Poitiers, France
Poitiers, France

The University of Poitiers is a university in Poitiers, France. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, as one of the oldest universities of Europe. Wikipedia.

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Rhodia, French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Poitiers | Date: 2014-02-28

Providing a catalytic process for preparing 1,4-diketone compounds from furanic compounds and their precursors in a liquid medium, using an acid catalytic system and optionally in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrogenation catalyst, wherein the acidic catalytic system comprises a solid acid catalyst or a mixture of water and CO_(2).

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 3.49M | Year: 2013

According to UN assessments, there are 214 million international migrants worldwide and another 740 million internal migrants . The OECD highlights that there seems little likelihood of substantial reductions in numbers of international migrants in the current decade . Rises in global population, new demographic trends including ageing population, environmental deterioration and an increased globalisation of the economy are some of the factors which will encourage emigration flows in coming years. International migration, firmly at the top of the EUs political agenda, must be analysed from the integration perspective as the key factor for the future cohesion of European societies. The INTEGRIM programme is developed by a sound and well established network of 8 full partner academic institutions and 6 non-academic associated partners from the private and public sector, civil society and international organisations with outstanding research and training credentials on migration and integration issues. The aim of this programme is to structure the existing high-quality research capacity on migration and integration policies and processes in Europe through 480 person-months of Early-Stage Researchers. INTEGRIM will consider processes and policies concerning integration of foreign nationals within EU countries, including third-country nationals and European nationals migrating to other European states when they face substantial integration difficulties. The existing fruitful collaboration among the Networks partners through existing research networks such as the EC acknowledged network of excellence IMISCOE has evidenced the capacity and added value to pool the talent to the benefit of a common critical mass and enhancement of the academic knowledge. INTEGRIM aims to enhance academic research capacity, encourage policy-relevant research on integration and diversity management and facilitate the use of that research by governments and non-governmental organisations.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: HEALTH.2012.1.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.85M | Year: 2013

The discrepancy between organ supply and demand remains the biggest challenge facing the transplant community today. In order to increase the amount of available donor organs, transplant specialists are increasingly turning to sub-optimal donor organs. Organs from such donors, usually have normal or near normal function before death, but retrieval, storage and transplantation cause progressive injury to the organ. Injury is predominantly caused by inadequate or absent delivery of oxygen and nutrients, either in the warm or cold preservation environment. New techniques to improve organ preservation are being developed and the COPE consortium including: Normothermic liver machine perfusion (NMP) Hypothermic kidney machine perfusion (HMP) Novel additives for preservation solutions These strategies are all directed to the vital period that starts at the time of circulatory arrest and extends to the point of transplantation. Specifically, they will tackle the following challenges: Exposure of donor organs to ischaemic injury whilst the organs remain in the donor. Progressive deterioration of the organ during conventional organ preservation. Repair of the organ during preservation using perfusate and pharmacological interventions. Identification of reliable predictors of organ viability using biological and other pre-transplant parameters. The COPE consortium is the official organ preservation task force of ESOT and consists of a number of European transplantation centers, front running transplantation research groups and a number of SMEs involved in developing perfusion fluids and technology. Together, they will be able to generate the statistical power and protocols necessary to test, validate and promote these new organ preservation techniques and increase the number of available solid donor organs.

Belin D.,University of Poitiers
Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine | Year: 2012

Epidemiological studies have revealed striking associations between several distinct behavioral/personality traits and drug addiction, with a large emphasis on the sensation-seeking trait and the associated impulsive dimension of personality. However, in human studies, it is difficult to identify whether personality/behavioral traits actually contribute to increased vulnerability to drug addiction or reflect psychobiological adaptations to chronic drug exposure. Here we show how animal models, including the first multi-symptomatic model of addiction in the rat, have contributed to a better understanding of the relationships between different subdimensions of the sensation-seeking trait and different stages of the development of cocaine addiction, from vulnerability to initiation of cocaine self-administration to the transition to compulsive drug intake. We argue that sensation seeking predicts vulnerability to use cocaine, whereas novelty seeking, akin to high impulsivity, predicts instead vulnerability to shift from controlled to compulsive cocaine use, that is, addiction.

Jordan P.,University of Poitiers | Colonius T.,California Institute of Technology
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics | Year: 2013

Turbulent jet noise is a controversial fluid mechanical puzzle that has amused and bewildered researchers for more than half a century. Whereas numerical simulations are now capable of simultaneously predicting turbulence and its radiated sound, the theoretical framework that would guide noise-control efforts is incomplete. Wave packets are intermittent, advecting disturbances that are correlated over distances far exceeding the integral scales of turbulence. Their signatures are readily distinguished in the vortical, turbulent region; the irrotational, evanescent near field; and the propagating far field. We review evidence of the existence, energetics, dynamics, and acoustic efficiency of wave packets. We highlight how extensive data available from simulations and modern measurement techniques can be used to distill acoustically relevant turbulent motions. The evidence supports theories that seek to represent wave packets as instability waves, or more general modal solutions of the governing equations, and confirms the acoustic importance of these structures in the aft-angle radiation of high subsonic and supersonic jets. The resulting unified view of wave packets provides insights that can help guide control strategies. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Rigoard P.,University of Poitiers
Neurosurgery | Year: 2012

Failed back surgery syndrome represents one of the most frequent etiologies of chronic back pain and is a major public health issue. Neurostimulation has currently not been validated in the treatment of back pain because of technological limitations in implantable spinal cord stimulation (SCS) systems. New-generation leads using several columns of stimulation can generate longitudinal and/or transverse stimulation fields into the spinal cord. To investigate, through extensive stimulation testing, the capacity of multicolumn tripolar leads to achieve back territory paresthesia coverage in refractory failed back surgery syndrome patients. Eleven patients implanted with a 16-contact spinal cord stimulation lead (Specify 5-6-5, Medtronic Inc) were assessed with a systematic exploration of 43 selected stimulation configurations to generate bilateral back paresthesia in addition to leg territory coverage. The tripolar lead successfully generated paresthesia in both bilateral back and leg territories in 9 patients (81.8%). Success rates of multicolumn stimulation patterns were significantly higher than for longitudinal configurations for lombodorsal paresthesia coverage. Six months after implantation, significant pain relief was obtained compared with preoperative evaluation for global pain (Visual Analog Scale, 2.25 vs 8.2 preoperatively; P < .05), leg pain (Visual Analog Scale, 0.5 vs 7.6 preoperatively; P < .05), and back pain (Visual Analog Scale, 1.5 vs 7.8 preoperatively; P < .05). These results suggest that multicolumn leads can reliably generate back pain coverage and favor pain relief outcomes. This may lead physicians to reconsider new indications for spinal cord stimulation. Expanding neurostimulation perspectives to intractable back pain syndromes could become realistic in the near future.

Constantin B.,University of Poitiers
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2014

Dystrophin is a 427 kDa sub-membrane cytoskeletal protein, associated with the inner surface membrane and incorporated in a large macromolecular complex of proteins, the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPC). In addition to dystrophin the DAPC is composed of dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, sarcospan, dystrobrevins and syntrophin. This complex is thought to play a structural role in ensuring membrane stability and force transduction during muscle contraction. The multiple binding sites and domains present in the DAPC confer the scaffold of various signalling and channel proteins, which may implicate the DAPC in regulation of signalling processes. The DAPC is thought for instance to anchor a variety of signalling molecules near their sites of action. The dystroglycan complex may participate in the transduction of extracellular-mediated signals to the muscle cytoskeleton, and β-dystroglycan was shown to be involved in MAPK and Rac1 small GTPase signalling. More generally, dystroglycan is view as a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix proteins. The adaptor proteins syntrophin contribute to recruit and regulate various signalling proteins such as ion channels, into a macromolecular complex. Although dystrophin and dystroglycan can be directly involved in signalling pathways, syntrophins play a central role in organizing signalplex anchored to the dystrophin scaffold. The dystrophin associated complex, can bind up to four syntrophin through binding domains of dystrophin and dystrobrevin, allowing the scaffold of multiple signalling proteins in close proximity. Multiple interactions mediated by PH and PDZ domains of syntrophin also contribute to build a complete signalplex which may include ion channels, such as voltage-gated sodium channels or TRPC cation channels, together with, trimeric G protein, G protein-coupled receptor, plasma membrane calcium pump, and NOS, to enable efficient and regulated signal transduction and ion transport. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

French National Center for Scientific Research, University of Poitiers and Valagro Carbone Renouvelable Poitou Charentes | Date: 2016-07-26

The present invention relates to a process for preparing a polymer/biological entities alloy, comprising a step of mixing a polymer and biological entities that degrade it, during a heat treatment, said heat treatment being performed at a temperature T above room temperature and said biological entities being resistant to said temperature T, characterized in that said biological entities are chosen from enzymes that degrade said polymer and microorganisms that degrade said polymer.

French National Center for Scientific Research and University of Poitiers | Date: 2014-10-08

The present invention relates to the field of medicine. It relates more particularly to the use of compounds to prevent and/or treat lipotoxicity in a subject, especially lipotoxicity by hypoxia. The invention relates more particularly to compositions, especially pharmaceuticals compositions and nutritional supplements or complements comprising such compounds as well as their use to prevent and/or treat lipotoxicity, especially lipotoxicity by hypoxia. The compounds and compositions of the invention can especially be advantageously used to prevent and/or treat a pathology from among pulmonary pathologies, especially cystic fibrosis or a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

French National Center for Scientific Research, University of Poitiers and University of Exeter | Date: 2014-10-08

The present invention relates to the field of medicine. It more particularly relates to the use of compounds for preventing and/or treating dyslipidemia in a subject, said dyslipidemia typically being linked to the excess presence in the biological membranes, including in the biological membranes of non-adipocyte cells, of fatty acids, in particular of saturated long-chain fatty acids, and/or of sterols. The invention also relates to compositions, in particular pharmaceutical compositions and food supplements or complements, comprising such compounds, and to the uses thereof for preventing and/or treating dyslipidemia. The compounds and compositions according to the invention can in particular be advantageously used for preventing and/or treating a pathological condition selected from metabolic syndrome and/or a symptom or abnormality characteristic of metabolic syndrome, preferably for preventing or treating type 2 diabetes mellitus or hepatic steatosis.

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