University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Rennes, France

The University of Rennes 2 is a French university in Upper Brittany, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.The main campus is situated in the northwest section of Rennes in the Villejean neighborhood not far from the other campus, located at La Harpe. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SiS.2007-;SiS-2007- | Award Amount: 875.08K | Year: 2008

The key concept of this project is inquiry-based teaching of secondary school science. Research and development done in Europe in the area of inquiry-based science teaching (IBST) is abundant, however, the knowledge is spread and indistinct, and thereby not utilised to its full potential by teachers and educators throughout Europe. The project aims to gather, exchange, develop and disseminate ideas of good practices in IBST. The overall aim of Mind the Gap is to stimulate a more engaging and interesting science teaching based on principles of IBST so that more young people in general, and girls in particular, wish to pursue educations and careers in science and technology. We argue that if the science teaching shall succeed in meeting young people in their interests and concerns, we will need to examine and connect The gap between theory and practice in inquiry based science The gap between teaching and learning The gap between research, policy and practice The gap between educational policies and in-service training The gap between instructional designs and preferable tools The gap between cognitive demands and available tools The gap between the culture of science and marginalized groups (including girls) The Mind the Gap project and network will focus on such gaps and aim to bridge them across different European contexts (Norway, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, United Kingdom, Spain, and France). The project design involves six work packages (WPs), including one management WP, each lead from different Europeans countries with relevant expertise. One of the WPs provides an overall background for IBST, three WPs go more in-depth into three specific themes (scientific literacy, ICT, and communication and argumentation). And the last WP will try out models for disseminating knowledge and ideas for best practice of IBST through teacher professional development (including SINUS) in different countries and contexts.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SIS-2008- | Award Amount: 5.24M | Year: 2009

Helping teachers raise the quality of science teaching and its educational environment has the potential to increase student engagement, attainment, scientific literacy and science career choices. S-TEAM will achieve this by connecting existing science education research and teacher knowledge to teacher education. This task requires the power of coordinated action across a wide range of institutions and national contexts. The 26 partners and 15 nations engaged in S-TEAM have a unique opportunity to systematically integrate their knowledge of teaching, research and teacher education, and to adapt science education to the diverse needs of citizens and the economy in Europe, focusing on inquiry-based methods. These involve problem-solving, hands-on experimentation, authentic, student-led content and critical dialogue, but they require wider development of teacher skills and knowledge. Many teachers are already competent in these methods, and are thus the best source of learning for others. S-TEAM will achieve its aims by disseminating research on, and teachers' experiences of inquiry-based methods to existing and future science teachers. Its actions will involve listening to teachers, working with teacher educators and researchers, and providing support for better science education. This support will include workshops, training packages, video case-studies, teaching materials and publications. S-TEAM will involve not only teachers, but also teacher educators, researchers, students, parents and policymakers in dialogue, to ensure that this dissemination is effective. S-TEAM is sustainable since learning through teacher collaboration and education can be continually regenerated, but also necessary because science teacher education needs to be shared across Europe. By enabling teachers to deliver more efficient and efficacious learning, S-TEAM will improve the attitudes, motivation and learning of young people, including girls, in science education.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-1.1.1. | Award Amount: 3.52M | Year: 2010

The GOETE project will analyse the role of school in re-conceptualising education in terms of lifelong learning by combining a life course and a governance perspective. In European knowledge societies adequacy of education means a balance of individual, social and economic aspects. This is operationalised by exploring how educational institutions conceptualise and organise individual educational trajectories. The study covers the period from transition into lower secondary education to transition into upper secondary education/vocational education and training, i.e. the age group between 10 and 16 years. Comparative analysis will focus on the regulation of access to education, of support measures for coping with education and of securing the relevance of education for social integration and the labour market. In 8 EU countries the mixed-method study involves surveys with students, parents and school principals; comparison of teacher training; case studies of local school spaces; discourse analysis; expert interviews with policy makers and stakeholders. On a scientific level, the comparison of the regulation of educational trajectories involves re-conceptualising the social aspects of learning and education under conditions of late modern knowledge societies. It reflects the need for formal education to be embedded in social life worlds, enabled by social support, and complemented by informal and non-formal learning. On a practice and policy level, it will provide information about alternative means of providing children and young people with access to education; of supporting them in coping with education and ensuring the relevance of education by communication and cooperation between school, labour market, other educational actors, students and parents. The communication of findings will include a dialogic model of educational policy planning at local level, training workshops with teachers, youth workers and policy makers, and a European policy seminar.

Wu P.-Y.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany | Wu P.-Y.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Francis Crick Institute
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

The program of DNA replication, defined by the temporal and spatial pattern of origin activation, is altered during development and in cancers. However, whether changes in origin usage play a role in regulating specific biological processes remains unknown. We investigated the consequences of modifying origin selection on meiosis in fission yeast. Genome-wide changes in the replication program of premeiotic S phase do not affect meiotic progression, indicating that meiosis neither activates nor requires a particular origin pattern. In contrast, local changes in origin efficiencies between different replication programs lead to changes in Rad51 recombination factor binding and recombination frequencies in these domains. We observed similar results for Rad51 when changes in efficiencies were generated by directly targeting expression of the Cdc45 replication factor. We conclude that origin selection is a keydeterminant for organizing meiotic recombination, providing evidence that genome-wide modifications in replication program can modulate cellular physiology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Devinck F.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Journal of vision | Year: 2012

Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

Jamet E.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

In order to assess the effects of attention guiding during the learning of a multimedia document comprising static diagrams and spoken explanations, we recorded the eye movements of participants exposed to a digital learning environment either with or without visual cues. As predicted, the presence of cues (an item changing colour when it was verbally evoked) limited the amount of time spent fixating the less relevant areas of the interface, thereby allowing for more synchronized processing of the visual and auditory sources of information that referred to each other, and better learning (though not deep comprehension) of the signalled information. These results suggest that visual cues can direct attention to the right areas of the screen at the right time, thereby promoting learning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Le Bras S.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany | Loyer N.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany | Le Borgne R.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Traffic | Year: 2011

The Notch signaling pathway regulates numerous aspects of metazoan development and tissue renewal. Deregulation or loss of Notch signaling is associated with a wide range of human disorders from developmental syndromes to cancer. Notch receptors and their ligands are widely expressed throughout development, yet Notch activation is robustly controlled in a spatio-temporal manner. Within the past decades, genetic screens and biochemical approaches led to the identification of more than 10 E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes implicated in the regulation of the Notch pathway. In this review, we highlight the recent studies in Notch signaling that reveal how ubiquitination of components of the Notch pathway, ranging from degradation to regulation of membrane trafficking, impacts on the developmental control of the signaling activities of both Notch receptors and their ligands. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

le Du-Blayo L.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Landscape Research | Year: 2011

Abstract Faced with the challenge of major changes, it is becoming urgent to consider what makes the specificity and strength of European landscapes, in particular landscapes still fashioned by traditional farming. The central question in this paper-how to accommodate new land uses in traditional landscapes-cannot be approached without reference to some other topical issues that could be identified as driving forces: the development of renewable energies, the spreading of green networks, the maintenance (or return) of sustainable agriculture. The paper's analysis, with examples from Brittany, opens up a certain number of principles which can serve as a guideline in territorial development: acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, and maintenance of multi-functionality, maximum threshold of specialization. This is necessary if we are to better understand, and then implement: an acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, maintenance of multi-functionality. The landscape expertise might then be useful not only for landscape protection and planning, but also to consider broad lines of future development adapted to the 'sense of place', thus improving economic, ecological and social values. At a theoretical level, this analysis proposes an approach to territorial dynamics via the interaction of three concepts: resilience of territory, remanence of landscapes and resistance of people. © Landscape Research Group Ltd.

Emily M.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Statistics in Medicine | Year: 2012

Epistasis is often cited as the biological mechanism carrying the missing heritability in genome-wide association studies. However, there is a very few number of studies reported in the literature. The low power of existing statistical methods is a potential explanation. Statistical procedures are also mainly based on the statistical definition of epistasis that prevents from detecting SNP-SNP interactions that rely on some classes of epistatic models. In this paper, we propose a new statistic, called IndOR for independence-based odds ratio, based on the biological definition of epistasis. We assume that epistasis modifies the dependency between the two causal SNPs, and we develop a Wald procedure to test such hypothesis. Our new statistic is compared with three statistical procedures in a large power study on simulated data sets. We use extensive simulations, based on 45 scenarios, to investigate the effect of three factors: the underlying disease model, the linkage disequilibrium, and the control-to-case ratio. We demonstrate that our new test has the ability to detect a wider range of epistatic models. Furthermore, our new statistical procedure is remarkably powerful when the two loci are linked and when the control-to-case ratio is higher than 1. The application of our new statistic on the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium data set on Crohn's disease enhances our results on simulated data. Our new test, IndOR, catches previously reported interaction with more power. Furthermore, a new combination of variant has been detected by our new test as significantly associated with Crohn's disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Huten D.,University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany
Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR | Year: 2013

Bone loss (BL) is frequent during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is underestimated in X-rays. Most classifications distinguish contained from uncontained BL but the most frequently used classification is that of Engh, which does not take into account this element. Reconstruction should result in resistant support for the revision TKA. It helps correct malalignment, restore satisfactory ligament tension and height of the joint line. Several techniques have been suggested: cement, augments, bone grafts, modular metaphyseal sleeves and cones and megaprostheses. Cement is only used with small BL, especially in elderly patients. Augments allow rapid filling of small peripheral BL with good mid-term results but frequent radiolucent lines. Morselized allografts can be incorporated and remodeled. They are a good alternative in young patients. Structural allografts are resistant but there is a risk of fracture and resorption. Modular metaphyseal sleeves and cones incorporate with host bone and are attached to the prosthesis by a mechanical interface or cement. They may also be more durable. Megaprostheses are only indicated in severe BL in elderly subjects. Reconstruction is just one aspect of revision TKA and it should respect the technical requirements of the procedure in particular fixation with a stem, which is important in determining the outcome of reconstruction. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

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