Cristofolini L.,University of Parma
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2014
This review focuses on recent results obtained by synchrotron X-ray techniques applied to the characterization of interfacial systems, with main emphasis on flat interfaces and on colloidal systems. The techniques covered are, for structural determinations: X-ray reflectivity (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and grazing incidence X-ray excited fluorescence (GIXF), while dynamics are investigated by X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) mainly in the grazing-incidence geometry (GIXPCS).The systems reviewed are, in order of growing complexity, floating Langmuir monolayers, supported films of lipids and proteins, polymeric films, buried interfaces, colloidal systems and gels formed by colloids either in 3D or in the form of 2D interfacial layers. Recent results are critically discussed, and some interesting directions of development are outlined, having also in mind new technical developments such as X-ray free electron laser sources and micro-focused synchrotron beamlines. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Girlando A.,University of Parma
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2011
A complete analysis of the vibrational dynamics of the most important molecule in the field of organic superconductors, bis(ethylenedithio)- tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF), has been performed through first-principles calculations. Different ionization states have been investigated, both as isolated BEDT-TTF unit, and as symmetric self-dimer. The ionization process affects the frequencies of some vibrations, the "charge sensitive modes", but also their intensities. In particular, a 100-fold increase in the infrared intensity of the antisymmetric C=C stretching mode is predicted to occur upon removal of one electron. The discovery of this dramatic difference will help to interpret the spectral phenomena observed in correspondence to the charge-order processes undergone by some BEDT-TTF salts. The electron-molecular vibration (e-mv) coupling and its effects on the infrared spectra is also fully reanalysed by adopting the proper molecular symmetry of the BEDT-TTF+ monomer, and by investigating (BEDT-TTF)2 2+ and (BEDT-TTF)2 + dimers. A new approach to estimate the relative values of the e-mv coupling constants is proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Losi A.,University of Parma |
Gartner W.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2012
Photoreceptor flavoproteins of the LOV, BLUF, and cryptochrome families are ubiquitous among the three domains of life and are configured as UVA/blue-light systems not only in plantsmdashtheir original arenamdashbut also in prokaryotes and microscopic algae. Here, we review these proteins' structure and function, their biological roles, and their evolution and impact in the living world, and underline their growing application in biotechnologies. We present novel developments such as the interplay of light and redox stimuli, emerging enzymatic and biological functions, lessons on evolution from picoalgae, metagenomics analysis, and optogenetics applications. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Gallese V.,University of Parma
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014
This article addresses basic aspects of social cognition focusing on the pivotal role played by the lived body in the constitution of our experience of others. It is suggested that before studying intersubjectivity we should better qualify the notion of the self. A minimal notion of the self, the bodily self, defined in terms of its motor potentialities, is proposed. The discovery of mirror mechanisms for action, emotions and sensations led to the proposal of an embodied approach to intersubjectivity-embodied simulation (ES) theory. ES and the related notion of neural reuse provide a new empirically based perspective on intersubjectivity, viewed first and foremost as intercorporeality. ES challenges the notion that folk psychology is the sole account of interpersonal understanding. ES is discussed within a second-person perspective on mindreading.
Casnati A.,University of Parma
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013
The outstanding cation complexation properties emerging from the pioneering studies on calixarene ligands during a five-year period in the early 1980s triggered a big-bang burst of publications on such macrocycles that is still lasting at a distance of more than 30 years. A time-lapse photography of this timeframe is proposed which allows the readers to pinpoint the contributions of the different research groups. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.