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Dabrowska A.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw | Pisula E.,University of Warsaw
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research | Year: 2010

Background: The study examined the profile of stress in mothers and fathers of preschool children with autism, Down syndrome and typically developing children. A further aim was to assess the association between parenting stress and coping style. Methods: A total of 162 parents were examined using Holroyd's 66-item short form of Questionnaire of Resources and Stress for Families with Chronically Ill or Handicapped Members and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations by Endler and Parker. Results and Conclusions: The results indicated a higher level of stress in parents of children with autism. Additionally, an interaction effect was revealed between child diagnostic group and parent's gender for two scales of parenting stress: dependency and management and limits of family opportunities. Mothers of children with autism scored higher than fathers in parental stress; no such differences were found in the group of parents of children with Down syndrome and typically developing children. It was also found that parents of children with autism differed from parents of typically developing children in social diversion coping. Emotion-oriented coping was the predictor for parental stress in the samples of parents of children with autism and Down syndrome, and task-oriented coping was the predictor of parental stress in the sample of parents of typically developing children. The results strongly supported earlier findings on parenting stress in parents of children with autism. They also shed interesting light on the relationship between coping styles and parental stress. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Piotrowska-Calka E.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Biology of Sport | Year: 2010

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of prolonged deep water aerobic training on cardiovascular fitness. Two groups of women, each consisting of 19 women between the ages of 30-62 participated in this research. Group "A" (mean age of 49.2 ±8.7) participated in a 24-week deep water training program, exercising twice a week for 45 minutes. All 45 minute sessions were divided into three parts: the warm-up, the aerobic segment, and the cool-down including stretching elements. During the aerobic portion, the subjects were told to exercise at a moderate intensity which was established by used Karvonen's formula for water exercise and self-regulated by used of a Sport-tester Polar 800i. Subjects in group "A" were tested before and after 24 week program with the Bruce Protocol cardio-effort test when compared to the control group "B" (19 females with an average age of 48.7+8.1). Group "A" demonstrated significant improvement in aerobic capacity after deep water aerobic program (before=10.1 ±2.2 MET, after=11.1 ±2.0MET, p<0.01), also were demonstrated significant reduction of response systolic blood pressure and resting heart rate (before 84.5±14.3 bpm, after 75.8±10.0 bpm, p<0.05). The results of these study support the use deep water aerobic training as an alternative form of exercise to land-based training for unfit middle age participants.

Introduction: The results of many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that osteoporosis is a multifactorial disease and develops mainly in women during menopause. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diet with particular emphasis on calcium and vitamin D intake and sun exposure in premenopausal women in terms of risk of osteoporosis. Material and methods: The study involved 300 women aged 45-55 years from Warsaw. The method used was a questionnaire assessing the frequency of consumption from the last three months. Exposure to the sun evaluated using a questionnaire prepared in cooperation with the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw. For the purpose of the project, profiles of attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis were developed. Results: Inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D among the majority of women surveyed was confirmed. The highest percentage of women represented profile VIII: attitudes towards prevention of osteoporosis, characterized by insufficient exposure to sunlight and a diet deficient in both calcium and vitamin D. Conclusions: In the diets of women surveyed significant deficiencies of calcium and vitamin D were found, which confirms previous reports on the lack of nutritional support for normal women's bone mineralization. Among the surveyed women the majority reported insufficient exposure to sunlight as a source of vitamin D additional to food. There is a need for health education of these women in the prevention of osteoporosis and especially paying attention to the proper intake of calcium and more vitamin D in their diet. At the same time, adequate exposure to the sun is vital as it is the main source of vitamin D for the body coming not from the food consumed.

Mikicin M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw | Kowalczyk M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Applied Psychophysiology Biofeedback | Year: 2015

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of regular audio-visual relaxation combined with Schultz’s autogenic training on: (1) the results of behavioral tests that evaluate work performance during burdensome cognitive tasks (Kraepelin test), (2) changes in classical EEG alpha frequency band, neocortex (frontal, temporal, occipital, parietal), hemisphere (left, right) versus condition (only relaxation 7–12 Hz). Both experimental (EG) and age-and skill-matched control group (CG) consisted of eighteen athletes (ten males and eight females). After 7-month training EG demonstrated changes in the amplitude of mean electrical activity of the EEG alpha bend at rest and an improvement was significantly changing and an improvement in almost all components of Kraepelin test. The same examined variables in CG were unchanged following the period without the intervention. Summing up, combining audio-visual relaxation with autogenic training significantly improves athlete’s ability to perform a prolonged mental effort. These changes are accompanied by greater amplitude of waves in alpha band in the state of relax. The results suggest usefulness of relaxation techniques during performance of mentally difficult sports tasks (sports based on speed and stamina, sports games, combat sports) and during relax of athletes. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Blazkiewicz M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics | Year: 2013

Backward walking (BW) is a common technique employed in the treatment of a variety of orthopedic and neurological diseases. BW training may offer some benefits especially in balance and motor control ability beyond those experienced through forward walking (FW). The purpose of this study was to determine whether BW represented a simple reversal of FW and, hence muscle force distribution is the same. The study involved one male healthy student of physical education (22 years, h = 185 cm, m = 80 kg). Measurements of spatial-temporal gait parameters were conducted using eight Vicon system cameras, and Kistler plates. Noraxon EMG was used to obtain muscles activity. OpenSim software was used to compute muscle force distribution during both types of gait. During FW and BW there is small difference for force curves produced by m. gluteus maximus (RMS = 0.04), m. biceps femoris short head (RMS = 0.19) and m. tibialis anterior (RMS = 0.16). Good validation by EMG signal was obtained for m. rectus femoris, m. biceps femoris short head, m. tibialis posterior during FW and BW. For m. iliacus, only during BW good validation was achived.

Zagorska A.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw | Guszkowska M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2014

The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a proprietary program for increasing self-efficacy among track and field athletes through vicarious experience and successful control over excitation and to determine the changes in the cognitive dimensions related to self-efficacy: dispositional optimism, hope of success and locus of control. An experimental two-group design with a pre-test and a post-test in the experimental and control groups was used. Forty-two athletes (29 women and 13 men) aged 17 to 24 years randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups took part in the study. The General Scale of Self-Efficacy, Hope for Success Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test Revised, and Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were used. The study's results indicate that the program was effective. Participants in the intervention group demonstrated a substantial increase in self-efficacy (P=0.001). This was not observed in the control group (P=0.732). After the completion of the program, athletes in the intervention group had significantly higher levels of self-efficacy (P=0.001) and optimism (P=0.017). They also had more internal locus of control compared to the control group (P=0.001). Contrary to expectations, athletes in the intervention group demonstrated a substantially lower level of propensity in pathways (P=0.001) as well as in agency (P=0.001) (both components of the hope for success). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Guszkowska M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Anxiety, Stress and Coping | Year: 2014

This study sought to track changes in intensity of fear of childbirth and locus of labor pain control in women attending an exercise program for pregnant women or traditional childbirth classes and to identify the predictors of these changes. The study was longitudinal/non-experimental in nature and run on 109 healthy primigravidae aged from 22 to 37, including 62 women participating in an exercise program for pregnant women and 47 women attending traditional childbirth classes. The following assessment tools were used: two scales developed by the present authors - the Fear of Childbirth Scale and the Control of Birth Pain Scale, three standardized psychological inventories for the big five personality traits (NEO Five Factors Inventory), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and dispositional optimism (Life Oriented Test-Revised) and a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, health status, activities during pregnancy, relations with partners and expectations about childbirth. Fear of childbirth significantly decreased in women participating in the exercise program for pregnant women but not in women attending traditional childbirth classes. Several significant predictors of post-intervention fear of childbirth emerged: dispositional optimism and self-rated health (negative) and strength of the belief that childbirth pain depends on chance (positive). © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Piatkowska M.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Biology of Sport | Year: 2012

Physical inactivity has become a serious public health problem as it contributes to major non-communicable diseases. Increasing activity levels has beneficial effects on musculoskeletal health and mental health as well. In Poland there are a few studies which refer to the physical activity (PA) of the overall society and which are based on an international questionnaire, thus enabling comparative analysis. The aim of the study was to assess the PA level of the Polish society and to examine fields of their activity and intensity of them in order to compare the data with fifteen European countries. A survey based on computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) was carried out in Poland in November 2006. A random sample of Polish adults (n=1028) was selected and divided according to demographic criteria. PA was estimated by a short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). In the last seven days 53.4% of the Polish society reported no vigorous PA whereas in the European sample the percentage was significantly higher (57.4%). For the PA of moderate level of intensity 39.8% of the Polish respondents reported no such PA; in the European sample the percentage was 40.8%. Only 12.8% of the Polish respondents reported not having walked in the past week, whereas in the EU the percentage was 17.1%. It must be noted that in all aspects the results were varied in the studied countries. These observations indicate a need for urgent actions to promote HEPA across EU member countries and in particular the least active member states. The present study is the first referring to PA of the whole Polish population, based on a representative sample and an international standardised questionnaire. The data confirm that the PA level of the Polish society is not as low as it has been shown in many studies.

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63) and isometric training (n=69) as well as on a group of advanced powerlifters (n=50) practising weightlifting training. The obtained results indicate that the most desirable and beneficial supportive effect in strength sports was exhibited by HMB. No significant differences in body composition of subjects practising bodybuilding training were detected between those who were given L-carnitine and those who received placebo, an observation confirming controversies over the capacity of the former to reduce fat content. However, significant differences in maximal strength were demonstrated between the examined groups of athletes. Significant differences in the examined parameters were also detected within the group of advanced powerlifters practising weightlifting between those who were supplemented with creatine and those who were given placebo. Thus, the use of creatine in the development of physical capacity in advanced athletes may be advisable.

Lutoslawska G.,University of Physical Education in Warsaw
Journal of physiological anthropology | Year: 2014

Limited data have indicated that body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) of athletes and young adults provide misleading results concerning body fat content. This study was aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between different surrogate indices of fatness (BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and body adiposity index (BAI)) with the percentage of body fat in Polish students with respect to their sex and physical activity. A total of 272 students volunteered to participate in the study. Of these students, 177 physical education students (90 males and 87 females) were accepted as active (physical activity of 7 to 9 hours/week); and 95 students of other specializations (49 males and 46 females) were accepted as sedentary (physical activity of 1.5 hours/week). Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were calculated. Body fat percentage was assessed using four skinfold measurements. Classification of fatness according to the BMI and the percentage of body fat have indicated that BMI overestimates fatness in lean subjects (active men and women, sedentary men), but underestimates body fat in obese subjects (sedentary women). In all groups, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI were significantly correlated with the percentage of body fat (with the exception of WHR and hip circumference in active and sedentary women, respectively). However, coefficients of determination not exceeding 50% and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients lower than 0.9 indicated no relationship between measured and calculated body fat. The findings in the present study support the concept that irrespective of physical activity and sex none of the calculated indices of fatness are useful in the determination of body fat in young adults. Thus, it seems that easily calculated indices may contribute to distorted body image and unhealthy dietary habits observed in many young adults in Western countries, but also in female athletes.

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