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Dry matter (DM) partitioning into root, leaf, stem, shoot dry weight plant−1 response in four cool season C3-cereals viz. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and oats (Avena sativa L.) was investigated at 30, 60 and 90 days after emergence (DAE) under eight nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) sources: S1 = 20-20-20, S2 = 20-27-5, S3 = 7-22-8, S4 = 10-10-10-20S, S5 = 11-15-11, S6 = 31-11-11, S7 = 24-8-16, and S8 = 19-6-12 in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, Canyon, Texas, USA during winter 2009-10. A considerable variation in DM partitioning into various plant parts was observed in the four crop species at different growth stages and NPK source. At 30 DAE, 27% of the total DM per plant (TDMPP) was partitioned into roots and 73% into shoots (19% stems + 54% leaf). Only16 % of the TDMPP was partitioned into roots and 84% into shoots (18 % stem + 66 % leaf) at 60 DAE. At 90 DAE, 29% of TDMPP was partitioned into roots and 71 % into shoots (33 % stems + 38 % leaf) at 90 DAE. Percent DM partitioning into stems ranked first (33%) at 90 DAE > at 30 DAE (19%) > at 60 DAE (18 %). With advancement in crops age, DM partitioning into various crop parts increased. The root DM plant−1 (RDMPP) increased from 11.5–722 mg plant−1; stem DM plant−1 (STDMPP) from 8.3–889.0 mg plant−1; leaf DM plant−1 (LDMPP) from 23.1–1031.0 mg plant−1; shoot DM plant−1 (SHDMPP) from 31.3–1921 mg plant−1, and TDMPP increased from 42.9–2693.0 mg plant−1 at 30 and 90 DAE, respectively. Because of the higher N contents in S7 (24:8:16) and S6 (31:11:11) reduced the DM partitioning into various plants parts as well as TDMPP at all three growth stages. The adverse effects of S6 and S7 on DM partitioning was more on oats > rye > wheat > barley. The S4 with 10:10:10 (NPK) and :20S was not toxic at 30 DAE, but at 60 and 90 DAE it became toxic that adversely affected the DM partitioning as well as TDMPP probably may be due its high sulfur (20%) content which lacking in other NPK sources. The DM partitioning to various parts of barley and wheat was more than oats and rye at different growth stages (barley > wheat > rye > oats). Since the DM portioning values were determined on the average of five plants in pot experiment under organic soil at field capacity; in case of field experiments more research is needed on various crop species/varieties under different environmental conditions particularly under moisture stress condition. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Bakht T.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Ahmad Khan I.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2014

Experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Research Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2012 and 2013 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum Mill.). Variety 'Roma' was planted on a plot size of 4.8m x 3m using a randomized complete block (RCB) design in split plot arrangements, having four replications. The experiment comprised of row spacing in main plots and ten treatments in the subplots that included five mulches viz., white polyethylene, black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust; three herbicide treatments i.e. fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin, s-metolachlor along with a hand weeding treatment and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m-2 at 20 days after treatments, plant height, fruit yield (kg ha-1). All the studied parameters were significantly affected by the row spacing (factor A) and weed management treatments (factor B); however, the interaction effects were non-significant. An increase in weed density was observed with increase in row spacing, having weed density of 3.39, 4.19 and 4.53 weeds m-2 for 40, 60 and 80 row spacing, respectively. The overall weed density m-2 ranged between 3.24 to 4.30 m-2. A maximum plant height of 62.44cm was recorded in weedy check and minimum 53.31cm plant height was observed in hand weeding treatments. As regards the fruit yield, a highest yield of 2.51 t ha-1 was recorded at row spacing of 60 cm (factor A) and the application of poly ethylene black plastic resulted in significantly highest fruit yield (4.04 t ha-1) among factor B treatments.

Amanullah,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan M.W.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pedosphere | Year: 2010

Potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) applications improve growth, increase yield and yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on K and P deficient soils in Northwest Pakistan. A field experiment was conducted using sunflower cv. Hysun-33 at the New Developmental Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan, during summer 2006. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split plot arrangements, with six levels of K (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 kg K ha-1) as main plots and four levels of P (0, 45, 90, and 135 kg P ha-1) as sub-plots with three replications. Sunflower yield and yield components responded positively to K and P fertilization but the magnitude of response varied with the levels of K and P. Days to flowering and maturity, grains per head, 1000-grain weight, shelling percentage, and grain yield increased tremendously in the K and P-fertilized plots as compared to the control with no K and P applied. The combined application of 100 kg K and 45 kg P ha-1 significantly increased yield components, grain yield, harvest index, and shelling percentage of sunflower, suggesting that 100 kg K ha-1 in combination with 45 kg P ha-1 could maximize productivity of sunflower planted after wheat on the K and P deficient soils in the study area. © 2010 Soil Science Society of China.

Nasim A.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Farhatullah,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Combining ability was studied in 6 × 6 complete diallel cross in Brassica rapa (L.) ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt. Significant differences were observed for all the traits except protein and glucosinolate content. GCA mean squares were non-significant for all the traits. SCA and RCA components of variation were significant for all the traits with the respective exception of oleic acid and oil content. Prevalence of non-additive genetic control was detected for all the traits except oleic acid content for which maternal effects were more important. ACC-403, ACC-909 were good general combiners for oil content and linolenic acid; ACC-902, ACC-1500 for oleic acid and ACC-265 the worse general combiner for erucic acid. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations ACC-265 × ACC-909, ACC-403 × ACC-1500 (oil content); ACC-909 × ACC-902, ACC-909 × ACC-1500 (oleic acid content); ACC-403 × ACC-1500 (linolenic acid content) and ACC-265 × ACC-403; ACC-909 × ACC-1500; ACC-265 × ACC-902 (erucic acid content) were superior and can be further exploited.

Khan N.U.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Genetic effects of CLCuV, earliness, yield, and lint traits were studied in a 6 × 6 F1 and F2 diallel populations of upland cotton. Hayman and Mather's genetic model (D and H) was used to determine the genetic mechanism and mode of inheritance for selected variables. The breeding material comprised one CLCuV tolerant (CIM-1100) and five CLCuV susceptible cotton cultivars (CIM-109, CIM-240, CIM-1100, FH-682, BH-36, CRIS-9), crossed in a 6 × 6 diallel fashion to generate thirty F1 hybrids. An additive-dominance model was adequate for lint %, CLCuV resistant and affected plants, and partially adequate for bolls plant-1 and yield in both generations. However, the data were adequate for lint index and earliness in F1 and F2 populations, respectively, and partially fit in their respective generations. Additive effects controlled all the traits except bolls plant-1 and yield that proscribed non-additively in both generations. Most of the traits showed an unequal proportion of positive (U) and negative (V) alleles in the loci (H2

ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted to investigate impact of nitrogen (N) rate and time (splits) on partial factor productivity (PFP) and agronomic N use efficiency (NUEA) of maize (Zea mays L.) at the New Developmental Research Farm of The University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan, during two consecutive years in summer 2002 and 2003 under low and high plant densities. The 2 × 3 × 6 factorial experiment having two plant densities (D1 = 60,000 and D2 = 100,000 plants ha−1) and three N levels (N1 = 60, N2 = 120 and N3 = 180 kg N ha−1) as main plots, and six ways of N applications (viz. two equal, three equal, three unequal, four equal, five equal, and five unequal splits) as sub-plots. The results indicated that both PFP and NUEA of maize were highest at high than at low plant density. Both PFP and NUEA showed negative relationship with increase in N rate. The highest PFP and NUEA were obtained when N was applied in five equal splits but these results were comparable with treatments receiving N in four equal and five unequal splits. These results suggest that application of N in four or five splits under high plant density increasing both PFP and NUEA as well as grain yield of maize under calcareous soils in Northwest Pakistan. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Ali H.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Qaiser M.,Federal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences and Technology Islamabad
ORYX | Year: 2011

Silene longisepala Nasir (Caryophyllaceae) is a plant endemic to Chitral District in mountainous north-west Pakistan. This taxon was previously known from only two localities. In field studies during 2005-2007, 24 new localities in lower Chitral were discovered. We found 608 mature individual plants in 22 localities in 2005, 520 mature individuals in 17 localities in 2006, and 531 mature individuals in 18 localities in 2007. Considering the population size in 2007, an extent of occurrence of 3,587 km 2 and area of occupancy of 104 km 2, we recommend that the species is categorized as Endangered on the IUCN Red List. The main threat to the species is habitat destruction from road construction, land conversion for agriculture and soil erosion following deforestation; we witnessed the direct effects of these pressures on S. longisepala during our fieldwork. In some localities, however, S. longisepala is fortuitously protected by the general inaccessibility of its habitat. There is no legal framework in Pakistan for the protection of rare and endemic plant taxa on private lands and therefore ex situ conservation may be required for narrow endemics such as S. longisepala. Our methodology in this study, in which we combined detailed field surveys with monitoring, could form a model for conservation research on rare and endemic plant taxa in Pakistan and elsewhere. © 2011 Fauna & Flora International.

Bakht J.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Khan S.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar | Shafi M.,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Study of the antimicrobial potentials of Allium cepa revealed that all the extracts from both fresh and old samples showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Ethyl acetate fraction showed inhibitory activities against all the 8 microbes tested including bacteria and a fungus. Chloroform followed by butanol fraction also inhibited the activity of all the microbes except Pseudomonas aeruginosa which was highly resistant. Petroleum ether fraction was effective at both lower and higher concentration. Ethanol and water sub-fractions were found least effective or ineffective. Among gram positive microbes, Bacillus subtilus was the most susceptible bacteria inhibited by all extracts while the most resistant gram positive bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus. Erwinia caratovora and Klebsella pneumonia were the most susceptible gram negative bacteria while Pseudomonas aeurginosa and Salmonella typhi were the most resistant bacteria.

The objective of this research work was to compare the agronomic N use efficiency (NUEA) and harvest index response of different maize (Zea mays L) genotypes to different N-fertilizer sources [urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and ammonium sulphate (AS)] at various levels (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2008 (year one) and 2010 (year two). The two years data indicated that NUEA had negative relationship with increase in N rate (50 > 100 > 150 > 200 kg ha-1) while harvest index had positive relationship with increase in N rate up to 150 kg ha-1 (200 < 150 > 100 > 50 kg ha-1). Both NUEA and harvest index ranked first with application of AS (AS > CAN > urea). The maize hybrid produced higher NUEA and harvest index than local cultivars (Pioneer-3025 > Jalal > Azam). Although AS had the highest NUEA and harvest was still considered the less profitable N-fertilizer source because of its highest N cost kg-1 [AS (143 and 191 PKR kg N-1) > CAN (77 and 97 PKR kg N-1) > urea (44 and 56 PKR kg N-1)] in 2008 and 2010, respectively. The decline in AS price could make it more profitable and most beneficial N-fertilizer source in the calcareous soils of the country because of its free available sulfur (24%) lacking in urea and CAN.

Amanullah,University of Agriculture, Peshawar
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2014

Shoot-root ratio (S:R), dry matter partitioning (DMP), and water use efficiency (WUE) response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) vs. rye (Secale cereale L.) was investigated under organic [organic compost (OC), Miracle Grow (MG), sunshine peat moss (SPM), and Garden Basic peat humus (GBPM)], and inorganic soils [canyon soil (CS) and amarillo soil (AS)] in pot experiment at Dryland Agriculture Institute, West Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA, during winter 2009-2010. The experiment was performed in completely randomized design (CRD) with three repeats. The objective of this experiment was whether S:R, DMP, and WUE of wheat versus rye differ under organic and inorganic soils. The results revealed that both crops responded differently in terms of S:R, DMP, and WUE under different organic and inorganic soils. Wheat had higher WUE than rye at different growth stages. Among the soil types, the three organic soils (MG, SPM, and GBPS) had higher WUE than the two inorganic (CS and AS) soils. The higher WUE of both crops when grown in organic soils such as MG, SPM, and GBPS was due to the higher dry matter partitioning to shoots and roots. The total dry weight plant-1 showed positive relationship with WUE. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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