Perpignan, France

University of Perpignan
Perpignan, France

The University of Perpignan is a French university, located in Perpignan. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2010.1.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.82M | Year: 2011

Increases of atmospheric CO2 and associated decreases in seawater pH and carbonate ion concentration this century and beyond are likely to have wide impacts on marine ecosystems including those of the Mediterranean Sea. Consequences of this process, ocean acidification, threaten the health of the Mediterranean, adding to other anthropogenic pressures, including those from climate change. Yet in comparison to other areas of the world ocean, there has been no concerted effort to study Mediterranean acidification, which is fundamental to the social and economic conditions of more than 130 million people living along its coastlines and another 175 million who visit the region each year. The MedSeA project addresses ecologic and economic impacts from the combined influences of anthropogenic acidification and warming, while accounting for the unique characteristics of this key region. MedSeA will forecast chemical, climatic, ecological-biological, and socio-economical changes of the Mediterranean driven by increases in CO2 and other greenhouse gases, while focusing on the combined impacts of acidification and warming on marine shell and skeletal building, productivity, and food webs. We will use an interdisciplinary approach involving biologists, earth scientists, and economists, through observations, experiments, and modelling. These experts will provide science-based projections of Mediterranean acidification under the influence of climate change as well as associated economic impacts. Projections will be based on new observations of chemical conditions as well as new observational and experimental data on the responses of key organisms and ecosystems to acidification and warming, which will be fed into existing ocean models that have been improved to account for the Mediterraneans fine-scale features. These scientific advances will allow us to provide the best advice to policymakers who must develop regional strategies for adaptation and mitigation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.3 | Award Amount: 3.73M | Year: 2013

Current methodologies for detection of food contamination based on heavy analytical tools cannot guarantee a safe and stable food supply. The reasons are the complexity, the long time-to-result (2-3 days) and the cost of these tools, which limit the number of samples that can be practically analyzed at food processing and storage sites. The need for screening tools that will be still reliable but simple, fast, low-cost, sensitive and portable for in-situ application is thus urgent. BIOFOS aims to address this need through a high-added value, reusable biosensor system based on optical interference and lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technology.To do this, BIOFOS will combine the most promising concepts from the photonic, biological, nanochemical and fluidic parts of LoC systems, aiming to overcome limitations related to sensitivity, specificity, reliability, compactness and cost issues. BIOFOS will rely on the ultra-low loss TriPleX photonic platform in order to integrate on a 4x5 mm2 chip 8 micro-ring resonators, a VCSEL and 16 Si photodiodes, and achieve a record detection limit in the change of the refractive index of 510-8 RIU. To support reusability and high specificity, it will rely on aptamers as biotransducers, targeting at chips for 30 uses. Advanced surface functionalization techniques will be used for the immobilization of aptamers, and new microfluidic structures will be introduced for the sample pre-treatment and the regeneration process. BIOFOS will assemble the parts in a 5x10x10 cm3 package for a sample-in-result-out, multi-analyte biosensor. The system will be validated in real settings against antibiotics, mycotoxins, pesticides and copper in milk, olive oil and nuts, aiming at detection below the legislation limits and time-to-result only 5 minutes. Based on the reusability concept, BIOFOS also aims at reducing the cost per analysis by at least a factor of 10 in the short- and 30 in the mid-term, paving the way for the commercial success of the technology.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE.2010.1.4-02 | Award Amount: 3.30M | Year: 2011

The design of effective and targeted CAP measures relies on a proper assessment of the impacts of EU policy changes and market developments on farmers and the whole economy. Uncertainty, instability and price volatility that relentlessly reshape agricultural markets today, call upon the development of new modelling tools able to scrutinise all relevant dynamics while also remaining easy to use and amend. The project improves and extends existing economic models that make use of the FADN informatics environment by developing a unique modelling framework that (i) encompasses all aspects of farmers production decisions (ii) targets the single farm but also consistently aggregates to regional, national and the EU level (iii) takes into consideration the effects of uncertainty and risk on farmers behaviour (iv) can be employed in different market environments, i.e. throughout the EU-27 and (v) can be amended and/or fine-tuned by EU and national FADN units. The project draws upon two major modelling tools (econometric and mathematical programming), while the validity of the employed theoretical models will be verified by their empirical application in each EU-27 country. The projects final outcome is the construction of a methodological framework comprised of state-of-the-art economic models custom-built for the FADN database that will provide to policy makers an inclusive impact analysis of the effects of alternative policy and market developments scenarios under a real-life, dynamic context. Given the complexity of this framework, a simplified version of the models will be developed, all consistently and operatively joined into an amendable interface that will be user-friendly and easy to operate and still allow for a concise replication of our policy simulation results, capable to target at the efficiency of CAP measures, i.e. the single farm payment, although the whole framework will be also applicable providing some acquaintance with modelling parameterisation.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.38M | Year: 2009

The objective of BEEP-C-EN is the integration of innovative biosensor research and technology and their exploitation by industry and/or other socio-economic entities in the fields of environment and agro-industry. The first target application is the detection of pesticides, heavy metal and organic compounds in water. The aim is building up a biosensor modular industrial platform, which can be easily adopted for multi-parameter/multi-sensor design and production. It consists of a series of electrochemical-optical sensors and microsystems suitable for various biomediators (microrganisms, DNA, proteins or cells) and based on new technologies studied and developed by the research performers in the consortium. The transduction approach is suggested by two main biomediator properties, often exploited in biosensor operation in response to analyte or modification of a physical-chemical condition: the variation of the bioluminescence/fluorescence emission and the internal electrical behaviour. These changes when transduced to readable electrical signals can give complementary information: the modification of a current signal is correlated to the electrogenic property of the biomediator (e.g. inhibition of Photosystem II electron transfer in the presence of a pesticide), while a modificaton of fluorescence is often correlated to a conformational modification (e.g. interaction of Photosystem II protein with ionizing radiation). The specific proposed devices are: 1) MultiLights: modular optical transducer for autonomous measurements of bioluminescence/fluorescence of several biomediators assembled in series; 2) MultiAmps: modular electrochemical transducer for measurements of current and voltage variations; 3) MultiTasks: a multitransduction biosensor based on simultaneous and autonomous measurement either of bioluminescence either of current variations.

Grain-size distributions in lower beach and nearshore sands of a segment of the coast of the Golfe du Lion (France) were analyzed by a parametric method and by modal analysis. The results have been considered both in a spatial framework delineating geographically distinct sedimentary compartments and cells, and in a morphodynamic framework separating the dynamic components of the shoreline (berm, collision zone, inner bar, outer bar, lower shoreface). Modal statistics indicate that a mixture of three dominant components (end members) contributes to the grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sediments: fine sand (Sedimentary Type I: Modal value: 0.195 mm; σI (φ): 0.35), medium and coarse sand (ST II: Modal value: 0.680 mm; σI (φ): 0.8) and very coarse sand and gravel (ST III I: Modal value: 2.3 mm; σI (φ): 1.5). Quasi log-normal one-component GSDs form a minority group and mixtures produce various apparently unimodal sands and bimodal sediments. A large variation of grain-size indices results from mixing. A simulation of mixing of log-normal populations close to the end members shows the great sensitivity of parameters (sorting, skewness, and kurtosis) to small changes in the compositional formula of the mixture. The procedure followed supplies a good preliminary tool enabling rapid identification and localization of the main sand sources on a regional scale. These components derive from potential sources available in the region, well known from previous studies. ST I originates from the River Rhône and provides the textural base for most of the sediments. ST II and III form a local component originating either from fluvial input (Aude, Orb, and Hérault rivers) or from the nearshore reworking of ancient Quaternary sediments and late Holocene beachrocks. Each ST takes on local aspects in relation to the morphological environment, but the regional scale of the study was too large to precisely reflect the local morphodynamic regime. A significant change in the ST I sorting of bar sands is, however, observed, probably due to the net offshore migration reported for the bar system. Copyright © 2011, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Sassolas A.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry | Sassolas A.,University of Perpignan | Blum L.J.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry | Leca-Bouvier B.D.,CNRS Institute of Molecular and Supramolecular Chemistry and Biochemistry
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2012

Immobilization of enzymes on the transducer surface is a necessary and critical step in the design of biosensors. An overview of the different immobilization techniques reported in the literature is given, dealing with classical adsorption, covalent bonds, entrapment, cross-linking or affinity as well as combination of them and focusing on new original methods as well as the recent introduction of promising nanomaterials such as conducting polymer nanowires, carbon nanotubes or nanoparticles. As indicated in this review, various immobilization methods have been used to develop optical, electrochemical or gravimetric enzymatic biosensors. The choice of the immobilization method is shown to represent an important parameter that affects biosensor performances, mainly in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and stability, by influencing enzyme orientation, loading, mobility, stability, structure and biological activity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Touratier F.,University of Perpignan | Goyet C.,University of Perpignan
Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers | Year: 2011

In the Mediterranean Sea the carbon chemistry is poorly known. However, the impact of the regional and large-scale anthropogenic pressures on this fragile environment rapidly modifies the distribution of the carbonate system key properties like CT (total dissolved inorganic carbon), AT (total alkalinity), CANT (anthropogenic CO2), and pH. This leads inexorably to the acidification of its waters. In order to improve our knowledge, we first develop interpolation procedures to estimate CT and AT from oxygen, salinity, and temperature data using all available data from the EU/MEDAR/MEDATLAS II database. The acceptable levels of precision obtained for these estimates (6.11γmol-kg-1 for CT and 6.08γmolkg-1 for AT) allow us to draw the distribution of CANT (with an uncertainty of 6.75γmolkg-1) using the Tracer combining Oxygen, inorganic Carbon, and total Alkalinity (TrOCA) approach. The results indicate that: 1) all Mediterranean water bodies are contaminated by anthropogenic carbon; 2) the lowest concentration of CANT is 37.5γmolkg-1; and 3) the western basin is more contaminated than the Eastern basin. After reconstructing the distribution of key properties (CT, AT, CANT) for four periods of time (between 1986 and 2001) along a west-east section throughout the whole Mediterranean Sea, we analyze the impact of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT). Not only has the concentration of CANT increased (especially in the intermediate and the bottom layers of the eastern basin, during and after the EMT), but also the distribution of all properties has been considerably perturbed. This is discussed in detail. For the first time, the level of acidification is estimated for the Mediterranean Sea. Our results indicate that for the year 2001 all waters (even the deepest) have been acidified by values ranging from -0.14 to -0.05 pH unit since the beginning of the industrial era, which is clearly higher than elsewhere in the open ocean. Given that the pH of seawater may affect a very large number of chemical and biological processes, our results stress the necessity to develop new programs of research to understand and then predict the evolution of the carbonate system properties in the Mediterranean Sea. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

A method is provided for adjusting the accuracy provided by a source computer program manipulating at least one number with a decimal point, comprising the following steps: It also relates to a computer program and a system implementing such a method.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 47.50K | Year: 2012

The subject of the project is the magnetodynamics of single-domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles driven by strong ac magnetic fields. The phenomenon of prime interest here is dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) . The main important applications of DMH are (i) magnetic moment switching (under pulsed fields) in magnetic data storage and (ii) heat generation in magnetically induced hyperthermia (medical as well as other applications). Nowdays local magnetic hyperthermia is one of the most promising approaches in addition to chemical and radiological methods for cancer treatment. Unfortunately, the progress is hampered by the lack of reliable understanding of the laws governing the interplay between internal (magnetic relaxation) and external (viscous dissipation due to mechanical rotation) losses and their joint effect on heat generation. There also exists a no-man land between two limiting frameworks: (i) natural (intrinsic) magnetic resonance where the magnetic moment precession is due to the internal field and (ii) the standard (Zeeman) magnetic resonance where the main factor in the precession is dominated by a strong external field while the internal field is merely a perturbation. In the second case, substantial increase in the absorption can be achieved which is important for hyperthermia. We are going to study magnetodynamics and energy absorption in solid and liquid suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles by developing analytical and numerical techniques for treating effects of dissipation to the surrounding heat bath in DMH. The results obtained from analytical and numerical solutions of the Gilbert-Landau-LIfshitz equation augmented by a random field term will be compared with available experimental observations.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IRSES | Award Amount: 176.40K | Year: 2012

The overall aim of this project is to develop a joint training and cutting-edge research program based on state-of-the-art technologies that will strengthen the research partnership between Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland, University of Perpignan, France, Guangxi University of Nationalities in Nanning, P.R. China, Zhejiang University in Hangzhou, P.R. China, University of Iowa, USA and Oakland University in Rochester, USA in the area of common research interest, nonlinear inclusions, hemivariational inequalities and modelling of contact mechanics. The estimated duration of the project is 48 months. This aim will be achieved through short and longer-term periods of staff exchange between partners in Europe, United States and China, and networking activities between the six institutions. The ultimate goal of this project is to achieve more rapid progress in advancing current knowledge and concepts through combined endeavour leading to a book monograph and joint-author high citation index publications. In this way, we will establish a long-term research cooperation between six institutions based on active technology and scientific knowledge application and transfer. The scientific aim of the research exchange is to develop new and non-standard mathematical and numerical tools directly motivated by the needs of the analysis of various classes of contact problems which are of fundamental importance in technology, industry and real engineering applications. A throughout research of contact processes will not only allow to gain an improved fundamental understanding of contact mechanics but also advance current knowledge that can ultimately be used for the improvement of industrial applications of economic benefits. Trainings, meeting, seminars and two workshops are being planned for this research project in order to share all the knowledge and information gained throughout the work and to form the basis of long lasting collaborations.

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