Paris, France

Paris Dauphine University , often referred to as Paris Dauphine or Dauphine is a grande école and an established public research and higher education institution in Paris, France.Dauphine was founded as a faculty of economics and management in 1968 in the former NATO headquarters in Western Paris, in the XVIth arrondissement. Wikipedia.


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Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 7.66M | Year: 2011

This proposal includes all tasks that are essential to maintain the European added value of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and to keep the 16 national surveys well integrated. It complements the national financing mode of data collection as result of the ESFRI process by keeping its centrifugal forces in bounds. It will keep up our excellence in service provision as well as in science by: 1. Fostering the culture of cooperation between designers and users of SHARE by organizing user conferences, offering specialized training courses for users and interviewers, expanding web services and developing standards and procedures within the network that will make more efficient use of the research infrastructure. 2. Improving the multinational services for users in EU member countries, associated countries and third countries by a more efficient centralized data base management that will provide detailed synopses and concordances across member countries. We will coordinate this work with our sister surveys in the UK, US, China, India, Japan, Korea and Thailand, thereby providing a platform for global access to ageing data. 3. Pushing the state-of-the-art in interdisciplinary panel construction further such that SHARE will maintain its status as a leading edge research infrastructure. The project will leverage our research on response behaviour to minimize attrition; it will develop a multi-mode interviweing facility tailored to the 50\ in order to reduce survey costs; it will develop innovative questionnaire modules on biomarkers, physical health, social networks, pension claims, time use and nutrition that will keep SHARE at the forefront of empirical science; and, with the help of EUROMOD, it will harmonizes income concepts across EU-surveys, notably EU-SILC in order to facilitate the measurement of material well-being in times of rapid demographic change with its complex implications for old-age income provision.


In this paper we investigate the co-movement and the causality relationship between energy consumption as well as electricity consumption and the HDI (human development index) using as a proxy of human well-being and by including energy prices as an additional variable, in fifteen developing countries for the period 1988 to 2008. Recently developed tests for the panel unit root, heterogeneous panel cointegration, and panel-based error correction models are employed.The empirical results support the neutrality hypothesis in the short-term, regards total energy or electricity consumption, implying an absence of causality running in either direction. In the short term, energy as well as electricity consumption has a neutral effect on the HDI.In the long-term the findings provide a clear support of a negative cointegration relationship between energy consumption and the HDI. While a positive cointegration relationship exists between electricity consumption and HDI.A 1% increase in per capita energy consumption reduces the HDI by 0.8% and, a 1% increase in per capita electricity consumption increases the HDI by 0.22%. Moreover, a 1% increase in energy price reduces the HDI by around 0.11%.This study thus provides empirical evidence of long-run and causal relationships between energy consumption and the HDI for our sample of countries; supporting the assertion that lack or limited access to modern energy services could hamper economic and human development prospects of countries and underpins all the MDGs (millennium development goals). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ouedraogo N.S.,University of Paris Dauphine
Energy Economics | Year: 2013

Access to modern energy is believed to be a prerequisite for sustainable development, poverty alleviation and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.However, theoretical models and empirical results offer conflicting evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth that we remain largely unsure of the cause-and-effect nature of this relationship, if indeed a relationship exists at all.This paper tests, in a panel context, the long-run relationship between energy access, and economic growth for fifteen African countries from 1980 to 2008 by using recently developed panel cointegration techniques.We adopt a three-stage approach, consisting of panel unit root, panel cointegration and Granger causality tests to study the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy prices and growth as well as relationship between electricity consumption, prices and growth.Results show that GDP and energy consumption as well as GDP and electricity move together in the long-run. By estimating these long-run relationships and testing for causality using panel-based error correction models, we found unidirectional long-run and short-run causality. The causality is running from GDP to energy consumption in the short-run, and from energy consumption to GDP in the long-run. There is also evidence of unidirectional causality running from electricity consumption to GDP in the long-run.This study thus provides empirical evidence of long-run and causal relationships between energy consumption and economic growth for our sample of fifteen countries; suggesting that lack or limited access to modern energy services could hamper economic growth and compromise the development prospects of these countries. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Peyre G.,University of Paris Dauphine
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a best basis extension of compressed sensing recovery. Instead of regularizing the compressed sensing inverse problem with a sparsity prior in a fixed basis, our framework makes use of sparsity in a tree-structured dictionary of orthogonal bases. A new iterative thresholding algorithm performs both the recovery of the signal and the estimation of the best basis. The resulting reconstruction from compressive measurements optimizes the basis to the structure of the sensed signal. Adaptivity is crucial to capture the regularity of complex natural signals. Numerical experiments on sounds and geometrical images indeed show that this best basis search improves the recovery with respect to fixed sparsity priors. © 2006 IEEE.


Peyre G.,University of Paris Dauphine
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a new method to synthesize and inpaint geometric textures. The texture model is composed of a geometric layer that drives the computation of a new grouplet transform. The geometry is an orientation flow that follows the patterns of the texture to analyze or synthesize. The grouplet transform extends the original construction of Mallat [1] and is adapted to the modeling of natural textures. Each grouplet atoms is an elongated stroke located along the geometric flow. These atoms exhibit a wide range of lengths and widths, which is important to match the variety of structures present in natural images. Statistical modeling and sparsity optimization over these grouplet coefficients enable the synthesis of texture patterns along the flow. This paper explores texture inpainting and texture synthesis, which both require the joint optimization of the geometric flow and the grouplet coefficients. © 2010 IEEE.


Peyre G.,University of Paris Dauphine
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Signal Processing | Year: 2011

Improving the modeling of natural images is important to go beyond the state-of-the-art for many image processing tasks such as compression, denoising, inverse problems, and texture synthesis. Natural images are composed of intricate patterns such as regular areas, edges, junctions, oriented oscillations, and textures. Processing efficiently such a wide range of regularities requires methods that are adaptive to the geometry of the image. This adaptivity can be achieved using sparse representations in a redundant dictionary. The geometric adaptivity is important to search for efficient representations in a structured dictionary. Another way to capture this geometry is through non-local interactions between patches in the image. The resulting non-local energies can be used to perform an adaptive image restoration. This paper reviews these emerging technics and shows the interplay between sparse and non-local regularizations. © 2011 IEEE.


Chevallier J.,University of Paris Dauphine
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

This paper develops a model of carbon pricing by considering two fundamental drivers of European Union Allowances: economic activity and energy prices. On the one hand, economic activity is proxied by aggregated industrial production in the EU 27 (as it provides the best performance in a preliminary forecasting exercise vs. other indicators). On the other hand, brent, natural gas and coal prices are selected as being the main carbon price drivers (as highlighted by previous literature). The interactions between the macroeconomic and energy spheres are captured in a Markov-switching VAR model with two states that is able to reproduce the 'boom-bust' business cycle (Hamilton (1989)). First, industrial production is found to impact positively (negatively) the carbon market during periods of economic expansion (recession), thereby confirming the existence of a link between the macroeconomy and the price of carbon. Second, the brent price is confirmed to be the leader in price formation among energy markets (Bachmeier and Griffin (2006)), as it impacts other variables through the structure of the Markov-switching model. Taken together, these results uncover new interactions between the recently created EU emissions market and the pre-existing macroeconomic/energy environment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Chevallier J.,University of Paris Dauphine
Energy Economics | Year: 2011

This article investigates the presence of outliers in the volatility of carbon prices. We compute three different measures of volatility for European Union Allowances, based on daily data (EGARCH model), option prices (implied volatility), and intraday data (realized volatility). Based on the methodology developed by Zeileis et al. (2003) and Zeileis (2006), we detect instability in the volatility of carbon prices based on two kinds of tests: retrospective tests (OLS-/Recursive-based CUSUM processes, F-statistics, and residual sum of squares), and forward-looking tests (by monitoring structural changes recursively or with moving estimates). We show evidence of strong shifts mainly for the EGARCH and IV models during the time period. Overall, we suggest that yearly compliance events, and growing uncertainties in post-Kyoto international agreements, may explain the instability in the volatility of carbon prices. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC1-PM-14-2016 | Award Amount: 2.00M | Year: 2016

The mission of ACCRA is to enable the development of advanced ICT Robotics based solutions for extending active and healthy ageing in daily life by defining, developing and demonstrating an agile co-creation development process. To this end, a four-step methodology (need study, co-creation, experimentation, sustainability analysis) will be defined and applied in three applications (support for walking, housework, conversation rehabilitation) and assessed in France, Italy, Netherlands and Japan. The three applications will be based on a FIWARE platform integrating a number of enablers including features of universAAL and supporting two robotics solutions, Astro (Robot) and Buddy (Robot companion). The MAST impact assessment framework will be used integrating the following dimensions: user perceptions, user outcomes, ELSI, economic aspects, technical aspects, organisational aspects. ACCRA is a joint European-Japanese initiative including a multidisciplinary team of 6 European partners and 3 Japanese partners. The project has a three-year duration. It is structured to allow for balanced contribution and efficient synergistic collaboration between Europe and Japan


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-IF-EF-ST | Phase: MSCA-IF-2014-EF | Award Amount: 173.08K | Year: 2016

The Variable Range Hopping is considered in the Physics literature as an effective model for the analysis of conductivity in semiconductors. Understanding how the macroscopic parameters depend on the small-scale randomness of the environment and proving the Einstein Relation for this model is the ambitious aim of this project. Main objectives: 1) Extend recent results (law of large numbers, existence of a stationary state) for long-range reversible random walks on point processes including the possibility of traps. 2) Analyze how an external field influences the limiting velocity of the Variable Range Hop- ping, in comparison to similar models from Mathematical Physics. 3) Establish the first rigorous Einstein Relation for a physically relevant model, the Variable Range Hopping. The mathematical techniques we have at our disposal nowadays (such as the weak Einstein Relation and the control of long range models) are a solid basis for the investigation of the problem: This would be the first time an Einstein Relation is rigorously proven for a relevant physical model. Furthermore, the richness of the subject guarantees also many intermediate results of great relevance in the field of Probability Theory. Besides the big scientific relevance of the expected results, the project will have a strong impact also on the career of the experienced researcher, completing his international profile of independent scientist, and will also strengthen the interplay between the Probability Theory communities of France, Germany and Italy. Finally, a positive outcome of the action will bring a significant insight on the physical study of semiconductors.

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