The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded on the edge of the American frontier as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, and evolved into the Western University of Pennsylvania by alteration of its charter in 1819. After surviving two devastating fires and various relocations within the area, the school moved to its current location in the Oakland neighborhood of the city and was renamed to the University of Pittsburgh in 1908. For most of its history Pitt was a private institution, until it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education in 1966.The university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges located at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and 28,766 undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. The university also includes four additional undergraduate schools located at campuses within Western Pennsylvania: Bradford, Greensburg, Johnstown, and Titusville. The 132-acre Pittsburgh campus comprises multiple historic buildings of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning. The campus is situated adjacent to the flagship medical facilities of its closely affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center , as well as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Schenley Park, and Carnegie Mellon University.The university has an annual operating budget of approximately $2 billion that includes nearly $900 million in research and development expenditures. A member of the Association of American Universities, Pitt is the sixth largest recipient of federally sponsored research funding among U.S. universities in 2013 and is a major recipient of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. It is the second largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh region behind UPMC. Pitt has been placed among the top public universities in the United States in both domestic and international rankings, and has been listed as a "best value" in higher education by multiple publications.Pitt students have access to various arts programs throughout the campus and city, and can participate in approximately 350 student organizations. Pitt's varsity athletic teams, collectively known as the Pittsburgh Panthers, compete in Division I of the NCAA, primarily as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Wikipedia.
Zuckerman D.M.,University of Pittsburgh
Annual Review of Biophysics
Equilibrium sampling of biomolecules remains an unmet challenge after more than 30 years of atomistic simulation. Efforts to enhance sampling capability, which are reviewed here, range from the development of new algorithms to parallelization to novel uses of hardware. Special focus is placed on classifying algorithms most of which are underpinned by a few key ideasin order to understand their fundamental strengths and limitations. Although algorithms have proliferated, progress resulting from novel hardware use appears to be more clear-cut than from algorithms alone, due partly to the lack of widely used sampling measures. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Lewis D.A.,University of Pittsburgh
Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Schizophrenia is a disorder of cognitive neurodevelopment. At least some of the core cognitive deficits of the illness appear to be the product of impaired gamma frequency oscillations which depend, in part, on the inhibitory actions of a subpopulation of cortical GABA neurons that express the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV). Recent studies have revealed new facets of the development of PV neurons in primate neocortex and of the nature of their molecular alterations in individuals with schizophrenia. Other recent studies in model systems provide insight into how these alterations may arise in the course of cortical circuitry development. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Monga S.P.,University of Pittsburgh
β-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) is a subunit of the cell surface cadherin protein complex that acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the WNT signaling pathway; alterations in its activity have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver diseases. Other than WNT, additional signaling pathways also can converge at β-catenin. β-catenin also interacts with transcription factors such as T-cell factor, forkhead box protein O, and hypoxia inducible factor 1α to regulate the expression of target genes. We discuss the role of β-catenin in metabolic zonation of the adult liver. β-catenin also regulates the expression of genes that control metabolism of glucose, nutrients, and xenobiotics; alterations in its activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Alterations in β-catenin signaling may lead to activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is required for fibrosis. Many hepatic tumors such as hepatocellular adenomas, hepatocellular cancers, and hepatoblastomas have mutations in CTNNB1 that result in constitutive activation of β-catenin, so this molecule could be a therapeutic target. We discuss how alterations in β-catenin activity contribute to liver disease and how these might be used in diagnosis and prognosis, as well as in the development of therapeutics. © 2015 AGA Institute. Source
Brodsky J.L.,University of Pittsburgh
All cellular proteins are subject to quality control "decisions," which help to prevent or delay a myriad of diseases. Quality control within the secretory pathway creates a special challenge, as aberrant polypeptides are recognized and returned to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. This process is termed endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source
University of Pittsburgh | Date: 2015-08-10
The present invention provides murine monoclonal antibody molecules that bind to Merkel cell carcinoma (MCV) polypeptides.