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Kandy, Sri Lanka

The University of Peradeniya is a state university in Sri Lanka, funded by the University Grants Commission. It was established as the University of Ceylon in 1942.The University of Peradeniya hosts eight faculties , two postgraduate institutes, 10 centres, 73 departments, and teaches about 11,000 students in the fields of Medicine, Agriculture, Arts, Science, Engineering, Dental science, Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science and Allied Health Science. It claims to the largest government endowment by a higher educational institution in Sri Lanka, based on its large staff and faculties/departments. Wikipedia.

Bandaranayake P.C.G.,University of Peradeniya | Yoder J.I.,University of California at Davis
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Year: 2013

Parasitic species of the family Orobanchaceae are devastating agricultural pests in many parts of the world. The control of weedy Orobanchaceae spp. is challenging, particularly due to the highly coordinated life cycles of the parasite and host plants. Although host genetic resistance often provides the foundation of plant pathogen management, few genes that confer resistance to root parasites have been identified and incorporated into crop species. Members of the family Orobanchaceae acquire water, nutrients, macromolecules, and oligonucleotides from host plants through haustoria that connect parasite and host plant roots. We are evaluating a resistance strategy based on using interfering RNA (RNAi) that is made in the host but inhibitory in the parasite as a parasite-derived oligonucleotide toxin. Sequences from the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) gene from Triphysaria versicolor were cloned in hairpin conformation and introduced into Medicago truncatula roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformation. Transgenic roots were recovered for four of five ACCase constructions and infected with T. versicolor against parasitic weeds. In all cases, Triphysaria root viability was reduced up to 80% when parasitizing a host root bearing the hairpin ACCase. Triphysaria root growth was recovered by exogenous application of malonate. Reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that ACCase transcript levels were dramatically decreased in Triphysaria spp. parasitizing transgenic Medicago roots. Northern blot analysis identified a 21-nucleotide, ACCasespecific RNA in transgenic M. truncatula and in T. versicolor attached to them. One hairpin ACCase construction was lethal to Medicago spp. unless grown in media supplemented with malonate. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the Medicago ACCase was inhibited by the Triphysaria ACCase RNAi. This work shows that ACCase is an effective target for inactivation in parasitic plants by trans-specific gene silencing. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

Kalupahana N.S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Kalupahana N.S.,University of Peradeniya | Moustaid-Moussa N.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is classically known for its role in regulation of blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance. In this system, angiotensinogen (Agt), the obligate precursor of all bioactive angiotensin peptides, undergoes two enzymatic cleavages by renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to produce angiotensin I (Ang I) and angiotensin II (Ang II), respectively. The contemporary view of RAS has become more complex with the discovery of additional angiotensin degradation pathways such as ACE2. All components of the RAS are expressed in and have independent regulation of adipose tissue. This local adipose RAS exerts important auto/paracrine functions in modulating lipogenesis, lipolysis, adipogenesis as well as systemic and adipose tissue inflammation. Mice with adipose-specific Agt overproduction have a 30% increase in plasma Agt levels and develop hypertension and insulin resistance, while mice with adipose-specific Agt knockout have a 25% reduction in Agt plasma levels, demonstrating endocrine actions of adipose RAS. Emerging evidence also points towards a role of RAS in regulation of energy balance. Because adipose RAS is overactivated in many obesity conditions, it is considered a potential candidate linking obesity to hypertension, insulin resistance and other metabolic derangements. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Wijetunge J.J.,University of Peradeniya
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2014

This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to 'maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the 'worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kalupahana N.S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Kalupahana N.S.,University of Peradeniya | Moustaid-Moussa N.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Obesity Reviews | Year: 2012

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is classically known for its role in regulation of blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance. Recently, several local RASs in organs such as brain, heart, pancreas and adipose tissue have also been identified. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that in addition to anti-hypertensive effects, pharmacological inhibition of RAS also provides protection against the development of type-2 diabetes. Moreover, animal models with targeted inactivation of RAS genes exhibit improved insulin sensitivity and are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Because there is evidence for RAS overactivation in obesity, it is possible that RAS is a link between obesity and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the evidence and mechanistic insights on the associations between RAS, obesity and insulin resistance, with special emphasis on the role of adipose tissue RAS in the pathogenesis of metabolic derangements in obesity. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity. Source

Kodikara S.,University of Peradeniya
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology | Year: 2012

Although hanging is common across the world, survival after attempted hanging is very rare with death usually occurring within minutes or over the first 24 hours. If the person survives the initial event, later he/she may die because of the severity of the initial hypoxic and ischemic brain damage. Survival from hanging is often associated with various complications including a large variety of neurological consequences. This case report highlights a rare case of survival in attempted hanging of a 35-year-old man, with previous suicide ideation. Within 15 minutes of the incident, he was brought to a tertiary care hospital. On admission, he was unconscious and the Glasgow Coma Scale was 4 with tachycardia, weak pulse, bradypnea, and shallow breathing. With vigorous and prompt resuscitation methods, he gradually recovered without any residual neurological outcome. Prognostically good results could be achieved, if such victims are vigorously and promptly resuscitated, irrespective of their initial presentation. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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