University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Peshawar, Pakistan

University of Agriculture, Peshawar

Peshawar, Pakistan
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Dry matter (DM) partitioning into root, leaf, stem, shoot dry weight plant−1 response in four cool season C3-cereals viz. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) was investigated at 30, 60 and 90 days after emergence (DAE) under eight nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) sources: S1 = 20-20-20, S2 = 20-27-5, S3 = 7-22-8, S4 = 10-10-10-20S, S5 = 11-15-11, S6 = 31-11-11, S7 = 24-8-16, and S8 = 19-6-12 in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during winter 2009-10. A considerable variation in DM partitioning into various plant parts was observed in the four crop species at different growth stages and NPK source. At 30 DAE, 27% of the total DM per plant (TDMPP) was partitioned into roots and 73% into shoots (19% stems + 54% leaf). Only16 % of the TDMPP was partitioned into roots and 84% into shoots (18 % stem + 66 % leaf) at 60 DAE. At 90 DAE, 29% of TDMPP was partitioned into roots and 71 % into shoots (33 % stems + 38 % leaf) at 90 DAE. Percent DM partitioning into stems ranked first (33%) at 90 DAE > at 30 DAE (19%) > at 60 DAE (18 %). With advancement in crops age, DM partitioning into various crop parts increased. The root DM plant−1 (RDMPP) increased from 11.5–722 mg plant−1; stem DM plant−1 (STDMPP) from 8.3–889.0 mg plant−1; leaf DM plant−1 (LDMPP) from 23.1–1031.0 mg plant−1; shoot DM plant−1 (SHDMPP) from 31.3–1921 mg plant−1, and TDMPP increased from 42.9–2693.0 mg plant−1 at 30 and 90 DAE, respectively. Because of the higher N contents in S7 (24:8:16) and S6 (31:11:11) reduced the DM partitioning into various plants parts as well as TDMPP at all three growth stages. The adverse effects of S6 and S7 on DM partitioning was more on oats > rye > wheat > barley. The S4 with 10:10:10 (NPK) and :20S was not toxic at 30 DAE, but at 60 and 90 DAE it became toxic that adversely affected the DM partitioning as well as TDMPP probably may be due its high sulfur (20%) content which lacking in other NPK sources. The DM partitioning to various parts of barley and wheat was more than oats and rye at different growth stages (barley > wheat > rye > oats). Since the DM portioning values were determined on the average of five plants in pot experiment under organic soil at field capacity; in case of field experiments more research is needed on various crop species/varieties under different environmental conditions particularly under moisture stress condition. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Khan B.M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2016

The antifungal, anti-yeast and anti-oxidant effects of Calamus aromaticus leaves were studied. The extract showed mild activity against two fungal strains and strong activity against the yeast. The results also indicated the presence of extremely high DPPH radical scavenging potential in all tested samples at each of the seven concentrations used. The data further revealed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracted samples measured highest antifungal (25.0% inhibition each against Rhizopus oryzae at 1000 μg/well), anti-yeast (73.5 and 66.4% activity respectively at 2000 μg/disc) and anti-oxidant (96.6 and 97.7% activity respectively at 250 ppm) potential while samples extracted with water were least potent. HPLC analysis of the extracted samples confirmed ethyl acetate and n-butanol as the solvents of choice for the extraction of antifungal, anti-yeast and anti-oxidant compounds (phenolics) from the leaves of C. aromaticus. © 2015, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All rights reserved.

Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shafi M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

The present research was carried out at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, the University of Agriculture Peshawar KPK Pakistan. Analysis of the data revealed that all the extracts from dry bulbs showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all tested eight microbes including bacteria and a fungus while chloroform fractions inhibited all the microbes except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Butanol fractions showed second highest activity at both lower and higher concentrations. Ethanol and water fractions were found least effective or ineffective. Among Gram positive microbes, Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible bacteria and the most resistant Gram negative bacteria were Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Salmonella typhi.

Amanullah Jr.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

Non-irrigated crops in temperate and irrigated crops in arid regions are exposed to an incessant series of drought stress and re-watering. Hence, quick and efficient recuperation from drought stress may be amongst the key determinants of plant drought adjustment. Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the capability to assuage water stress in crops by sustaining metabolic activities even at reduced tissue water potential. This study was designed to understand the potential of proper nutrition management by studying the morphological and physiological attributes, and assimilation of nitrogen in Kentucky bluegrass under drought stress. In present study, one heterogeneous habitat and four treatments homogenous habitats each with four replications were examined during field trial. Drought stress resulted in a significant reduction in the nitrogen content of both mother and first ramets, maximum radius, above and below ground mass, number of ramets per plot, leaf water contents and water potential and increased the carbon content and the C:N ratio in both homogenous and heterogeneous plots compared to well-watered and nutritional conditions. Observation using electron microscopy showed that drought stress shrunk the vessel diameter, circumference and xylem area, but increased the sieve diameter, and phloem area in the leaf crosscutting structure of Kentucky bluegrass, first, second, and third ramet leaf. Thus, it can be concluded that water stress markedly reduced all the important traits of Kentucky bluegrass, however, proper nutritional management treatment resulted in the best compensatory performance under drought assuaging its adversity up to some extent and may be considered in formulating good feasible and cost-effective practices for the environmental circumstances related to those of this study. © 2017 Saud, Fahad, Yajun, Ihsan, Hammad, Nasim, Amanullah, Arif and Alharby.

Ullah R.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shafi M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The present study investigates antimicrobial and anti-oxidant potential of different solvent extracted samples from Periploca hydaspidis through disc diffusion assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were sensitive to crude extracts and all fractions measuring varying degree of growth inhibition. Similarly, the growth of Citrobacter freundii was not inhibited by crude methanolic extracts, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracted samples. Maximum growth inhibition was measured against Klebsiella pneumoniae exposed to aqueous fraction followed by n-hexane fraction. Our results also suggested that among various fungi, Candida albicans was sensitive to crude methanolic extracts, n-hexane and aqueous fractions compared with other fractions. The rest of the fungi under test were resistant to crude and all fractions showing no zone of inhibition. All the extracted samples of the stems and roots showed antioxidant activity, however, crude methanolic extract of stem tissues exhibited better antioxidant activity than the other extracts. © 2015, Bangladesh Pharmacological Society. All right reserved.

Jan I.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Akram W.,Sukkur Institute of Business Administration
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

Biogas is a methane-rich gas that is produced by the anaerobic fermentation of organic material, such as animal dung. Pakistan has the sixth largest livestock-based economy in the world and thus demonstrates great potential for biogas production. The government has already started the Biogas Support Program (BSP) in a few selected areas of the country. With that in mind, this study was designed to determine a household's predicted willingness-to-adopt a biogas system in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province. The study is based on primary data collected from four districts: Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, and Mardan. Data was collected from 200 livestock farming households selected through an equal allocation technique. Probit analysis was used to identify those factors influencing the willingness of a household to adopt a biogas system. The results of the probit model reveal that the education level of the respondents, total daily electric shortfall, the effect of electric shortfall on childrens' education and female drudgery, and respondents' awareness regarding the pros and cons of using biogas were statistically significant factors. On the basis of p < 0.001 for the overall regression model, which means that the overall model was highly significant, it is concluded that the socio-economic characteristics of the population are the main factors contributing to the adoption of a biogas system in the area. The study recommends that increased public and private investments should be encouraged and the government's financial policies made in a pro-poor fashion for the large-scale promotion of biogas technology in Pakistan. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shaheen S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shafi M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

This study was conducted for the assessment of the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples from the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia against ten microbial species through the disc diffusion assay using two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc1. All extracts from Mentha longifolia showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all microbial species. Methanol fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi was also not controlled by methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracted samples. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria was Bacillus atropheus and Bacillus subtilis and were inhibited by all extracts and Staphylococus aureus was least susceptible among gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium and Salmonella typhi was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciene were susceptible to all fractions. All fractions showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans except water extracted samples.

Khan N.U.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Genetic effects of CLCuV, earliness, yield, and lint traits were studied in a 6 × 6 F1 and F2 diallel populations of upland cotton. Hayman and Mather's genetic model (D and H) was used to determine the genetic mechanism and mode of inheritance for selected variables. The breeding material comprised one CLCuV tolerant (CIM-1100) and five CLCuV susceptible cotton cultivars (CIM-109, CIM-240, CIM-1100, FH-682, BH-36, CRIS-9), crossed in a 6 × 6 diallel fashion to generate thirty F1 hybrids. An additive-dominance model was adequate for lint %, CLCuV resistant and affected plants, and partially adequate for bolls plant-1 and yield in both generations. However, the data were adequate for lint index and earliness in F1 and F2 populations, respectively, and partially fit in their respective generations. Additive effects controlled all the traits except bolls plant-1 and yield that proscribed non-additively in both generations. Most of the traits showed an unequal proportion of positive (U) and negative (V) alleles in the loci (H2

Ali H.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Qaiser M.,Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology Islamabad
ORYX | Year: 2011

Silene longisepala Nasir (Caryophyllaceae) is a plant endemic to Chitral District in mountainous north-west Pakistan. This taxon was previously known from only two localities. In field studies during 2005-2007, 24 new localities in lower Chitral were discovered. We found 608 mature individual plants in 22 localities in 2005, 520 mature individuals in 17 localities in 2006, and 531 mature individuals in 18 localities in 2007. Considering the population size in 2007, an extent of occurrence of 3,587 km 2 and area of occupancy of 104 km 2, we recommend that the species is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. The main threat to the species is habitat destruction from road construction, land conversion for agriculture and soil erosion following deforestation; we witnessed the direct effects of these pressures on S. longisepala during our fieldwork. In some localities, however, S. longisepala is fortuitously protected by the general inaccessibility of its habitat. There is no legal framework in Pakistan for the protection of rare and endemic plant taxa on private lands and therefore ex situ conservation may be required for narrow endemics such as S. longisepala. Our methodology in this study, in which we combined detailed field surveys with monitoring, could form a model for conservation research on rare and endemic plant taxa in Pakistan and elsewhere. © 2011 Fauna & Flora International.

Amanullah,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Shoot-root ratio (S:R), dry matter partitioning (DMP), and water use efficiency (WUE) response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) vs. rye (Secale cereale L.) was investigated under organic [organic compost (OC), Miracle Grow (MG), sunshine peat moss (SPM), and Garden Basic peat humus (GBPM)], and inorganic soils [canyon soil (CS) and amarillo soil (AS)] in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA, during winter 2009-2010. The experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD) with three repeats. The objective of this experiment was whether S:R, DMP, and WUE of wheat versus rye differ under organic and inorganic soils. The results revealed that both crops responded differently in terms of S:R, DMP, and WUE under different organic and inorganic soils. Wheat had higher WUE than rye at different growth stages. Among the soil types, the three organic soils (MG, SPM, and GBPS) had higher WUE than the two inorganic (CS and AS) soils. The higher WUE of both crops when grown in organic soils such as MG, SPM, and GBPS was due to the higher dry matter partitioning to shoots and roots. The total dry weight plant-1 showed positive relationship with WUE. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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