Evaluation of the mechanism and principles of management of temporomandibular joint dislocation. Systematic review of literature and a proposed new classification of temporomandibular joint dislocation
Akinbami B.O.,University of Port Harcourt
Head and Face Medicine | Year: 2011
Virtually all the articles in literature addressed only a specific type of dislocation. The aim of this review was to project a comprehensive understanding of the pathologic processes and management of all types of dislodgement of the head of the mandibular condyle from its normal position in the glenoid fossa. In addition, a new classification of temporomandibular joint dislocation was also proposed.Method and materials: A thorough computer literature search was done using the Medline, Cochrane library and Embase database. Key words like temporo-mandibular joint dislocation were used for the search. Additional manual search was done by going through published home-based and foreign articles. Case reports/series, and original articles that documented the type of dislocation, number of cases treated in the series and original articles. Treatment done and outcome of treatment were included in the study.Result: A total of 128 articles were reviewed out which 79 were found relevant. Of these, 26 were case reports, 17 were case series and 36 were original articles. 79 cases were acute dislocations, 35 cases were chronic protracted TMJ dislocations and 311 cases were chronic recurrent TMJ dislocations. Etiology was predominantly trauma in 60% of cases and other causes contributed about 40%. Of all the cases reviewed, only 4 were unilateral dislocation. Various treatment modalities are outlined in this report as indicated for each type of dislocation.Conclusion: The more complex and invasive method of treatment may not necessarily offer the best option and outcome of treatment, therefore conservative approaches should be exhausted and utilized appropriately before adopting the more invasive surgical techniques. © 2011 Akinbami; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Yusuf M.O.L.,University of Port Harcourt |
Ify N.L.,University of Port Harcourt
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011
The effect of waste paper on biogas yield produced by co-digesting fixed amount of cow dung and water hyacinth in five digesters A-E was studied at room temperature. Waste paper was observed to improve biogas yield in digesters B-E with digester A acting as the control. However, as the amount of waste paper increased the biogas yield was observed to decrease. Kinetic model based on first order kinetic was derived to estimate the maximum, ultimate, biogas yield and also the ultimate methane yield from these biomass mixtures. The maximum biogas yield estimated using this model for digesters B-E were 0.282, 0.262, 0.233, and 0.217 lg-1 VS fed with goodness of fit (R2) of 0.995, 0.99, 0.889, and 0.925 respectively, which were obtained by fitting the experimental biogas yield (yt) against (exp(kt)-1)/exp(kt). The ultimate biogas and methane yield at very low batch solid load were extrapolated to be 0.34 and 0.204 lg-1 VS fed respectively. In essence, the addition of waste paper in the co-digestion of cow dung and water hyacinth can be a feasible means of improving biogas yield and also alternative means of recycling waste paper. Furthermore, the kinetic model developed can compliment other models used in anaerobic digestion of agricultural and solid waste. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Okwonna O.,University of Port Harcourt
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2013
Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder was isolated from three grades of waste paper: book, Groundwood/ Newsprint and paperboard, through the processes of pulping and hydrolysis. Pulping treatment on these grades of waste paper was done using varying concentrations of caustic soda. Effects of the concentration of the pulping medium on the thermal and kinetic properties were investigated. Also determined were the effects of this on the physico-chemical properties. The chemical structure was characterized using an infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results showed these properties to be affected by the concentration of the pulping medium. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ordinioha B.,University of Port Harcourt
Annals of African Medicine | Year: 2012
Background: Insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) is currently distributed free of charge to vulnerable groups in Nigeria, for malaria control. Consistent use of the nets is required for maximum effectiveness; but studies indicate that the nets are often jettisoned in periods of low mosquito activity and high night time temperature. The objective of this study has been to assess the use of mass distributed nets in a semi-urban community in Rivers State, south-south Nigeria, during the late dry season, when mosquito activity is at the lowest in the community. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ishiodu - Emohua, using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered to female head of households in the community, with under-five children. Results: A total of 170 respondents were studied; they had an average age of 34.3 ± 7.6 years, most were married (86.5%), and had secondary school education (68.2%). All the households owned at least one ITN, and an average of 1.7 nets, with 75.3% of the households owning two or more ITNs. Almost all the nets (99.4%) were obtained free of charge. Of the 170 households that received the nets, 71.8% had hanged the nets as at the time of the survey; 83.6% of these hanged the nets over a bed, while 10.7% used the nets as window curtain. Of the 102 ITNs that were properly deployed, only 27.5% were occupied the night before the survey, by an average of 2.5 persons, mainly under-five children (37.7%). Conclusion: The distribution of free ITNs has resulted in universal household ownership, but the use of the nets is still very poor. Proper health education is required to encourage the consistent use of the nets, even in hot night, with low mosquito activity.
Maduka O.,University of Port Harcourt |
Obin-West C.I.,University of Port Harcourt
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013
Context: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the world's most challenging pandemics. For treatment with Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) to be effective, high rate of adherence is essential. Aim: To demonstrate the effect of adherence counseling and text message reminders in improving patients' adherence to HAART. Settings and Design: A randomized control trial among non-adherents was carried out in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria between March and July, 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 104 patients: 45 males (43.3%) and 59 females (56.7%) participated in the study. They were randomized into intervention and control groups. The intervention group received monthly adherence counseling and twice weekly short message reminders for four months, while the control group received only standard care. Self-reported adherence and CD4+ cell counts were measured pre- and post-intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 18. Risk rates, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U test and Cohen's effect size were calculated. Level of significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: At post-intervention, 76.9% of the intervention group and 55.8% of the control group achieved adherence (?2 = 5.211, P = 0.022, RR = 0.75 (0.55-0.96), Cohen's w = 0.224). Also, median CD4+ cell count of the intervention group increased from 193 cells/ml to 575.0 cells/ml against 131.0 cells/ml to 361.5 cells/ml in the control group (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Adherence counseling and text message reminders improved adherence among HIV patients. Its adoption for HIV patient management is advocated.
Ordinioha B.,University of Port Harcourt
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013
Background: Hypertension and other noncommunicable diseases are currently responsible for at least 20% of all deaths in Nigeria, and constitute up to 60% of the patients admitted into the medical wards of most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. Yet, the treatment outcomes for the diseases have remained very poor, prompting calls for better patient education. It has however been established that the effectiveness of patient education is linked to the healthy habits of the doctor. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors among the lecturers of the University of Port Harcourt Medical School. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used, with the data collected using a modified form of the WHO STEPS instrument that consists of a questionnaire component and the measurement of body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, the use of tobacco, the consumption of alcohol, the type of diet, and the amount and types of physical activities undertaken. Results: A total of 75 lecturers participated fully in the study, out of an eligible total of 109. They were mostly males (65.33%), married (88.33%), and had an average age of 46.06 ± 9.62 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 21.33%; out of which 12 (75.00%) were already aware of their status, and were on appropriate therapy. Only 13 (17.33%) of the lecturers were of normal weight, 45 (60.00%) were overweight, while 17 (22.67%) were obese. Only 2 (2.67%) currently smoke, while most (94.67%) drank less than three standard units of alcohol in a day, mainly in social occasions. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension among the lecturers in the medical school was lower than that in the general population, mainly due to their better health-seeking behavior and healthy lifestyle.
Ikewuchi J.C.,University of Port Harcourt
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013
Objective: To investigate the effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Acalypha wilkesiana (. A. wilkesiana) on plasma chemistry and hematological indices of sub-chronic salt-loaded rats. Method: The control group received a diet consisting 100% of the commercial feed, while the four test groups were received a diet consisting 8% salt and 92% commercial feed all through, except for the reference treatment group that had its salt-loading discontinued after six weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight; while the test control, reference and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. Results: The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, produced hemoconcentration, significantly higher (. P<0.05) plasma calcium and potassium levels, and significantly lower (. P<0.05) plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to test control. Conclusions: This result supports the traditional use of A. wilkesiana in the management of hypertension and suggests that the extract may be a potassium sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be via alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances or calcium mediated alteration in vascular muscle tone. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.
Orisakwe O.E.,University of Port Harcourt
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014
Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management.
Aprioku J.S.,University of Port Harcourt
Journal of Reproduction and Infertility | Year: 2013
The role of free radicals in normal cellular functions and different pathological conditions has been a focus of pharmacological studies in the recent past. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals in general are essential for cell signaling and other vital physiological functions; however, excessive amounts can cause alteration in cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) balance, and disrupt normal biological functions. When there is an imbalance between activities of ROS and antioxidant/scavenging defense systems, oxidative stress (OS) occurs. A good number of studies have shown OS is involved in the development of several disease conditions, including male infertility. In the present article, generation of free radicals and their effects, as well as the mechanisms of antioxidant/scavenging defense systems are discussed, with particular focus on the testis. The review also discusses the contribution of OS on testicular dysfunction and briefly focuses on some OS-induced conditions that will alter testicular function.
Abiola O.K.,Federal University of Petroleum Resources |
James A.O.,University of Port Harcourt
Corrosion Science | Year: 2010
The effect of the extract of Aloe vera leaves on the corrosion of zinc in 2 M HCl solution was studied using weight loss technique. A. vera extract inhibited the corrosion of zinc in 2 M HCl solution and the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the extract but decreased with increasing temperature. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on zinc surface was in accordance with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. A first-order kinetics relationship with respect to zinc was obtained with and without the extract from the kinetics treatment of the data. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.