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Piraeus, Greece

The University of Piraeus is a university located in Piraeus, Greece with a total of nine academic departments focused mainly on Statistics, Economics, Business Management and Information Technology.This institution is also home to the University of Piraeus Research Center which, since its founding in 1989, has participated in technological research on a national and international level, particularly in areas related to networking and internet technology. Wikipedia.

The present paper is concerned with the impact of the internalisation of environmental externalities on energy prices. In this context, its aim is to quantify the external cost of greenhouse gases (specifically carbon dioxide) generated during electricity production in the thermal power plants in Greece and to estimate the impact on the electricity production cost and on the electricity prices of a possible internalisation of this external cost by the producers. For this purpose, this paper applies the EcoSenseLE online tool to quantify the examined externalities. This research finds that the calculated external cost is significantly high (compared to the corresponding production cost) mainly in lignite-fired power plants. Specifically, a possible internalisation of this external cost would increase the production cost by more than 52% (on average), which, in turn, would affect similarly the electricity prices. This finding could be important for decision makers in the electricity sector to develop strategies for emission reduction and to develop environmental and energy policies. The general limitation of the external cost methodology applies to this work as it uses the standard method developed for the Externe project. Similarly, the data limitations as well as assumptions related to the costs and exclusions/ omissions of cost elements affect the results. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Tzannatos Ernestos E.,University of Piraeus
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation.The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NOx, SO2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping.On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO2, NOx, SO2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO2) and their externalities were found to be around 3.1 billion euro. With regard to shipping within the Greek seas, the utilization of the fuel-based (fuel sales) analysis for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) analysis for international shipping shows that the ship-generated emissions reached 7.4 million tons (of which 7 million tons of CO2) and their externalities were estimated at 2.95 billion euro. Finally, the internalization of external costs for domestic shipping was found to produce an increase of 12.96 and 2.71 euro per passenger and transported ton, respectively. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Tzannatos E.,University of Piraeus
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2010

Air pollution from shipping is currently dominating the international and European agenda on environmental protection. Although port emissions are not significantly contributing to the overall picture of ship-generated emissions, it is important to note that the impact of ship exhaust pollutants has a direct effect on the human population and built environment of many urbanized ports. The passenger (main) port of Piraeus qualifies for a ship emission and externality study by virtue of its dominant presence in the Mediterranean expressed in terms of the most frequent port calls by coastal passenger ships and cruise ships operating in the region, as well as in terms of being a most crowded port city through hosting a sizeable resident and visiting (employers and otherwise) population over a relatively small area. An in-port ship activity-based methodology was applied for manoeuvring and berthing of coastal passenger ships and cruise ships calling at the passenger port of Piraeus, in order to estimate the emission of the main ship exhaust pollutants (NOX, SO2 and PM2.5) over a twelve-month period in 2008-2009. The estimated emissions were analyzed in terms of gas species, seasonality, activity and shipping sector. The application of external cost factors led to the estimation of the emission externalities, in an attempt to evaluate the economic impact of the damage emissions produce mainly upon the human population and the built environment. The results indicate that ship emissions in the passenger port of Piraeus reach 2600 tons annually and their estimated externalities over this period are around 51 million euro. Summer emissions and associated impacts are more profound and coastal passenger shipping, as opposed to cruise shipping, is the dominant contributor of emissions and associated externalities. Overall, in a port city such as Piraeus, the need to introduce stringent control on the emissions produced by passenger ships, beyond that dictated by the current 2005/33/EU Directive is very urgent. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Siontorou C.G.,University of Piraeus
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

The discovery of naturally occurring, heavy-chain only antibodies in Camelidae, and their further development into small recombinant nanobodies, presents attractive alternatives in drug delivery and imaging. Easily expressed in microorganisms and amenable to engineering, nanobody derivatives are soluble, stable, versatile, and have unique refolding capacities, reduced aggregation tendencies, and high-target binding capabilities. This review outlines the current state of the art in nanobodies, focusing on their structural features and properties, production, technology, and the potential for modulating immune functions and for targeting tumors, toxins, and microbes. © 2013 Siontorou.

Georgakellos D.A.,University of Piraeus
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2012

The aim of the present work is to estimate the carbon footprint of the Greek electricity sector and the associated damages. This is being realized by quantifying the external cost related with the climate change airborne emissions (i.e. carbon dioxide) generated during all stages of the power plants life cycle in Greece. For this purpose, the paper applies the EcoSenseLE tool, together with the basic principles of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The examined external cost has been calculated for seven types of power plants. Results show that hydro and wind power plants have an excellent performance; close to them is the performance of PV and biomass-fired power plants. The performance of natural gas-fired power plants is good, while the performance of oil-fired power plants is, as it is expected poor. Lignite clearly has the worst performance, which affects the average external cost of the sector, since it is the dominant energy source in electricity production in Greece. Regarding the life cycle stages, for thermal systems, the climate change external cost is primarily made of CO 2 emitted at the power plant, while in hydro, wind and PV systems, it is totally associated with the plant construction stage. Moreover, the paper includes also issues regarding the evolution of the examined footprint within the next years, considering the various Greek national policies and measures that have been announced and started to be realized; the cost/benefit analysis (CBA) of these policies and measures based on this footprint; and the investigation if this CBA is being affected by the CO 2 abatement cost associated with the various external cost estimation approaches. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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