De Medeiros P.M.,Federal University of Bahia |
Ladio A.H.,National University of Comahue |
Albuquerque U.P.,University of Pernambuco
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2013
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Although the relationship between local people and plants may be idiosyncratic, some human behaviors are common to different communities and can be influenced by cultural and environmental factors. Thus, this study drew upon a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate if there are patterns of medicinal plant use in different Brazilian ethnobotanical studies and if these patterns are influenced by the urbanization or ecosystems where the studies were conducted. Materials and methods: The factors evaluated concerned the origin of the species used (native vs. exotic), plant habit (woody vs. non-woody) and plant parts (permanent and non-permanent). Two kinds of analysis were performed: the integrative and the meta-analytical. Results: The factors varied depending on the ecosystems in which the studies were conducted. In the Amazon, Cerrado and Caatinga, native and woody medicinal species dominated; conversely, this pattern was not the case for the Atlantic Forest and Pampas ecosystems. Permanent plant parts were predominant in the Cerrado, and considering only native plants, permanent parts dominated in the Amazon, Cerrado and Caatinga. Urbanization did not significantly affect these patterns. Additionally, the species relative importance (RI) did not change as a function of the ecosystem or the degree of urbanization. Conclusions: The phenomena observed in this study can be explained in light of the chemical ecology and historical and cultural aspects of the species, and the findings have important implications for bioprospecting and conservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-22-2016 | Award Amount: 12.56M | Year: 2016
The ZikaPLAN initiative combines the strengths of 25 partners in Latin America, North America, Africa, Asia, and various centres in Europe to address the urgent research gaps (WP 1-8) in Zika, identifying short-and long term solutions (WP 9-10) and building a sustainable Latin-American EID Preparedness and Response capacity (WP 11-12). We will conduct clinical studies to further refine the full spectrum and risk factors of congenital Zika syndrome (including neurodevelopmental milestones in the first 3 years of life), and delineate neurological complications associated with Zika due to direct neuroinvasion and immune-mediated responses. Laboratory based research to unravel neurotropism, investigate the role of sexual transmission, determinants of severe disease, and viral fitness will envelop the clinical studies. Burden of disease and modelling studies will assemble a wealth of data including a longitudinal cohort study of 17,000 subjects aged 2-59 in 14 different geographic locations in Brazil over 3 years. Data driven vector control and vaccine modelling as well as risk assessments on geographic spread of Zika will form the foundation for evidence-informed policies. The Platform for Diagnostics Innovation and Evaluation will develop novel ZIKV diagnostic tests in accordance with WHO Target Product Profiles. Our global network of laboratory and clinical sites with well-characterized specimens is set out to accelerate the evaluation of the performance of such tests. Based on qualitative research, we will develop supportive, actionable messages to affected communities, and develop novel personal protective measures. Our final objective is for the Zika outbreak response effort to grow into a sustainable Latin-American network for emerging infectious diseases research preparedness. To this end we will engage in capacity building in laboratory and clinical research, collaborate with existing networks to share knowledge and tackle regulatory and other bottlenecks.
Ramos R.,University of Pernambuco
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2017
Chikungunya virus is capable of affecting the nervous system of children and adults. We describe a case of sepsis and encephalitis triggered by this agent in a newborn whose mother developed symptoms of acute infection two days before delivery. Consequently, the infant had severe encephalitis that evolved with postnatal-onset microcephaly, bilateral optic atrophy, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: KBBE-2007-1-2-13 | Award Amount: 4.70M | Year: 2008
A particular attention has been paid worldwide on longline fisheries as they catch considerable amount of by-catch (seabirds, turtles, sharks, etc.). Seabird and turtles by-catch mitigation methods have now been established in many fisheries worldwide, but similar efforts must be put to reduce by-catch of sharks. In the same ecosystems, another issue attracts the attention of international tuna commissions: the use of drifting fish aggregating devices (FADs). These FADs are responsible for major catches of juvenile tuna and non target pelagic species (sharks). Finally, the effects of thousands of FADs released regularly in the tropical oceans are unknown, and must be studied to estimate if they impact the biology of pelagic species. The European open ocean tropical and Mediterranean pelagic fishery (Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, Greece) is one of the main sources of catch, income and employment for the European fishery, with interactions with many developing countries. The main objective of the project is to develop measures to mitigate adverse impacts of fisheries targeting large pelagic fish in the open ocean: purse seiners using FADs and longliners. Two main categories of mitigation measures will be studied: spatial management issues (e.g. closure areas) and technical solutions to reduce by-catch in these fisheries. The main concept of MADE is to follow a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, combining biological and technological studies with economical analyses in different sites (Indian and Atlantic oceans, Mediterranean Sea), with a particular effort to closely associate fishers from the beginning of this research. High-tech technology and novel approaches will be employed (electronic tagging, in situ and in vitro experiments, etc.), and a particular effort will be devoted to disseminate results to fishers, tuna commissions, EU DG Fisheries, and scientists.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2012.3.4-1 | Award Amount: 7.41M | Year: 2013
Health services fragmentation is one of the main obstacles to effective health care in Latin-America, particularly for chronic diseases. This research builds upon results from Equity-LA (FP7-B-223123) and focuses on one of the most promoted policies to respond to fragmentation in LA, the development of Integrated Health Care Networks (IHN). The general objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of different care integration strategies in improving coordination and quality of care of IHN in different health care systems in Latin America, with particular reference to chronic diseases. Methods: The study adopts a quasi-experimental design, with a participatory action-research approach. In each country, two comparable IHN will be selected -one acting as the intervention and the other as the control area. It is structured in four phases: 1) a base-line study using qualitative and quantitative methods to carry out an initial evaluation of IHN performance; 2) design and implementation of an intervention focused on care coordination and quality of care; and based on health professionals training; 3) evaluation of effectiveness and limitations of interventions and associated contextual factors; and; 4) cross-country comparative analysis and elaboration of tools for getting research into policy. In each country, a research steering committee will be set up to lead the project, composed by health care professionals, managers, users and researchers. Results and relevance: The project will contribute to FP7 Cooperation Work Programme Health (SICA)s objectives by: 1) generating evidence-based policies to improve integration of care in Latin American countries; 2) strengthening research capacity of all involved institutions in order to enhance knowledge development on care integration in their countries; and by 3) contributing to skills improvement and motivation of health workforce, through training programs aimed at improving care coordination and quality.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH-2007-3.5-2 | Award Amount: 2.13M | Year: 2009
The research focuses on different types of integrated health care networks (IHN), widely promoted in Latin America in spite of lack of knowledge on their impact. It will look at their impact on equity and efficiency, and its implication for an universal and equitable access to maternal and child care. Research general objective is to provide evidence on the impact of different types of integrated health care networks (IHN) to a) health care access and b) health care provision efficiency in two Latin American countries: Colombia and Brazil. Methodology. The research will be two-pronged: a) a country case study and b) a cross-country comparative analysis. In phase a) it will assess actual IHNs performance regarding equity of access, and efficiency, in the light of policy framework. In phase b) results will be compared across countries, in order to determine factors and actors affecting results in different contexts. Using an innovative multi-disciplinary approach, it will combine qualitative and quantitative (cross-sectional study) research methods of social sciences. Analysis will be conducted at three levels: health system, institution and services potential users from a gender perspective. Results and relevance. The research will produce evidence-based policy lessons for better quality health care providers; it will develop appropriate methods to assess the performance of health providers; and will be conducive to more efficient and effective health care, as well as to an improvement in access to health care, particularly to maternal and childcare. It will contribute to FP7 Cooperation Work Programe Health (SICA)s objectives by 1) addressing priority areas of health systems research to contribute to achieving MDGs in maternal and child health 2) promoting evidence-based policy making, 3) strengthening research capacity of universities and 4) developing new European and Latin American institutional links.
Farrapeira C.M.R.,University of Pernambuco
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2010
This paper reports on shallow water barnacles listed in inventories carried out by several authors and collected from the northeastern coast of Brazil; it pays particular attention to commensal species and their hosts, as well as their dispersive ocean pathways. The 53 barnacles found were grouped together and classified as non-symbiont (28 species) and symbiont species (25); host type (sponges, corals, crustaceans, turtles and other fortuitous associations) was used to group them. Obligate symbionts included four crustacean parasites and 19 commensals, in addition to six other species reported in two or more animal groups as facultative or incidental commensals. The barnacles' geographic distribution was discussed in relation to anthropogenic pathways of dispersion and close relationships with hosts, in the case of obligate commensals. The species are predominantly cosmopolitan (39.6%), but the distribution of 35.8% is restricted to the Western Atlantic Ocean. The geographic distribution of some species was extended northward or southward, mainly for those that had been observed associated with vessel hulls. Additionally, the bathymetric limits of occurrence of some other species have been modified. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Porto L.A.,University of Pernambuco
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics | Year: 2011
This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and the independent effect of metabolic syndrome on breast cancer risk. Eighty-one women aged 40-80 years with breast cancer and 81 controls of similar age were screened for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at diagnosis, age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, family history of breast cancer, physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Each variable was first assessed for baseline comparisons using the univariate model, and significant variables were then added to the multivariate conditional logistic regression model. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 59.2% in breast cancer patients, and 37% in the control group (p < 0.005). A positive and independent association was observed between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 2.49; 95% confidence interval 1.17-5.30). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.
Hazin F.H.,University of Pernambuco
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências | Year: 2013
An abnormally high shark attack rate verified off Recife could be related to migratory behavior of tiger sharks. This situation started after the construction of the Suape port to the south of Recife. A previous study suggested that attacking sharks could be following northward currents and that they were being attracted shoreward by approaching vessels. In this scenario, such northward movement pattern could imply a higher probability of sharks accessing the littoral area of Recife after leaving Suape. Pop-up satellite archival tags were deployed on five tiger sharks caught off Recife to assess their movement patterns off northeastern Brazil. All tags transmitted from northward latitudes after 7-74 days of freedom. The shorter, soak distance between deployment and pop-up locations ranged between 33-209 km and implied minimum average speeds of 0.02-0.98 km.h-1. Both pop-up locations and depth data suggest that tiger shark movements were conducted mostly over the continental shelf. The smaller sharks moved to deeper waters within 24 hours after releasing, but they assumed a shallower (< 50 m) vertical distribution for most of the monitoring period. While presenting the first data on tiger shark movements in the South Atlantic, this study also adds new information for the reasoning of the high shark attack rate verified in this region.
Vitoriano C.,University of Pernambuco
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013
We show that the experimental data for the action of ultrasonic waves on homeotropically aligned nematic-liquid-crystal cells reported by Kapustina, in Akust. Zh. 54, 900 (2008) can be explained in the framework of the director-density coupling theory in the regime of low acoustic intensity. This result therefore provides support for the hypothesis that the interaction between sound and nematic liquid crystals is dominated by an elastic energy. © 2013 American Physical Society.