Time filter

Source Type

Rennes, France

The University of Rennes 2 is a French university in Upper Brittany, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.The main campus is situated in the northwest section of Rennes in the Villejean neighborhood not far from the other campus, located at La Harpe. Wikipedia.

Wu P.-Y.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Wu P.-Y.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Francis Crick Institute
Molecular Cell

The program of DNA replication, defined by the temporal and spatial pattern of origin activation, is altered during development and in cancers. However, whether changes in origin usage play a role in regulating specific biological processes remains unknown. We investigated the consequences of modifying origin selection on meiosis in fission yeast. Genome-wide changes in the replication program of premeiotic S phase do not affect meiotic progression, indicating that meiosis neither activates nor requires a particular origin pattern. In contrast, local changes in origin efficiencies between different replication programs lead to changes in Rad51 recombination factor binding and recombination frequencies in these domains. We observed similar results for Rad51 when changes in efficiencies were generated by directly targeting expression of the Cdc45 replication factor. We conclude that origin selection is a keydeterminant for organizing meiotic recombination, providing evidence that genome-wide modifications in replication program can modulate cellular physiology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sturman A.,University of Canterbury | Quenol H.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
International Journal of Climatology

This paper contributes to knowledge of the impact of global warming on viticulture, using major vineyard regions of New Zealand as a case study to illustrate regional disparities in climate change impacts resulting from downscale effects of larger scale atmospheric circulation. Recent trends in air temperature in New Zealand vineyard areas are investigated. Trends since 1941 in Marlborough show an increase in temperature range, with both rising maximum temperatures and declining minimum temperatures, but no change in the annual mean. More hot days and frosts are of concern to viticulturalists, and this trend not only differs from other major vineyard areas, but also occurs at other sites in eastern parts of the country. The relationship between changes in atmospheric circulation over New Zealand and observed trends in temperature and frost occurrence at Blenheim is investigated using the Kidson weather type classification for the period 1958-2010 and the Trenberth M1 index. The increased temperature range is expected to be associated with more frequent clear skies along the east coast of the country, resulting from changes in weather patterns (more frequent anticyclones, fewer low-pressure systems, increased zonal and southerly flow). These changes in weather patterns are shown to be closely linked to larger scale changes in atmospheric circulation via the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and Southern Oscillation. The results show that significant regional variations in the impact of global warming can occur over areas of complex terrain such as New Zealand. Observed differences in local temperature and frost trends can be caused by the interaction of changing weather systems with mountainous terrain. These changing weather systems themselves are seen to be the result of major shifts in the larger scale atmospheric circulation. These results are important for assessing possible impacts on viticulture and in developing adaptation strategies for agriculture in response to predicted future climates. © 2012 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

Devinck F.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Journal of vision

Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions. Source

Jamet E.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Computers in Human Behavior

In order to assess the effects of attention guiding during the learning of a multimedia document comprising static diagrams and spoken explanations, we recorded the eye movements of participants exposed to a digital learning environment either with or without visual cues. As predicted, the presence of cues (an item changing colour when it was verbally evoked) limited the amount of time spent fixating the less relevant areas of the interface, thereby allowing for more synchronized processing of the visual and auditory sources of information that referred to each other, and better learning (though not deep comprehension) of the signalled information. These results suggest that visual cues can direct attention to the right areas of the screen at the right time, thereby promoting learning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Abstract Faced with the challenge of major changes, it is becoming urgent to consider what makes the specificity and strength of European landscapes, in particular landscapes still fashioned by traditional farming. The central question in this paper-how to accommodate new land uses in traditional landscapes-cannot be approached without reference to some other topical issues that could be identified as driving forces: the development of renewable energies, the spreading of green networks, the maintenance (or return) of sustainable agriculture. The paper's analysis, with examples from Brittany, opens up a certain number of principles which can serve as a guideline in territorial development: acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, and maintenance of multi-functionality, maximum threshold of specialization. This is necessary if we are to better understand, and then implement: an acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, maintenance of multi-functionality. The landscape expertise might then be useful not only for landscape protection and planning, but also to consider broad lines of future development adapted to the 'sense of place', thus improving economic, ecological and social values. At a theoretical level, this analysis proposes an approach to territorial dynamics via the interaction of three concepts: resilience of territory, remanence of landscapes and resistance of people. © Landscape Research Group Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations