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Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Kean W.F.,McMaster University | Tocchio S.,University of Pittsburg | Kean M.,Maclain Consultants Inc. | Rainsford K.D.,Sheffield Hallam University

Background and Introduction In 1991, a deceased human male was found frozen in a glacier pool in the Italian Alps in north west Italy, and is now carefully preserved in the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, in Bolzano, Italy. The bodily tissues of the 5,300 year old male (colloquially referred to as the Iceman or Otzi) were well preserved despite damage related to freezing, and glacial movement. Associated articles of well-preserved clothing, tools, weapons and other devices were also present and have been studied in detail. Clinical examination and imaging investigations have also shown that the Icemen had experienced possible illnesses in his lifetime and had identifiable areas of arthritis and musculoskeletal injury. This report includes some key observations on the musculoskeletal state of Otzi and reference to the involvement of tattoo markings. Some aspects about the aetiology of his abnormalities and inflammatory arthritis are considered along with possible treatments that he might have employed. Methods and results We (WFK and MK) undertook a clinical musculoskeletal examination of the Iceman, details of which with available photographs and radiographic imaging pertaining to the musculoskeletal findings of the Iceman are reported here. The skin of the Iceman has numerous linear carbon tattoos, which are not of a decorative type. These have been presumed to possibly be 'medicinal' tattoos administered for therapeutic reasons and may have been used in acupuncture-like treatment of pain. Spinal imaging identified areas of spinal damage and our observations have provided clues as to possible sites of spinal initiated pain and hence sites for administration of the 'medicinal' tattoos. We observed body areas of the Iceman, in which imaging demonstrated arthritis and other forms of long-term musculoskeletal damage, but which do not have adjacent or corresponding 'medicinal' tattoos. We contend that the back and leg 'medicinal' tattoos correspond directly to sites of chronic right knee and right ankle pain, and left thoracolumbar pain. They also correspond to lower lumbar and sciatic referred radicular pain which may have a contributory cause related to the presence of a transitional lumbar 5 vertebra. Using recent published data (Keller et al. in Nature Commun 3:698, 2012. doi:10.1038/ncomms1701) of the genome structure of the Iceman, we suggest some potential causes of the osteoarthritis or inflammatory joint injury may relate to presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) infection. We speculate on possible medical applications of natural products for selfmedication. Conclusions These observations highlight several diagnostic features of musculoskeletal conditions in the Iceman with the possibility that tattoos may have been used for diagnosis or location of his painful states. The origins of his musculoskeletal conditions are unclear but there are indications that Lyme disease and CHD may have been factors. The associations or use of natural products may give insights into their applications at the time of the life of the Iceman. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Rose J.S.,Wesleyan University | Dierker L.C.,Wesleyan University | Donny E.,University of Pittsburg
Drug and Alcohol Dependence

The present study examined the prevalence of individual nicotine dependence symptoms among recent onset smokers across the continuum of nondaily and daily cigarette smoking behavior in a nationally representative sample of recent onset smokers from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Rates of endorsement for 17 symptoms drawn primarily from the Nicotine Dependence Symptom Scale (Shiffman et al., 2004) were calculated for four levels of nondaily (smoked 1-3, 4-10, 11-20, or 21-29 days in the past 30 days) and daily (smoked 1, 2-5, 6-15, or >15 cigarettes per day in the past 30 days) smoking. Logistic and linear regression analyses with polynomial contrasts controlling for age, gender, length of exposure, and smoking quantity tested trends in symptom endorsement across levels of smoking. Significant linear and quadratic trends indicated that increasing rates of endorsement differed most between the lowest levels of nondaily and daily smoking. Results suggest that, for some, infrequent smoking may not represent benign experimentation. Recognizing early symptoms of nicotine dependence may assist in early identification and intervention of those at risk for heavier smoking in the future. Adolescents can be taught to recognize the early symptoms of nicotine dependence to increase awareness of the rapidity at which these symptoms may appear. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Marsiglia F.F.,Arizona State University | Ayers S.L.,Arizona State University | Baldwin-White A.,Arizona State University | Booth J.,University of Pittsburg
Prevention Science

While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin’it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use. © 2015, Society for Prevention Research. Source

Dehlendorf C.,University of California at San Francisco | Rodriguez M.I.,University of California at San Francisco | Levy K.,University of California at San Francisco | Borrero S.,University of Pittsburg | Steinauer J.,University of California at San Francisco
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Prominent racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy, abortion, and unintended births exist in the United States. These disparities can contribute to the cycle of disadvantage experienced by specific demographic groups when women are unable to control their fertility as desired. In this review we consider 3 factors that contribute to disparities in family planning outcomes: patient preferences and behaviors, health care system factors, and provider-related factors. Through addressing barriers to access to family planning services, including abortion and contraception, and working to ensure that all women receive patient-centered reproductive health care, health care providers and policy makers can substantially improve the ability of women from all racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds to make informed decisions about their fertility. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Nelson R.K.,University of Michigan | Horowitz J.F.,University of Michigan | Holleman R.G.,Center for Clinical Management Research | Swartz A.M.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity

Background: This study examined the independent association of objectively measured physical activity on insulin resistance while controlling for confounding variables including: cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity, sex, age, and smoking status.Methods: Data were obtained from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, a cross-sectional observational study conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control that uses a stratified, multistage probability design to obtain a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. The analysis included 402 healthy U.S. adults with valid accelerometer, cardiorespiratory fitness, and fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. After controlling for relevant confounding variables we performed a multiple linear regression to predict homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) based on average daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).Results: In our bivariate models, MVPA, cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat percentage were all significantly correlated with log HOMA-IR. In the complete model including MVPA and relevant confounding variables, there were strong and significant associations between MVPA and log HOMA-IR (β= -0.1607, P=0.004). In contrast the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and log HOMA-IR was not significant.Conclusion: When using an objective measure of physical activity the amount of time engaged in daily physical activity was associated with lower insulin resistance, whereas higher cardiorespiratory fitness was not. These results suggest that the amount of time engaged in physical activity may be an important determinant for improving glucose metabolism. © 2013 Nelson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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