plate, and an efficient pathway is defined for injecting water into the deep (>600 km) Earth, by the incorporation of water into the mantle of an oceanic plate as serpentine. Water is thought to facilitate plate tectonics, but the quantities of water involved, and thus its effect, are poorly known. Taking advantage of an anomalous seismic arrival recorded in the Tonga-Fiji subduction zone, the presence, volume, water content, and flux of serpentine and water associated with the subducting oceanic mantle at Tonga is quantified at 2 × 108 Tg/Ma H2O, many times larger than previous inferences based on surface observations. Water fluxes of this magnitude into the deep Earth will substantially increase the role of water in hypotheses of plate tectonic movements, mantle plumes, and flood basalt activity. © 2012 Geological Society of America. Source

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE—: Sex differences in recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) administration are present in some populations. It is unknown whether this is because of eligibility differences or the modifiable exclusion criterion of severe hypertension. Our aim was to investigate sex differences in r-tPA eligibility, in individual exclusion criteria, and in the modifiable exclusion criterion, hypertension.METHODS—: We included all ischemic stroke patients ≥18 years among residents of the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region who presented to 16-area emergency departments in 2005. Eligibility for r-tPA and individual exclusion criteria were determined using 2013 American Heart Association (AHA) and European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) III guidelines.RESULTS—: Of 1837 ischemic strokes, 58% were women, 24% were black. Mean age in years was 72.2 for women and 66.1 for men. Eligibility for r-tPA was similar by sex (6.8% men and 6.1% women; P=0.55), even after adjusting for age (7.0% and 5.9%; P=0.32). Similar proportions of women and men arrived beyond 3- and 4.5-hour time windows, but more women had severe hypertension. There were no sex differences in blood pressure treatment rates among those with severe hypertension (14.6% women and 20.8% men; P=0.21). More women were >80 years and had National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) >25.CONCLUSIONS—: Within a large, biracial population, eligibility for r-tPA was similar by sex. Women were more likely to have the modifiable exclusion criterion of severe hypertension but were not more likely to be treated. Women were more likely to have 2 of the 5 ECASS III exclusion criteria. Undertreatment of hypertension in women is a potentially modifiable contributor to reported differences in r-tPA administration. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Dupuy D.E.,University of Rhode Island

Primary and secondary lung malignancies are often treated with surgery. Many patients are poor surgical candidates owing to advanced age or medical comorbidities. Alternatives to surgery for localized disease include radiation therapy and the newer treatments known as image-guided thermal ablation. Image-guided thermal ablation involves the use of needlelike applicators that are placed directly into tumors by using imaging guidance. Tumors are destroyed by the application of either intense heat or cold. The specific ablative modalities of radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser ablation, and cryoablation are reviewed with respect to the various clinical indications for treatment of both primary and secondary lung malignancies. © RSNA, 2011. Source

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