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The University of Quebec is a system of ten provincially run public universities in Quebec, Canada. Its headquarters are in Quebec City. The university coordinates 300 programs for over 87,000 students. The government of Quebec founded the Université du Québec, a network of universities in several Quebec cities. In a similar fashion to other Canadian provinces, all universities in Quebec have since become public. Wikipedia.

Desroches S.,University of Quebec
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2013

It has been recognized that poor adherence can be a serious risk to the health and wellbeing of patients, and greater adherence to dietary advice is a critical component in preventing and managing chronic diseases. To assess the effects of interventions for enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults. We searched the following electronic databases up to 29 September 2010: The Cochrane Library (issue 9 2010), PubMed, EMBASE (Embase.com), CINAHL (Ebsco) and PsycINFO (PsycNET) with no language restrictions. We also reviewed: a) recent years of relevant conferences, symposium and colloquium proceedings and abstracts; b) web-based registries of clinical trials; and c) the bibliographies of included studies. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated interventions enhancing adherence to dietary advice for preventing and managing chronic diseases in adults. Studies were eligible if the primary outcome was the client's adherence to dietary advice. We defined 'client' as an adult participating in a chronic disease prevention or chronic disease management study involving dietary advice. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of the studies. They also assessed the risk of bias and extracted data using a modified version of the Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group data extraction template. Any discrepancies in judgement were resolved by discussion and consensus, or with a third review author. Because the studies differed widely with respect to interventions, measures of diet adherence, dietary advice, nature of the chronic diseases and duration of interventions and follow-up, we conducted a qualitative analysis. We classified included studies according to the function of the intervention and present results in a narrative table using vote counting for each category of intervention. We included 38 studies involving 9445 participants. Among studies that measured diet adherence outcomes between an intervention group and a control/usual care group, 32 out of 123 diet adherence outcomes favoured the intervention group, 4 favoured the control group whereas 62 had no significant difference between groups (assessment was impossible for 25 diet adherence outcomes since data and/or statistical analyses needed for comparison between groups were not provided). Interventions shown to improve at least one diet adherence outcome are: telephone follow-up, video, contract, feedback, nutritional tools and more complex interventions including multiple interventions. However, these interventions also shown no difference in some diet adherence outcomes compared to a control/usual care group making inconclusive results about the most effective intervention to enhance dietary advice. The majority of studies reporting a diet adherence outcome favouring the intervention group compared to the control/usual care group in the short-term also reported no significant effect at later time points. Studies investigating interventions such as a group session, individual session, reminders, restriction and behaviour change techniques reported no diet adherence outcome showing a statistically significant difference favouring the intervention group. Finally, studies were generally of short duration and low quality, and adherence measures varied widely. There is a need for further, long-term, good-quality studies using more standardized and validated measures of adherence to identify the interventions that should be used in practice to enhance adherence to dietary advice in the context of a variety of chronic diseases. Source

S100A8 and S100A9 are cytoplasmic proteins expressed by phagocytes. High concentrations of these proteins have been correlated with various inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, as well as autoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of S100A8 and S100A9 on the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from PBMCs. S100A8 and S100A9 induced the secretion of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. This secretion was associated with the activation and translocation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Inhibition studies using antisense RNA and the pharmacological agent BAY-117082 confirmed the involvement of NF-κB in IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β secretion. S100A8- and S100A9-mediated activation of NF-κB, the NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) protein, and pro-IL-1β expression was dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species. This effect was synergistically enhanced by ATP, a known inflammasome activator. These results suggest that S100A8 and S100A9 enhance the inflammatory response by inducing cytokine secretion of PBMCs. Source

Jaque D.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Vetrone F.,University of Quebec
Nanoscale | Year: 2012

The current status of luminescence nanothermometry is reviewed in detail. Based on the main parameters of luminescence including intensity, bandwidth, bandshape, polarization, spectral shift and lifetime, we initially describe and compare the different classes of luminescence nanothermometry. Subsequently, the various luminescent materials used in each case are discussed and the mechanisms at the root of the luminescence thermal sensitivity are described. The most important results obtained in each case are summarized and the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are discussed. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

O'Shaughnessy D.,University of Quebec
Proceedings of the IEEE | Year: 2013

As a pattern recognition application, automatic speech recognition (ASR) requires the extraction of useful features from its input signal, speech. To help determine relevance, human speech production and acoustic aspects of speech perception are reviewed, to identify acoustic elements likely to be most important for ASR. Common methods of estimating useful aspects of speech spectral envelopes are reviewed, from the point of view of efficiency and reliability in mismatched conditions. Because many speech inputs for ASR have noise and channel degradations, ways to improve robustness in speech parameterization are analyzed. While the main focus in ASR is to obtain spectral envelope measures, human speech communication efficiently exploits the manipulation of one's vocal-cord vibration rate [fundamental frequency (F0)], and so F0 extraction and its integration into ASR are also reviewed. For the acoustic analysis reviewed here for ASR, this work presents modern methods as well as future perspectives on important aspects of speech information processing. © 1963-2012 IEEE. Source

INTRODUCTION: Transactive response DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is detected in pathological inclusions in many cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but its pathological role in AD and MCI remains unknown. Recently, TDP-43 was reported to contribute to pathogenesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through its interaction with p65 nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) resulting in abnormal hyperactivation of this signaling pathway in motor neurons. Hence, we investigated the interaction of TDP-43 with p65 in the temporal cortex of subjects with a clinical diagnosis of MCI (n = 12) or AD (n = 12) as well as of age-matched controls with no cognitive impairment (NCI, n = 12).RESULTS: Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence approaches revealed a robust interaction of TDP-43 with p65 in the nucleus of temporal lobe neurons in four individuals with MCI (named MCI-p). These MCI-p cases exhibited high expression levels of soluble TDP-43, p65, phosphorylated p65 and low expression levels of β-amyloid 40 when compared to AD or NCI cases. The analysis of cognitive performance tests showed that MCI-p individuals presented intermediate deficits of global cognition and episodic memory between those of AD cases and of NCI cases and MCI cases with no interaction of TDP-43 with p65.CONCLUSIONS: From these results, we propose that enhanced NF-κB activation due to TDP-43 and p65 interaction may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in MCI individuals with episodic memory deficits. Accordingly, treatment with inhibitors of NF-κB activation may be considered for MCI individuals with episodic memory deficits. Source

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