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Din Q.,University of Poonch Rawalakot | Ibrahim T.F.,King Khalid University | Ibrahim T.F.,Mansoura University | Khan K.A.,University of Sargodha
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

We study the boundedness and persistence, existence, and uniqueness of positive equilibrium, local and global behavior of positive equilibrium point, and rate of convergence of positive solutions of the following system of rational difference equations: x n + 1 = (α 1 + β 1 x n - 1)/ (a 1 + b 1 y n), y n + 1 = (α 2 + β 2 y n - 1)/ (a 2 + b 2 x n), where the parameters α i, β i, a i, and b i for i { 1,2 } and initial conditions x 0, x - 1, y 0, and y - 1 are positive real numbers. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. © 2014 Q. Din et al.


Alamzeb M.,University of Swat | Khan M.R.,University of Peshawar | Mamoon-Ur-Rashid M.-U.-R.,University of Poonch Rawalakot | Ali S.,University of Swabi | Khan A.A.,University of Peshawar
Natural Product Research | Year: 2015

One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), β-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells. © 2015 Taylor and Francis.


Din Q.,University of Poonch Rawalakot | Donchev T.,Al. I. Cuza University | Nosheen A.,University of Sargodha
Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization | Year: 2015

In this article, Runge-Kutta methods of order p are used to approximate the solutions of differential equations with variable times of impulses. It is proved that these methods have order of approximation O(hp) w.r.t. the defined measure of distance. Illustrative examples with different strategies to find the events are provided. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Waseem M.,Lasbela University of Agriculture, Water and Marine Sciences | Tahir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Bakhat H.F.,Comsats Institute of science and Technology | Khan I.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Shehzad M.,University of Poonch Rawalakot
Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research | Year: 2014

Two year field experiment was conducted to check the influence of different Nitrogen sources on the tasseling, silking, maturity and grain yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan, during the year 2008-09. Treatments included two hybrids: (H1) (Pioneer-30Y87) and (H2) (Pioneer-31R88) with six Nitrogen sources each, which included at the rate of (S0): control (0) kg Nitrogen ha-1, (S1): chemical source (urea) 250 kg Nitrogen ha-1, (S2): poultry manure (PM) 9.6 t ha-1, (S3): farm yard manure (FYM) 17.8 t ha-1, (S4): press mud of sugarcane (PMS) 8.5 t ha-1 and (S5): compost (C) 10.0 t ha-1. Finding concluded that effect of Nitrogen sources on both maize hybrid was found to be non significant for number of days to tasseling and number of days to silking during 2008 while number of days to maturity and grain yield was significant. In 2009 number of days for tasseling was found significant and number of days to silking, maturity and grain yield was not significant. Significant Nitrogen sources influenced were observed for tasseling, silking, maturity and grain yield during both years 2008-09. Maximum number of days was recorded in chemical source (urea) 250 kg Nitrogen ha-1 for tasseling, silking, maturity and grain yield in 2009 as compared to other Nitrogen sources and minimum number of days to tasseling, silking, maturity and grain yield was found in control (0) kg Nitrogen ha-1.


Waseem M.,University of Poonch Rawalakot | Ali A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Tahir M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Mehmood K.,University of Poonch Rawalakot
Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

A number of factors are responsible for low yield of maize. Inappropriate crop nutrition management and poor soil fertility are the most important than others. Two year field trail was conducted to determine the mitigative effect of diverse use of nitrogen sources on bulk density, organic matter and grain yield of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during autumn 2008 and 2009. Experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement having 3 replications with a net plot size of 3m x 5m. Treatments comprised two hybrids:H1 (Pioneer-30Y87) and H2 (Pioneer-31R88) with combination of six nitrogen sources S0: Control (0) kg N ha-1, S1:Urea (50%) + Poultry manure (50%), S2: Urea (50%) + Farm Yard Manure (50%), S3: Urea (50%) + Pressmud of sugarcane manure (50%), S4: Urea (50%) + Compost (50%), S5: Urea (50%) + (PM+FYM+PMS+ Compost) 50%. The hybrid maize varieties showed no significant effect on bulk density and organic matter for 2008 and 2009. The effect of nitrogen sources was significant in both seasons for bulk density and organic matter. Bulk density maximum in S0: Control (0) kg N ha-1 treatment where no nitrogen applied and minimum in S1: Urea (50%) + Poultry manure (50%) treatment combination while antagonistic effect was observed for organic matter. Hybrid maize H1(Pioneer - 30Y87) produced better grain yield (6.14 t ha-1) during 2008 when nitrogen sources S1: Urea (50%) + Poultry manure (50%) was applied in combination as compared to grain yield (6.08 t ha-1) in hybrid H2 (Pioneer -31R88) during 2009. While maximum grain yield (7.05 t ha-1) and (6.92 t ha-1) was found in nitrogen sources S1: Urea (50%) + Poultry manure (50%) treatment combination in 2008 and 2009 as compared to minimum grain yield (3.73 t ha-1) where no nitrogen applied (S0: Control 0 kg N ha-1) treatment, respectively.

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