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Philadelphia, PA, United States

The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League, research university located in Philadelphia. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities and one of the nine original Colonial Colleges.Benjamin Franklin, , Penn's founder, advocated an educational program that focused as much on practical education for commerce and public service as on the classics and theology. The university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin family's own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities, concentrating multiple "faculties" into one institution. It was also home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America , the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization, were all born at Penn.Penn offers a broad range of academic departments, an extensive research enterprise and a number of community outreach and public service programs. It is particularly well known for its medical school, dental school, design school, school of business, law school, engineering school, communications school, nursing school, veterinary school, its social science and humanities programs, as well as its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Its undergraduate program is also among the most selective in the country, with an acceptance rate of under 10 percent. One of Penn's most well known academic qualities is its emphasis on interdisciplinary education, which it promotes through numerous joint degree programs, research centers and professorships, a unified campus, and the ability for students to take classes from any of Penn's schools .All of Penn's schools exhibit very high research activity. Penn is consistently ranked among the top research universities in the world, for both quality and quantity of research. In fiscal year 2011, Penn topped the Ivy League in academic research spending with an $814 million budget, involving some 4,000 faculty, 1,100 postdoctoral fellows and 5,400 support staff/graduate assistants. As one of the most active and prolific research institutions, Penn is associated with several important innovations and discoveries in many fields of science and the humanities. Among them are the first general purpose electronic computer , the rubella and hepatitis B vaccines, Retin-A, cognitive therapy, conjoint analysis and others.Penn's academic and research programs are led by a large and highly productive faculty. Nine Penn faculty members or graduates have won a Nobel Prize in the last ten years. Over its long history the university has also produced many distinguished alumni. These include twelve heads of state , three United States Supreme Court justices, and supreme court justices of other states, founders of technology companies, international law firms and global financial institutions, and university presidents. According to a 2014 study, the University of Pennsylvania has produced the most billionaires of any university at the undergraduate level. Wikipedia.

Dang C.V.,University of Pennsylvania
Genes and Development

Metabolism generates oxygen radicals, which contribute to oncogenic mutations. Activated oncogenes and loss of tumor suppressors in turn alter metabolism and induce aerobic glycolysis. Aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect links the high rate of glucose fermentation to cancer. Together with glutamine, glucose via glycolysis provides the carbon skeletons, NADPH, and ATP to build new cancer cells, which persist in hypoxia that in turn rewires metabolic pathways for cell growth and survival. Excessive caloric intake is associated with an increased risk for cancers, while caloric restriction is protective, perhaps through clearance of mitochondria or mitophagy, thereby reducing oxidative stress. Hence, the links between metabolism and cancer are multifaceted, spanning from the low incidence of cancer in large mammals with low specific metabolic rates to altered cancer cell metabolism resulting from mutated enzymes or cancer genes. © 2012 by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Source

Dang C.V.,University of Pennsylvania

The MYC oncogene contributes to the genesis of many human cancers. Recent insights into its expression and function have led to therapeutic opportunities. MYC's activation by bromodomain proteins could be inhibited by drug-like molecules, resulting in tumor inhibition in vivo. Tumor growth can also be curbed by pharmacologically uncoupling bioenergetic pathways involving glucose or glutamine metabolism from Myc-induced cellular biomass accumulation. Other approaches to halt Myc on the path to cancer involve targeting Myc-Max dimerization or Myc-induced microRNA expression. Here the richness of our understanding of MYC is reviewed, highlighting new biological insights and opportunities for cancer therapies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Hajishengallis G.,University of Pennsylvania
Trends in Immunology

Recent studies have uncovered novel mechanisms underlying the breakdown of periodontal host-microbe homeostasis, which can precipitate dysbiosis and periodontitis in susceptible hosts. Dysbiotic microbial communities of keystone pathogens and pathobionts are thought to exhibit synergistic virulence whereby not only can they endure the host response but can also thrive by exploiting tissue-destructive inflammation, which fuels a self-feeding cycle of escalating dysbiosis and inflammatory bone loss, potentially leading to tooth loss and systemic complications. Here, I discuss new paradigms in our understanding of periodontitis, which may shed light into other polymicrobial inflammatory disorders. In addition, I highlight gaps in knowledge required for an integrated picture of the interplay between microbes and innate and adaptive immune elements that initiate and propagate chronic periodontal inflammation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Bennett J.,University of Pennsylvania
Science translational medicine

Demonstration of safe and stable reversal of blindness after a single unilateral subretinal injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the RPE65 gene (AAV2-hRPE65v2) prompted us to determine whether it was possible to obtain additional benefit through a second administration of the AAV vector to the contralateral eye. Readministration of vector to the second eye was carried out in three adults with Leber congenital amaurosis due to mutations in the RPE65 gene 1.7 to 3.3 years after they had received their initial subretinal injection of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Results (through 6 months) including evaluations of immune response, retinal and visual function testing, and functional magnetic resonance imaging indicate that readministration is both safe and efficacious after previous exposure to AAV2-hRPE65v2. Source

Bale T.L.,University of Pennsylvania
Nature Reviews Neuroscience

Neurodevelopmental programming-the implementation of the genetic and epigenetic blueprints that guide and coordinate normal brain development-requires tight regulation of transcriptional processes. During prenatal and postnatal time periods, epigenetic processes fine-tune neurodevelopment towards an end product that determines how an organism interacts with and responds to exposures and experiences throughout life. Epigenetic processes also have the ability to reprogramme the epigenome in response to environmental challenges, such as maternal stress, making the organism more or less adaptive depending on the future challenges presented. Epigenetic marks generated within germ cells as a result of environmental influences throughout life can also shape future generations long before conception occurs. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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