Matar N.,University of Petra
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning | Year: 2017
This paper presents a continuous work related to the status and engagement with e-learning systems by faculty members in Jordanian universities. Previous research study entitled (Evaluating E-Learning System Use by CBAM-Stages of Concern Methodology in Jordanian Universities, 2015) focused on defining stages of concern using one tool that is presented by CBAM Framework. The CBAM Framework provides another tool that is used specifically for measuring level of use of any educational technology. This research focused on using CBAM framework for the first time in Jordanian Higher educational context in order to present a systematic and well-defined methodology for evaluation that will be used for defining the exact engagement with elearning. It is believed that the results of this research can be reflected positively on universities future policies and practices for developing the use of this educational technology in Jordan.
Qinna N.A.,University of Petra |
Badwan A.A.,The Jordanian Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Co. Plc. JPM
Drug Design, Development and Therapy | Year: 2015
Streptozotocin (STZ) is currently the most used diabetogenic agent in testing insulin and new antidiabetic drugs in animals. Due to the toxic and disruptive nature of STZ on organs, apart from pancreas, involved in preserving the body’s normal glucose homeostasis, this study aims to reassess the action of STZ in inducing different glucose response states in diabetic rats while testing insulin. Diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ were classified according to their initial blood glucose levels into stages. The effect of randomizing rats in such a manner was investigated for the severity of interrupting normal liver, pancreas, and kidney functions. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of subcutaneously injected insulin in diabetic and nondiabetic rats were compared. Interruption of glucose homeostasis by STZ was challenged by single and repeated administrations of injected insulin and oral glucose to diabetic rats. In diabetic rats with high glucose (451–750 mg/dL), noticeable changes were seen in the liver and kidney functions compared to rats with lower basal glucose levels. Increased serum levels of recombinant human insulin were clearly indicated by a significant increase in the calculated maximum serum concentration and area under the concentration–time curve. Reversion of serum glucose levels to normal levels pre- and postinsulin and oral glucose administrations to STZ diabetic rats were found to be variable. In conclusion, diabetic animals were more responsive to insulin than nondiabetic animals. STZ was capable of inducing different levels of normal glucose homeostasis disruption in rats. Both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic actions of insulin were altered when different initial blood glucose levels of STZ diabetic rats were selected for testing. Such findings emphasize the importance of selecting predefined and unified glucose levels when using STZ as a diabetogenic agent in experimental protocols evaluating new antidiabetic agents and insulin delivery systems. © 2015 Qinna and Badwan.
Idkaidek N.M.,University of Petra
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2014
The aim of this commentary is to investigate the interplay of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) and Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS). BCS first classified drugs based on permeability and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug absorption. Then BDDCS linked permeability with hepatic metabolism and classified drugs based on metabolism and solubility for the purpose of predicting oral drug disposition. On the other hand, SECS classified drugs based on permeability and protein binding for the purpose of predicting the salivary excretion of drugs. The role of metabolism, rather than permeability, on salivary excretion is investigated and the results are not in agreement with BDDCS. Conclusion: The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion based on permeability (not metabolism) and protein binding. © 2013.
Idkaidek N.M.,University of Petra
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal | Year: 2017
Aims: To study the pharmacokinetics of selected drugs in plasma and saliva matrixes in healthy human volunteers, and to suggest using non-invasive saliva sampling instead of plasma as a surrogate in bioavailability and bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. Methods: Four different pilot BA/BE studies were done in 12–18 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3–5 half life values of metformin, tolterodine, rosuvastatin, and paracetamol after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma samples were assayed using LC-MSMS, and then pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis using Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were also optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug by Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using SimCYP program. Results: All studied drugs showed salivary excretion with strong correlation coefficients between saliva and plasma concentrations. The optimized Peff ranged 1.44–68.3 × 10−4 cm/s for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.17–1.5. Inter and intra individual variability of primary pharmacokinetic parameters in saliva matrix was either close to or higher than plasma matrix. This requires larger sample size in saliva studies for some drugs. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is a potential in BA/BE studies for saliva to be considered as a surrogate for plasma concentration, which goes along with drug regulations. The use of saliva instead of plasma in such studies makes them non-invasive, easy and with a lower clinical burden. © 2016 The Author
Haddad B.,University of Petra
3rd IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications, CogInfoCom 2012 - Proceedings | Year: 2012
This paper is attempting in terms of a formal statistical language model to review the overall domination of Arabic morphology as a non-linear or non-concatenated processing system in the case of word identification. The basic components of this model are relying on bi-directional probabilistic root-pattern relationships acting as cognitive morphological factors for word recognition. Considering a root in the mental lexicon as the highest level of semantic abstraction for a morpheme allows the view of considering words as a functional or applicative process instantiating the most probable or known pattern to the most plausible root. As Arabic is known for its highly inflectional morphological structure and its high tendency to pattern and root ambiguity (Root-Homonymy and Pattern Polysemy) this model is assuming bi-directional morphological background knowledge for resolving ambiguities in form of probabilistic semantic network. As a major consequence, this paper is stressing the significance of this phenomenon in designing Arabic interactive cognitive systems particularly those related to interactive Arabic natural language understanding and word recognition and corrections. © 2012 IEEE.
Idkaidek N.,University of Petra |
Arafat T.,University of Petra
Molecular Pharmaceutics | Year: 2012
The aims of this work were to study pharmacokinetics of randomly selected drugs in plasma and saliva samples in healthy human volunteers, and to introduce a Salivary Excretion Classification System. Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 3-5 half-life values of sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, montelukast, tolterodine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), lornoxicam, azithromycin, diacerhein, rosuvastatin, cloxacillin, losartan and tamsulosin after oral dosing. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis using the Kinetica program. Effective intestinal permeability (Peff) values were estimated by the Nelder-Mead algorithm of the Parameter Estimation module using the SimCYP program. P eff values were optimized to predict the actual average plasma profile of each drug. All other physicochemical factors were kept constant during the minimization processes. Sitagliptin, cinacalcet, metformin, tolterodine, HCT, azithromycin, rosuvastatin and cloxacillin had salivary excretion with correlation coefficients of 0.59-0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations. On the other hand, montelukast, lornoxicam, diacerhein, losartan and tamsulosin showed no salivary excretion. Estimated Peff ranged 0.16-44.16 × 10-4 cm/s, while reported fraction unbound to plasma proteins (fu) ranged 0.01-0.99 for the drugs under investigation. Saliva/plasma concentrations ratios ranged 0.11-13.4, in agreement with drug protein binding and permeability. A Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) was suggested based on drug high (H)/low (L) permeability and high (H)/low (L) fraction unbound to plasma proteins, which classifies drugs into 4 classes. Drugs that fall into class I (H/H), II (L/H) or III (H/L) are subjected to salivary excretion, while those falling into class IV (L/L) are not. Additional data from literature was also analyzed, and all results were in agreement with the suggested SECS. Moreover, a polynomial relationship with correlation coefficient of 0.99 is obtained between S* and C*, where S* and C* are saliva and concentration dimensionless numbers respectively. The proposed Salivary Excretion Classification System (SECS) can be used as a guide for drug salivary excretion. Future work is planned to test these initial findings, and demonstrate SECS robustness across a range of carefully selected (based on physicochemical properties) drugs that fall into classes I, II or III. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Al-Nammari F.,University of Petra
Habitat International | Year: 2013
The objective of this paper is to investigate one aspect of the challenges of participatory planning and development in the Jordanian context focussing on the case of refugee camp-cities. These enclaves of quasi squatter-formal settlements provide valuable insights into the complex and multifaceted process of participation in Jordan. The challenges of urban development within the camps' high-density sub-standard environment are augmented by the lack of clear vision due to the complexity of the regional and international political context. Within this framework, an amalgamation of variables impact attempts towards a transparent and inclusive development project.The paper investigates an innovative participatory project for slums upgrading that was designed to engage the local community in its leadership and decision-making. The project adopted the principles of Good Governance and fostered social inclusion and transparency. As such, this case study offers a rare opportunity to investigate a participatory project that is true to the principles of participation and empowerment within a context that is inexperienced in such approaches. The objective of the paper is to understand the locals' response to a new kind of project that is based on inclusiveness, transparency, and equity.The enquiry shows that local power structures will resist such a project's approach because local elites view themselves as gatekeepers to the community. Different tactics will be used towards controlling the project's decision-making process or thwarting approved projects. The process is highly dynamic as actors change positions and yesterday's allies are tomorrow's foes. Local actors play a variety of roles and they ruminate the culture of exclusion and domination. The Talbiyeh Camp Improvement project represents a case study for democratisation on the micro level and the dynamics of the process indicates that although hailed as a need by locals, a fair transparent process will face serious challenges in a context that is lacking in democratic examples and has layers of non-democratic political and social realities. Time and Authority are important variables for the success of such interventions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Al-Hassan A.,University of Petra
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2013
Recognizing the importance of culture in translation, this article presents a descriptive study of translation of literary texts from English into Arabic. Using the data taken from works of Shakespeare and others which were translated by eminent translators, it first describes the study background, research contexts and procedures and problems. It then addresses some research questions on: (1) Will the translation be accepted by the new community of readers; 2) Is the relation between culture and translation important? It is worth noting that this study is significant for translators and readers of the target language, which is Arabic in this case. This has been substantiated by surveying the interests in cultural aspects of translation as early as the 19th Century. Thus translations do not only include lexical content and syntax, but also ideologies, values and ways of life in a given culture, which form translating problems. Therefore, translators have to know the audience. © Australian International Academic Centre, Australia.
Jawad I.M.,University of Petra
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2010
Nineteen raw vegetable crops were collected from major markets in Baghdad areas uncontaminated by human activities other than normal agricultural practice. Six hundred samples were prepared and analyzed under carefully controlled conditions for cadmium, lead, iron, copper and Zinc. The Levels of these Heavy Metals in the vegetables were relatively low with respect to the proposed maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption. In lettuce, spinach and parsley relatively high level of lead and cadmium were noticed compared with tomato, eggplant and onion. Iron was the only element that showed statistical variation among the different of vegetables. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2010.
Alshaker H.A.,University of Petra |
Matalka K.Z.,University of Petra
Cancer Cell International | Year: 2011
Multiple innate and adaptive immune effector cells and molecules partake in the recognition and destruction of cancer cells to protect against growing tumors, a concept that is known as cancer immunosurveillance. Unfortunately, cancer cells are capable of avoiding this process by immunoselection of poorly immunogenic tumor cells variants along with subversion of the immune system and thus shaping both the tumor and its microenvironment. Cytokines represent part of the complex pattern of the immune response which can assist the development of cancer as well as to eliminate it. Simultaneously, a large number of cytokines may be involved in the complex interactions between host and tumor cells where this dynamic cross-talk, between tumors and the immune system, can either regulate tumor growth or tumor growth, invasion and metastasis take place. In this review, we are stressing on the interface between infiltrated immune cells and tumor cells with the emphasis on the bidirectional activities of specific cytokines: IFN-γ, TGF-β and IL-17 within the tumor microenvironment and their role in shaping it. In addition, the significance of modulating such cytokines in favor of anti-tumor response is discussed and merits the use of mixture of targeted modulators to overcome the network complexity of cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. © 2011 Alshaker and Matalka; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.