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Plymouth, United Kingdom

Plymouth University is a public university in the South West of England, with over 26,900 students and is 15th largest in the United Kingdom by total number of students . It has almost 2,900 staff making it one of the largest employers in the south west. The main campus is in the Devon city of Plymouth, but the university has campuses and affiliated colleges all over South West England.Whilst the University has been known as Plymouth University since June 2011 as a result of a rebrand, the formal name and legal title of the university remains "University of Plymouth". Wikipedia.


Hyland M.E.,University of Plymouth
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

This paper challenges the common assumption that the mechanisms underlying short-term placebo paradigms (where there is no motivation for health improvement) and long-term placebo paradigms (where patients value improvement in their health) are the same. Three types of motivational theory are reviewed: (i) classical placebo motivation theory that the placebo response results from the desire for therapeutic improvement; (ii) goal activation model that expectancy-driven placebo responses are enhanced when the placebo response satisfies an activated goal; and (iii) motivational concordance model that the placebo response is the consequence of concordance between the placebo ritual and significant intrinsic motives. It is suggested that current data are consistent with the following theory: response expectancy, conditioning and goal activation are responsible for short-term placebo effects but long-term therapeutic change is achieved through the effects of goal satisfaction and affect on the inflammatory response system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Empirical predictions of this new theory are outlined, including ways in which placebo effects can be combined with other psychologically mediated effects on short-term and long-term psychological and physiological state. © 2011 The Royal Society.


Wilson G.,University of Plymouth
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper is to contribute towards emergent debates on the 'quality' of multifunctional trajectories in rural development. The focus will be placed on the local rural community level, as it is at this level that multifunctionality is most often implemented. There has been an identified need for a new concept of multifunctionality that is conceptually and theoretically better anchored in current debates on agricultural/rural change, and for a globally applicable model that draws on existing holistic debates. The paper will suggest a conceptual framework for understanding rural community trajectories based on economic, social and environmental resilience and vulnerability of rural areas. The notion of multifunctional quality will emerge not only as a conceptual model for understanding rural pathways of change, but also as an explanatory tool and as a normative ideal for rural development. The paper builds on debates on multifunctionality extensively shaped by human geographers with the aim to extend the conceptual boundaries of the notion of multifunctionality, to further refine existing understandings of multifunctional transitions in rural communities, and to critically interrogate the components for strong multifunctionality. The paper concludes with a discussion of the complex policy implications associated with a transition from weak to strong multifunctionality. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © Royal Geographical Society (with The Institute of British Geographers) 2010.


Edworthy J.,University of Plymouth
Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association | Year: 2013

Objectives: This paper summarizes much of the research that is applicable to the design of auditory alarms in a medical context. It also summarizes research that demonstrates that false alarm rates are unacceptably high, meaning that the proper application of auditory alarm design principles are compromised. Target audience: Designers, users, and manufacturers of medical information and monitoring systems that indicate when medical or other parameters are exceeded and that are indicated by an auditory signal or signals. Scope: The emergence of alarms as a 'hot topic'; an outline of the issues and design principles, including IEC 60601-1-8; the high incidence of false alarms and its impact on alarm design and alarm fatigue; approaches to reducing alarm fatigue; alarm philosophy explained; urgency in audible alarms; different classes of sound as alarms; heterogeneity in alarm set design; problems with IEC 60601-1-8 and ways of approaching this design problem.


Caprotti F.,University of Plymouth
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers | Year: 2012

The paper analyses the discursive definition of the cleantech sector over the period 2000-10. It develops a dialogue between a cultural economy approach to sectoral development and recent research on the role of discourse in defining discursive arenas of environmental concern. The cleantech sector's rapid emergence in less than a decade can be seen as an example of the development of the cultural economy of an economic sector, defined in part through discursive logics and strategies performed by networks of actors constituted by firms, executives and policy professionals as well as non-governmental organisations and industry bodies. The paper conceptualises cleantech as a socio-technical sector that has developed through mechanisms that have established a dynamic sectoral identity as well as legitimacy around the way in which cleantech has been defined by networks of actors. The process of sectoral definition has, in turn, been based on the establishment of discursive logics that justify and make sense of the cleantech sector for investor firms and governments alike. Three discursive strands are thus identified and examined in the paper: the depiction of cleantech as the next paradigmatic technology revolution, the concept of cleantech as market-driven and the idea of cleantech as a 'technical fix' or solution to climate crisis. © 2011 Royal Geographical Society.


Briffa M.,University of Plymouth
Biology letters | Year: 2013

Variation in behaviour occurs at multiple levels, including between individuals (personality) and between situations (plasticity). Behaviour also varies within individuals, and intra-individual variation (IIV) in behaviour describes within-individual residual variance in behaviour that remains after the effects of obvious external and internal influences on behaviour have been accounted for. IIV thus describes how predictable an individual's behaviour is. Differences in predictability, between individuals and between situations, might be biologically significant. For example, behaving unpredictably under predation threat might reduce the chance of capture. Here, we investigated the duration of startle responses in hermit crabs, in the presence and absence of a predator cue. Individuals differed in startle response duration (personality) and while individuals also varied in their sensitivity to risk, mean response time was greater in the presence of a predator (plasticity). Moreover, IIV was greater in the presence of a predator, providing some of the first evidence that the facultative injection of unpredictability into behaviour might represent a strategy for dealing with risk.

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