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Paris, France

Pantheon-Sorbonne University , also known as "Paris I", is a public research university in Paris, France. It focuses on the areas of law, humanities, political science, social science, economics and finance. It is one of the thirteen inheritors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris, shortly before the latter officially ceased to exist on December 31, 1970, as a consequence of the French cultural revolution of 1968, often referred to as "the French May".A major pole of research and learning, Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne is one of the most prestigious universities in France and the best institution in its main domains . In Economy and Law is far ahead French universities and Grandes Ecoles. It was rated by the 2014 QS World University Ranking 13th in History and Archaeology , 22nd in Philosophy , 27th in Law , 43rd in Geography and Area Studies , 44th in Economics, and Econometrics , 51-100th in Accounting and Finance , 51-100th in Politics and International Studies , 51-100th in Modern Languages , and 151-200th in Statistics and Operational Research . In Economy it is a member world renown college Paris School of Economy.Pantheon-Sorbonne's headquarters is located on the Place du Panthéon in the Latin Quarter, an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris. The university also occupies part of the Sorbonne and other renowned French university buildings. Some forty thousand students are enrolled in fourteen teaching and research departments , as well as five institutes offering degree courses in law, political science, economics, management and humanities.The University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne supports a modern approach of humanities, political, social and economic science on the basis of research, fieldwork, participant observation and ethnography. The dual master's degree in partnership with other important French academic institutions such as the Paris Descartes University or the science Po, among others, emphasizes opportunities offered as far as research is concerned. Wikipedia.

Saveant J.-M.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Association between proton and electron transfer is omnipresent in biological reactions (Photosystem II and a myriad of other systems) and in synthetic reactions (think of the huge number of available Pourbaix diagrams). The renewed interest for these proton-coupled electron transfers (PCET) is due to the possibility that proton (P) and electron (E) transfers be concerted ("CPET"), rather than stepwise, "EPT" or "PET". The advantage of CPET pathways is that they skip the high energy intermediates involved in the stepwise pathways. Characterization of CPET pathways is therefore essential to the comprehension of a number of natural reactions. They are also likely to play a considerable role in the design of catalytic processes with the aim of tackling contemporary energy challenges. Electrochemistry, especially by means of non-destructive techniques like cyclic voltammetry, is an efficient means to address these problems. Modelisation of the CPET kinetics is based on a semi-classical treatment of heavy atoms (including the solvent) and a quantic treatment of protons and electrons. Driving force, solvent reorganization and proton tunneling are the main ingredients of the reaction kinetics. Application of the model is illustrated with the oxidation of an amino-phenol, mimicking the tyrosine-histidine couple in Photosystem II, as well as with an inorganic example involving the aquo-hydroxo-oxo sequence, M IIOH2, MIIIOH, MIVO, in transition metal complexes. The rate law and rate controlling factors are the same in the electrochemical and homogeneous versions of the model. Oxidation of simple phenol provides an illustration of the interest of combining electrochemical and photochemical approaches of the same reaction. It was also the occasion of a dive into the remarkable properties of water (in water) as proton carrier over large distances thanks to H-bond networks in concert with electron transfer. This Grotthuss-type CPET is compared to the behavior of a synthetic model molecule containing an H-bond relay between the proton donating and proton accepting groups, where the proton is transported by means of this H-bond train in concert with electron transfer. Finally it is shown that it is possible to break a bond between heavy atoms by means of proton and electron transfer, the three events being concerted, and consequently to obtain a substantial kinetic benefit. The attending theory is described and applied to the cleavage of an O-O bond. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Sterpone F.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Melchionna S.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Proteins from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms are stable and function at high temperatures (50-100 °C). The importance of understanding the microscopic mechanisms underlying this thermal resistance is twofold: it is key for acquiring general clues on how proteins maintain their fold stable and for targeting those medical and industrial applications that aim at designing enzymes that can work under harsh conditions. In this tutorial review we first provide the general background of protein thermostability by specifically focusing on the structural and thermodynamic peculiarities; next, we discuss how computational studies based on Molecular Dynamics simulations can broaden and refine our knowledge on such special class of proteins. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Couturier A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Retina | Year: 2015

PURPOSE:: To analyze the foveal microvasculature in eyes with diabetic retinopathy (DR) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and fluorescein angiography (FA). METHODS:: In this retrospective study of 20 eyes of 14 patients with DR imaged using OCTA and FA, clinical features of DR such as microaneurysms, capillary nonperfusion areas, and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities were analyzed. RESULTS:: In the superficial plexus, a rarefaction of capillaries with capillary nonperfusion areas was present in all eyes. Some of these nonperfused areas were not detected on FA and were better delimited on OCTA. Conversely, in the deep plexus, capillary nonperfusion areas were seen only in 35% (7/20) of eyes, whereas DR led to an alteration of the normal capillary vortex pattern in all eyes. Only 62% of microaneurysms visualized on FA were detected by OCTA (P = 0.02). Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities were well detected by both FA and OCTA. CONCLUSION:: Optical coherence tomography angiography allowed detecting DR anomalies in both superficial and deep capillary plexus in all eyes. The ability of OCTA to detect microaneurysms was lower than that of FA although its accuracy for assessing capillary nonperfusion was better and may enable a proper grading of DR progression. © 2015 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc. Source

Micoulaut M.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2016

Recent progress in the description of glassy relaxation and aging are reviewed for the wide class of network-forming materials such as GeO2, GexSe1-x, silicates (SiO2-Na2O) or borates (B2O3-Li2O), all of which have an important usefulness in domestic, geological or optoelectronic applications. A brief introduction of the glass transition phenomenology is given, together with the salient features that are revealed both from theory and experiments. Standard experimental methods used for the characterization of the slowing down of the dynamics are reviewed. We then discuss the important role played by aspects of network topology and rigidity for the understanding of the relaxation of the glass transition, while also permitting analytical predictions of glass properties from simple and insightful models based on the network structure. We also emphasize the great utility of computer simulations which probe the dynamics at the molecular level, and permit the calculation of various structure-related functions in connection with glassy relaxation and the physics of aging which reveal the non-equilibrium nature of glasses. We discuss the notion of spatial variations of structure which leads to the concept of 'dynamic heterogeneities', and recent results in relation to this important topic for network glasses are also reviewed. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Crow Y.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Crow Y.J.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Crow Y.J.,University of Manchester
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2015

The concept of grouping Mendelian disorders associated with an up-regulation of type I interferon has only recently been suggested. Here we discuss the progress being made in the delineation and understanding of this novel set of inborn errors of immunity, the human type I interferonopathies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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