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Rennes, France

The University of Rennes 2 is a French university in Upper Brittany, one of four in the Academy of Rennes.The main campus is situated in the northwest section of Rennes in the Villejean neighborhood not far from the other campus, located at La Harpe. Wikipedia.

Wu P.-Y.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany | Wu P.-Y.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Rockefeller University | Nurse P.,Francis Crick Institute
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014

The program of DNA replication, defined by the temporal and spatial pattern of origin activation, is altered during development and in cancers. However, whether changes in origin usage play a role in regulating specific biological processes remains unknown. We investigated the consequences of modifying origin selection on meiosis in fission yeast. Genome-wide changes in the replication program of premeiotic S phase do not affect meiotic progression, indicating that meiosis neither activates nor requires a particular origin pattern. In contrast, local changes in origin efficiencies between different replication programs lead to changes in Rad51 recombination factor binding and recombination frequencies in these domains. We observed similar results for Rad51 when changes in efficiencies were generated by directly targeting expression of the Cdc45 replication factor. We conclude that origin selection is a keydeterminant for organizing meiotic recombination, providing evidence that genome-wide modifications in replication program can modulate cellular physiology. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Devinck F.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Journal of vision | Year: 2012

Establishing the relation between perception and discrimination is a fundamental objective in psychophysics, with the goal of characterizing the neural mechanisms mediating perception. Here, we show that a procedure for estimating a perceptual scale based on a signal detection model also predicts discrimination performance. We use a recently developed procedure, Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS), to measure the perceptual strength of a long-range, color, filling-in phenomenon, the Watercolor Effect (WCE), as a function of the luminance ratio between the two components of its generating contour. MLDS is based on an equal-variance, gaussian, signal detection model and yields a perceptual scale with interval properties. The strength of the fill-in percept increased 10-15 times the estimate of the internal noise level for a 3-fold increase in the luminance ratio. Each observer's estimated scale predicted discrimination performance in a subsequent paired-comparison task. A common signal detection model accounts for both the appearance and discrimination data. Since signal detection theory provides a common metric for relating discrimination performance and neural response, the results have implications for comparing perceptual and neural response functions.

Jamet E.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

In order to assess the effects of attention guiding during the learning of a multimedia document comprising static diagrams and spoken explanations, we recorded the eye movements of participants exposed to a digital learning environment either with or without visual cues. As predicted, the presence of cues (an item changing colour when it was verbally evoked) limited the amount of time spent fixating the less relevant areas of the interface, thereby allowing for more synchronized processing of the visual and auditory sources of information that referred to each other, and better learning (though not deep comprehension) of the signalled information. These results suggest that visual cues can direct attention to the right areas of the screen at the right time, thereby promoting learning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

le Du-Blayo L.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Landscape Research | Year: 2011

Abstract Faced with the challenge of major changes, it is becoming urgent to consider what makes the specificity and strength of European landscapes, in particular landscapes still fashioned by traditional farming. The central question in this paper-how to accommodate new land uses in traditional landscapes-cannot be approached without reference to some other topical issues that could be identified as driving forces: the development of renewable energies, the spreading of green networks, the maintenance (or return) of sustainable agriculture. The paper's analysis, with examples from Brittany, opens up a certain number of principles which can serve as a guideline in territorial development: acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, and maintenance of multi-functionality, maximum threshold of specialization. This is necessary if we are to better understand, and then implement: an acceptable scale of development, adjustment to land resources, maintenance of multi-functionality. The landscape expertise might then be useful not only for landscape protection and planning, but also to consider broad lines of future development adapted to the 'sense of place', thus improving economic, ecological and social values. At a theoretical level, this analysis proposes an approach to territorial dynamics via the interaction of three concepts: resilience of territory, remanence of landscapes and resistance of people. © Landscape Research Group Ltd.

Maurel D.B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Boisseau N.,University Blaise Pascal | Benhamou C.L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jaffre C.,University of Rennes 2 - Upper Brittany
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2012

Alcohol is widely consumed across the world. It is consumed in both social and cultural settings. Until recently, two types of alcohol consumption were recognized: heavy chronic alcohol consumption or light consumption. Today, there is a new pattern of consumption among teenagers and young adults namely: binge drinking. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones, and is known to induce secondary osteoporosis. Some studies, however, have reported benefits from light alcohol consumption on bone parameters. To date, little is known regarding the effects of binge drinking on bone health. Here, we review the effects of three different means of alcohol consumption: light, heavy, and binge drinking. We also review the detailed literature on the different mechanisms by which alcohol intake may decrease bone mass and strength. The effects of alcohol on bone are thought to be both direct and indirect. The decrease in bone mass and strength following alcohol consumption is mainly due to a bone remodeling imbalance, with a predominant decrease in bone formation. Recent studies, however, have reported new mechanisms by which alcohol may act on bone remodeling, including osteocyte apoptosis, oxidative stress, and Wnt signalling pathway modulation. The roles of reduced total fat mass, increased lipid content in bone marrow, and a hypoleptinemia are also discussed. © International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2011.

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