Parakou, Benin

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Tachie-Obeng E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Akponikpe P.B.I.,University of Parakou | Adiku S.,University of Ghana
Environmental Development | Year: 2013

As a contribution to guide policy planning, effective climate change adaptation options to enhance maize production in Ghana were examined. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator crop model, coupled with statistical downscaled climate scenarios of 9 general circulation models (GCMs) and farmer practices, were used to device adaptation options in the near future (NF) period of 2046-2065 based on IPCC A2 emission scenario at local scale level in Wa and Wenchi agricultural areas of Ghana. Results from the single-maize cropping season at Wa, in the savanna zone indicate that, a 6-week delay in sowing from 1961 to 2000 baseline date of 1st May to 15th June, was the most appropriate way to offset the negative effects of potential climate change resulting in a yield increase of 8.2%. In the forest-savanna transitional zone of Wenchi, a 4-week delay in the major season sowing date from 15th March to 15th April and no change in the minor season sowing date of 15th August resulted in a slight yield increase of 3.9%. On the other hand, a second adaptation option of using a medium heat-tolerant maize variety produced substantial gains in crop yield of 30.1% and 30.5% in savanna and forest-savanna transitional zones respectively with a longer grain-formation period under NF climate change when compared to delaying sowing dates. Effective adaptation options can thus reduce negative impacts of climate change in the NF, but require enabling policy to support its implementation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Junior E.L.B.,Federal University of Pará | Rodrigues M.E.,Federal University of Pará | Houndjo M.J.S.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp | Houndjo M.J.S.,University of Parakou
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

We seek to obtain a new class of exact solutions of regular black holes in f(T) Gravity with non-linear electrodynamics material content, with spherical symmetry in 4D. The equations of motion provide the regaining of various solutions of General Relativity, as a particular case where the function f(T)=T. We developed a powerful method for finding exact solutions, where we get the first new class of regular black holes solutions in the f(T) Theory, where all the geometrics scalars disappear at the origin of the radial coordinate and are finite everywhere, as well as a new class of singular black holes. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .

Junior E.L.B.,Federal University of Pará | Rodrigues M.E.,Federal University of Pará | Houndjo M.J.S.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp | Houndjo M.J.S.,University of Parakou
Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics | Year: 2015

We investigate f(T) theory coupled with a nonlinear source of electrodynamics, for a spherically symmetric and static spacetime in 4D. We re-obtain the Born-Infeld and Reissner-Nordstrom-AdS solutions. We generalize the no-go theorem for any content that obeys the relationship 00=11 for the energy-momentum tensor and a given set of tetrads. Our results show new classes of solutions where the metrics are related through b(r)=-Na(r). We do the introductory analysis showing that solutions are that of asymptotically flat black holes, with a singularity at the origin of the radial coordinate, covered by a single event horizon. We also reconstruct the action for this class of solutions and obtain the functional form f(T)=f0(-T)(N+3)/[2(N+1)] and NED=0(-F)(N+3)/[2(N+1)]. Using the Lagrangian density of Born-Infeld, we obtain a new class of charged black holes where the action reads f(T)=-16βBI[1-1+(T/4βBI)]. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl.

Rodrigues M.E.,Federal University of Pará | Salako I.G.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp | Houndjo M.J.S.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp | Houndjo M.J.S.,University of Parakou | Tossa J.,Institute Of Mathematiques Et Of Science Physiques Imsp
International Journal of Modern Physics D | Year: 2014

We study the locally rotational symmetry Bianchi type-I dark energy model in the framework of f(T) theory of gravity, where T denotes the torsion scalar. A viable cosmological model is undertaken and the isotropization of this latter is checked, yielding a result that reflects the real evolution of our universe. Moreover, still in the anisotropic optic, a more complicated f(T) model is obtained from the cosmological reconstruction scheme and the analysis shows that the universe is more anisotropic at the beginning if the terms of higher order in T are not considered. This means that the nonlinear model should be favored by observational data. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

De Longueville F.,University of Namur | Hountondji Y.-C.,University of Parakou | Henry S.,University of Namur | Ozer P.,University of Liège
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010

This study aims to compare, on the one hand, the geographical distribution of the desert dust source areas, their contribution to quantities emitted into the atmosphere, the trajectories and the quantities deposited, with on the other hand the areas of research interest focused on the desert dust impacts on air quality and/or human health. Based on a systematic review of the literature using the ISI Web of Knowledge database, we found 231 articles published over the last decade on the desert dust impacts on air quality. Of these, 48% concerned Asian dust and 39% Saharan dust, with the remaining 13% divided between the other dust source areas. However, only one of these studies addressed the worsening air pollution in West Africa, even though it is very close to the Sahara, the greatest contributor to the global dust budget. Moreover, there have been very few studies (41) looking at the direct links between desert dust and human health; in this context too, no interest has been shown in West Africa. Yet this region is also among the areas in which morbidity rates have been noted to be far higher than those found in other regions of the world, and where respiratory infections alone account for more than 20% of the causes of infant mortality. This survey highlights a clear imbalance between those areas most exposed to dust and the most studied areas in terms of dust impacts. Given these findings and the often alarming results published about other regions of the world, we advocate a revival of interest in research on West Africa in order to achieve a better understanding of the desert dust impacts on air quality and health among the populations of this region. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Piatek M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Lutz M.,University of Tübingen | Yorou N.S.,University of Parakou
Mycological Progress | Year: 2015

The genus Anthracocystis (Ustilaginales, Ustilaginaceae) was recently reinstated for grass-infecting species of smut fungi that have sori with a peridium composed of mostly fungal cells, filiform or slender columellae, persistent spore balls usually composed of dimorphic spores, and lacking sterile cells between spore balls. In this study, Anthracocystis grodzinskae sp. nov. on Euclasta condylotricha is described and illustrated from the Sudanian savanna biome in Benin (West Africa). The new species is compared with two other smut fungi known on Euclasta condylotricha, namely Sporisorium euclastae and Anthracocystis ischaemoides, in Zambia. It differs from these species in a number of morphological characters that are discussed in detail. The systematic position of A. grodzinskae was investigated in a phylogenetic analysis with a concatenated supermatrix of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) regions of ribosomal DNA. The dataset included all representatives of Anthracocystis for which sequences were available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI’s) GenBank and that were linked to reliably identified source specimens, related yeast species, and unnamed yeast strains or environmental sequences. The phylogenetic hypothesis derived from the dataset is intended to serve as a backbone tree for Anthracocystis. 19 ITS and 13 LSU sequences were tracked to represent sequences generated from type specimens (holotypes, isotypes or paratypes). These type sequences are recommended to be deposited in the RefSeq Targeted Loci database. This study provides the first explicit evidence that several asexual species are nested within the Anthracocystis lineage. The yeast sequences were scattered in different subclades of Anthracocystis and none of them could be directly assigned to a teleomorphic species. Only one of these yeast anamorphs was assigned to a species, namely Pseudozyma flocculosa. In line with the current code of nomenclature, and following recent practice of merging yeast species with sexual species under the older generic name, this yeast is recombined into Anthracocystis as A. flocculosa. Additionally, new combinations are proposed for four teliosporic species (Anthracocystis andrewmitchellii, A. christineae, A. kenyana, A. warambiensis). © 2015, The Author(s).

Akponikpe P.B.I.,University of Parakou | Akponikpe P.B.I.,Institute International Dingenierie Of Leau Et Of Lenvironnement 2Ie | Wima K.,Institute International Dingenierie Of Leau Et Of Lenvironnement 2Ie | Yacouba H.,Institute International Dingenierie Of Leau Et Of Lenvironnement 2Ie | Mermoud A.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2011

The scarcity of freshwater resources is a critical problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This paper aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils and fruits of macrophyte treated wastewater (TWW), the nutrients supply, and the effect on tomato and eggplant production in semi-arid Burkina Faso. During three years of experiments, treated wastewater was used, with fresh water as control, in combination with or without mineral fertilizer application at recommended rate (140kg N/ha+180kg P2O5/ha+180kg K2O/ha). The study revealed that the treated wastewater provided variable nutrients supply depending on year and element. The treated wastewater without mineral fertilizer improved eggplant yield (40% in average) compared to the freshwater. Both crops responded better to mineral fertilizer (52% for tomato and 82% for eggplant) and the effects of the treated wastewater and fertilizer were additive. As the N supply of TWW was very unsteady (8-227% of crop need), and P2O5 supply did not satisfy in whole crop need (3-58%) during any of the three years of experiment, we recommended that moderate N and P2O5 fertilizers be applied when irrigating with TWW in semi-arid West-Africa. On the contrary, the K2O supply was more steady and close to crop requirement (78-126%) over the three years of experiment and no addition of K fertilizer may be needed when irrigated with TWW. Faecal coliforms and helminth eggs were observed in treated wastewater and irrigated soils at rate over the FAO and WHO recommended limits for vegetable to be eaten uncooked. Tomato fruits were observed to be faecal coliform contaminated with the direct on-foliage irrigation with treated wastewater. Our results indicate that treated wastewater can effectively be used as both nutrients source and crop water supply in market gardening in the semi-arid Sub-Saharan West Africa (SSWA) where freshwater and farm income are limiting. Yet consumers should properly cook or disinfect treated-wastewater irrigated vegetables before eating, and market gardeners should also be careful manipulating treated wastewater to avoid direct health contamination in this environment. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Doko S.Y.,University of Parakou
Tropical animal health and production | Year: 2012

Low sheep productivity in North Benin hampers economic development, and improvement can contribute to reduction of rural poverty and food insecurity. To reduce one of the constraints to the productivity of Djallonké sheep, high mortality during suckling in full rainy and start dry season, we tested hygienic measures and medication in improved housing. The effect of the two treatments and their combination on lamb performance and the internal rate of return (IRR) were compared to a control. For each treatment, survival and growth were observed in 20 lambs, living in 38 herds. Good housing and hygiene (daily cleaning and fortnightly disinfection of stable and water and feed troughs) reduced mortality and increased growth of suckling lambs until 3 months. Good housing plus medication (unique injection of vitamins and amino acids and with ivermectine for deworming, weekly tick treatment by spraying, and in case of diarrhea, antibiotic treatment) reduced mortality, but growth was not higher than the control. Accounting labor opportunity, the IRR was about equal for both, but capital investment was lower for the hygiene treatment which is thus more accessible to poor farmers. The combination of both treatments increased growth and benefits compared with the hygiene treatment, but decreased the IRR.

To report useful of skull X-Ray in surgical management of traumatic brain injuries in Benin. Descriptive study performed in the Neurosurgery Unit of CHD-Borgou in the North-East of Benin. It concerned 29 cases of TBI all operated between April 2008 and June 2009 on clinical and radiographic criteria. The mean age of the patients was 23.46 SD 14.28 years with a male prevalence (93.10%). On the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale scores 9 patients (31%) presented a severe TBI, 15 (51.8%) moderate TBI and 5 (17.2%) mild TBI. The skull radiography showed a depressive fracture at 17 (58.6%) patients, vault fracture at 7 (24.2%) and no lesion in 5 (17.2%) cases. Surgical management was performed on 3 (10.3%) cases cranial wound, 4 (13.8%) cases of extradural hematoma, 17 (58.6%) cases of skull depressive fracture and 5 (17.2%) cases an exploring buhr hole. The Depressive fracture straightening up was associated with surgical management of 3 extradural hematoma, 3 osteodural defect and 4 debridement with duroplasty. The skull radiography cannot compensate for Brain CT-scan for management of TBI. It can nevertheless bring invaluable information allowing a surgical purpose.

Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) represent one major cause of death worldwide. The young people are most concerned and road crash is the first etiology. To establish the frequency, clinical, and radio-anatomical sides of TBI after road crash. It was descriptive study performed from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2009 in Borgou Departmental Hospital, Benin. It concerned patients admitted in ours unit four traumatic brain injuries after road crash. 274 patients answered the criteria of inclusion. They was 22, 2% of the hospitalizations in surgery unit. The mean age was 29.56 years. The age bracket most concerned was the 21- 30 years [35.8%]. The sex ratio M/F was 5.85. The initial loss of consciousness was the clinical sign more observed [89.8%]. The neurological deficits were observed in 9.8% of the cases. The severe TBI (GCS 2 8) accounted for 27.7% of the patients. Among the 110 patients [41.1%] received skull X-ray, 66 patients [50.9%] presented a vault's lesion. The cerebral scanner produced among 38 patients [13.9%] objectified lesions of the vault in 21 [55.3%] patients. The intracranial injuries were dominated by the cerebral contusions [31.6%]. Mortality was 17.5%. Among death, the 21-30 years old was 37.5%. TBI admitted in CHD-Borgou are major problem. Preventives measure concerning all users may be applied.

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