University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Paris, France

Pantheon-Sorbonne University , also known as "Paris I", is a public research university in Paris, France. It focuses on the areas of law, humanities, political science, social science, economics and finance. It is one of the thirteen inheritors of the world's second oldest academic institution, the University of Paris, shortly before the latter officially ceased to exist on December 31, 1970, as a consequence of the French cultural revolution of 1968, often referred to as "the French May".A major pole of research and learning, Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne is one of the most prestigious universities in France and the best institution in its main domains . In Economy and Law is far ahead French universities and Grandes Ecoles. It was rated by the 2014 QS World University Ranking 13th in History and Archaeology , 22nd in Philosophy , 27th in Law , 43rd in Geography and Area Studies , 44th in Economics, and Econometrics , 51-100th in Accounting and Finance , 51-100th in Politics and International Studies , 51-100th in Modern Languages , and 151-200th in Statistics and Operational Research . In Economy it is a member world renown college Paris School of Economy.Pantheon-Sorbonne's headquarters is located on the Place du Panthéon in the Latin Quarter, an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris. The university also occupies part of the Sorbonne and other renowned French university buildings. Some forty thousand students are enrolled in fourteen teaching and research departments , as well as five institutes offering degree courses in law, political science, economics, management and humanities.The University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne supports a modern approach of humanities, political, social and economic science on the basis of research, fieldwork, participant observation and ethnography. The dual master's degree in partnership with other important French academic institutions such as the Paris Descartes University or the science Po, among others, emphasizes opportunities offered as far as research is concerned. Wikipedia.

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PURPOSE:: To assess the rate of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) detected by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in flat irregular pigment epithelium detachment (PED) in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. METHODS:: Data on all consecutive patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy who underwent OCTA over a 1-year period were reviewed. The presence of flat irregular PED, which was defined as an irregular elevation of the retinal pigment epithelium allowing the visualization of a distinct Bruchʼs membrane was assessed on high-resolution OCT B-scan. Clinical, multimodal imaging, and OCTA data were reviewed by two graders for the detection of CNV. RESULTS:: Eighty-eight eyes of 61 patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy were included. Patient mean age (±SD) was 54.5 ± 12.2 years, and 78.7% were males. Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness (±SD) was 452.6 ± 145.6 μm. Flat irregular PEDs were detected in 59 eyes of 51 patients. OCTA detected the presence of CNV in flat irregular PEDs in 35.6% of cases. Conversely, using the combination of spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography, fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography, CNV was detected in only 25% of flat irregular PEDs. All hyporeflective flat irregular PEDs on OCT were avascular on OCTA while they were at least partially hyperreflective when associated with CNV. CONCLUSION:: One-third of flat irregular PEDs in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy contained CNV. OCTA detected CNV more frequently than the other imaging modalities. Further longitudinal studies are needed to assess the indication of antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments in such cases. © 2017 by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

Crow Y.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Crow Y.J.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Crow Y.J.,University of Manchester
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2015

The concept of grouping Mendelian disorders associated with an up-regulation of type I interferon has only recently been suggested. Here we discuss the progress being made in the delineation and understanding of this novel set of inborn errors of immunity, the human type I interferonopathies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Crow Y.J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Crow Y.J.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Crow Y.J.,University of Manchester | Manel N.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Manel N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

Dissection of the genetic basis of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome has highlighted a fundamental link between nucleic acid metabolism, innate immune sensors and type I interferon induction. This had led to the concept of the human interferonopathies as a broader set of Mendelian disorders in which a constitutive upregulation of type I interferon activity directly relates to disease pathology. Here, we discuss the molecular and cellular basis of the interferonopathies, their categorization, future treatment strategies and the insights they provide into normal physiology. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Sterpone F.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Melchionna S.,CNR Institute for Chemical and Physical Processes
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Proteins from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic organisms are stable and function at high temperatures (50-100 °C). The importance of understanding the microscopic mechanisms underlying this thermal resistance is twofold: it is key for acquiring general clues on how proteins maintain their fold stable and for targeting those medical and industrial applications that aim at designing enzymes that can work under harsh conditions. In this tutorial review we first provide the general background of protein thermostability by specifically focusing on the structural and thermodynamic peculiarities; next, we discuss how computational studies based on Molecular Dynamics simulations can broaden and refine our knowledge on such special class of proteins. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Agency: GTR | Branch: ESRC | Program: | Phase: Fellowship | Award Amount: 82.41K | Year: 2011

Marion Vorms will carry out research on the cognitive basis of scientific reasoning, learning, and decision-making. In Vorms doctoral thesis, it is argued that the content of scientific representations cannot be properly analysed without taking into account the way scientists use these representations in their reasoning processes. One has to pay attention both to the form under which scientific contents are conveyed (including non-linguistic media, such as diagrams), and to the cognitive abilities of agents.

The grant will be used to develop the methodology, the philosophical foundations of which have been laid by Marion Vorms in her thesis, and to carry out an empirical study of the cognitive basis of scientific reasoning. This implies acquiring hands-on experience in both theoretical and experimental aspect of cognitive psychology. Three topics will be the central focus of the research:

  1. The variety of the representational media used in scientific research, communication, and teaching, and their cognitive roles.
  2. The role of representation in scientific decision-making and rationality.
  3. The cooperative dimension of scientific practice.

Moreover, the grant will be used to contribute to the writing, submission, and revision of papers to be submitted to peer reviewed journals.

Foldes P.,St Germain Poissy Hospital | Cuzin B.,University of Lyon | Andro A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Background Women who have undergone female genital mutilation rarely have access to the reconstructive surgery that is now available. Our objective was to assess the immediate and long-term outcomes of this surgery. Methods Between 1998 and 2009, we included consecutive patients with female genital mutilation aged 18 years or older who had consulted a urologist at Poissy-St Germain Hospital, France. We used the WHO classifi cation to prospectively include patients with type II or type III mutilation. The skin covering the stump was resected to reveal the clitoris. The suspensory ligament was then sectioned to mobilise the stump, the scar tissue was removed from the exposed portion and the glans was brought into a normal position. All patients answered a questionnaire at entry about their characteristics, expectations, and preoperative clitoris pleasure and pain, measured on a 5-point scale. Those patients who returned at 1 year for follow-up were questioned about clitoris pain and functionality. We compared data from the 1-year group with the total group of patients who had surgery. Findings We operated on 2938 women with a mean age of 29•2 (SD 7•77 years; age at excision 6•1, SD 3•5 years). Mali, Senegal, and Ivory Coast were the main countries of origin, but 564 patients had undergone female genital mutilation in France. The 1-year follow-up visit was attended by 866 patients (29%). Expectations before surgery were identity recovery for 2933 patients (99%), improved sex life for 2378 patients (81%), and pain reduction for 847 patients (29%). At 1-year follow-up, 363 women (42%) had a hoodless glans, 239 (28%) had a normal clitoris, 210 (24%) had a visible projection, 51 (6%) had a palpable projection, and three (0•4%) had no change. Most patients reported an improvement, or at least no worsening, in pain (821 of 840 patients) and clitoral pleasure (815 of 834 patients). At 1 year, 430 (51%) of 841 women experienced orgasms. Immediate complications after surgery (haematoma, suture failure, moderate fever) were noted in 155 (5%) of the 2938 patients, and 108 (4%) were briefl y re-admitted to hospital. Interpretation Reconstructive surgery after female genital mutilation seems to be associated with reduced pain and restored pleasure. It needs to be made more readily available in developed countries by training surgeons. Funding French Urological Association.

Deffayet C.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Steer D.A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Classical and Quantum Gravity | Year: 2013

We review different constructions of Galileon theories in both flat and curved space, and for both single scalar field models as well as multifield models. Our main emphasis is on the formal mathematical properties of these theories and their construction. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Saveant J.-M.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Association between proton and electron transfer is omnipresent in biological reactions (Photosystem II and a myriad of other systems) and in synthetic reactions (think of the huge number of available Pourbaix diagrams). The renewed interest for these proton-coupled electron transfers (PCET) is due to the possibility that proton (P) and electron (E) transfers be concerted ("CPET"), rather than stepwise, "EPT" or "PET". The advantage of CPET pathways is that they skip the high energy intermediates involved in the stepwise pathways. Characterization of CPET pathways is therefore essential to the comprehension of a number of natural reactions. They are also likely to play a considerable role in the design of catalytic processes with the aim of tackling contemporary energy challenges. Electrochemistry, especially by means of non-destructive techniques like cyclic voltammetry, is an efficient means to address these problems. Modelisation of the CPET kinetics is based on a semi-classical treatment of heavy atoms (including the solvent) and a quantic treatment of protons and electrons. Driving force, solvent reorganization and proton tunneling are the main ingredients of the reaction kinetics. Application of the model is illustrated with the oxidation of an amino-phenol, mimicking the tyrosine-histidine couple in Photosystem II, as well as with an inorganic example involving the aquo-hydroxo-oxo sequence, M IIOH2, MIIIOH, MIVO, in transition metal complexes. The rate law and rate controlling factors are the same in the electrochemical and homogeneous versions of the model. Oxidation of simple phenol provides an illustration of the interest of combining electrochemical and photochemical approaches of the same reaction. It was also the occasion of a dive into the remarkable properties of water (in water) as proton carrier over large distances thanks to H-bond networks in concert with electron transfer. This Grotthuss-type CPET is compared to the behavior of a synthetic model molecule containing an H-bond relay between the proton donating and proton accepting groups, where the proton is transported by means of this H-bond train in concert with electron transfer. Finally it is shown that it is possible to break a bond between heavy atoms by means of proton and electron transfer, the three events being concerted, and consequently to obtain a substantial kinetic benefit. The attending theory is described and applied to the cleavage of an O-O bond. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Hebbache M.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

Impurity spins in semiconductors are potential quantum bits. Entanglement and topological phases are key resources in quantum computation. We prove that the coupled electron spins carried by a diamond nitrogen-vacancy color center (NV-) and a single substitutional nitrogen impurity (P1 center) are entangled in the immediate vicinity of the level anticrossing that appears in the Zeeman energy diagram at about 500 G. We also determine the Aharonov-Anandan, Berry, and marginal geometric phases that can be accumulated by the state vectors of this spin system when it is magnetically transported around a closed path. At the resonance where the gap between two energy levels is minimum, the geometric phases undergo discontinuities, and the entanglement of the two electron spins is maximal. © 2012 American Physical Society.

de Suzzoni A.-S.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne
Communications in Mathematical Physics | Year: 2014

This paper introduces a measure or statistics invariant through the flow of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation and studies its stability, regarding a specific class of perturbation and in the idea of the wave turbulence theory. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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