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Vercelli, Italy

The University of Eastern Piedmont Amedeo Avogadro is a university located in Alessandria, Novara and Vercelli, Italy. It was founded in 1998 and is organized in 7 faculties. Before 1998 the seven faculties were part of the University of Turin. Wikipedia.

Tron G.C.,University of Piemonte Orientale
European Journal of Organic Chemistry

Although the Ugi multicomponent reaction is more than 40 years old, there is still room for its application to the discovery of new multicomponent transformations, even within the constraints of its classic four-reactant menu (aldehyde, amine, carboxylic acid, and isocyanide). Replacement of a primary amine with a secondary one thus allows the Mumm-like rearrangement step to be avoided, freezing the reaction course at the stage of an imino-anhydride intermediate susceptible to alternative nucleophilic trapping. Mainstream post-transformation strategies can then add a further level of complexity. The potential of this approach to expedite access to molecular scaffolds of biological relevance and to create unprecedented chemical diversity is outlined. The decade-long development of modified Ugi reactions that use secondary rather than primary amines is summarized, highlighting the potential of this strategy to generate unprecedented chemical diversity and to provide shortcuts to various classes of nitrogen compounds (polyamines, heterocycles) of recognized value in biomedical research. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Mula M.,University of Piemonte Orientale
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs

Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders in adults, affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide at a total annual cost, in Europe, of approximately 15.5 billion Euros. Areas covered: The present paper reviews current compounds in preclinical and clinical development for the treatment of focal epilepsies, namely, ganaxolone, perampanel, BGG-492, NS-1209, belnacasan, YKP-3089, brivaracetam. New formulations in clinical development, such as intranasal midazolam, diazepam auto-injection, a new formulation of valproic acid using drug targeting technology and controlled release formulations for topiramate and pregabalin, are also discussed. Expert opinion: During the last 30 years, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) development have been based on specific assumptions regarding the neurobiology of epilepsy but all marketed drugs have not changed the proportion of drug refractory patients. AEDs in development with new mechanisms of actions, especially anti-inflammatory agents, are of interest. AMPA blockers, especially water-soluble ones, being suitable for parenteral formulation, can be of relevance in treating refractory status epilepticus, a major life-threatening complication. Finally, new formulations, especially those adopting drug targeting technologies are promising in order to maximize the efficacy with very limited adverse effects. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

Baldanzi G.,University of Piemonte Orientale
Advances in Biological Regulation

Diacylglycerol is a key regulator of cell physiology, controlling the membrane recruitment and activation of signaling molecules. Accordingly, diacylglycerol generation and metabolism are strictly controlled, allowing for localized regulation of its concentration.While the increased production of diacylglycerol upon receptor triggering is well recognized, the modulation of diacylglycerol metabolism by diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) is less characterized. Some agonists induce DGK activation and recruitment to the plasma membrane, promoting diacylglycerol metabolism to phosphatidic acid. Conversely, several reports indicate that signaling pathways that selectively inhibits DGK isoforms can enhance cellular diacylglycerol levels and signal transduction. For example, the impairment of DGKθ activity by RhoA binding to the catalytic domain represents a conserved mechanism controlling diacylglycerol signaling from Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons to mammalian hepatocytes. Similarly, DGKα activity is inhibited in lymphocytes by TCR signaling, thus contributing to a rise in diacylglycerol concentration for downstream signaling. Finally, DGKμ activity is inhibited by ischemia-reperfusion-generated reactive oxygen species in airway endothelial cells, promoting diacylglycerol-mediated ion channel opening and edema.In those systems, DGKs provide a gatekeeper function by blunting diacylglycerol levels or possibly establishing permissive domains for diacylglycerol signaling. In this review, I discuss the possible general relevance of DGK inhibition to enhanced diacylglycerol signaling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lin J.J.,University of California at Irvine | Mula M.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Hermann B.P.,University of Wisconsin - Madison
The Lancet

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that is complicated by psychiatric, cognitive, and social comorbidities that have become a major target of concern and investigation in view of their adverse effect on the course and quality of life. In this report we define the specific psychiatric, cognitive, and social comorbidities of paediatric and adult epilepsy, their epidemiology, and real life effects; examine the relation between epilepsy syndromes and the risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities; address the lifespan effect of epilepsy on brain neurodevelopment and brain ageing and the risk of neurobehavioural comorbidities; consider the overarching effect of broader brain disorders on both epilepsy and neurobehavioural comorbidities; examine directions of causality and the contribution of selected epilepsy-related characteristics; and outline clinic-friendly screening approaches for these problems and recommended pharmacological, behavioural, and educational interventions. Source

Appendino G.,University of Piemonte Orientale
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition

Hit the mark: The development of a short synthesis of ingenol may mark the beginning of a new era of natural products synthesis, an era where structural complexity does not deter the development of processes amenable to scale up. This may foster the exploration of biologically relevant chemical space and pave the way to the development of commercial syntheses of natural products. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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