Posfai M.,University of Pannonia |
Buseck P.R.,Arizona State University
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2010
Aerosol particles in the atmosphere exert a strong influence on climate by interacting with sunlight and by initiating cloud formation. Because the tropospheric aerosol is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types, its climate effects can only be fully understood through detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of individual particles. Here we review the results of individual-particle studies that use microscopy-based techniques, emphasizing transmission electron microscopy and focusing on achievements of the past ten years. We discuss the techniques that are best suited for studying distinct particle properties and provide a brief overview of major particle types, their identification, and their sources. The majority of this review is concerned with the optical properties and hygroscopic behavior of aerosol particles; we discuss recent results and highlight the potential of emerging microscopy techniques for analyzing the particle properties that contribute most to climate effects. Copyright © 2010 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Skoda-Foldes R.,University of Pannonia
Molecules | Year: 2014
Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs) on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.
Friedler F.,University of Pannonia
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2010
Energy saving, global warming and greenhouse gas emissions have become major technological, societal, and political issues. Being closely related to energy supply, they are of a strategic importance. Various conferences are being organised for providing international venues for closer cooperation among researchers. The series of conferences "Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction" (PRES) play a pioneering role in contributing to the solution of the related problems through presenting new methodologies and initiating cooperation among participants that often result in international projects. The PRES conferences have been dedicated both to the theoretical and to the practical aspects of energy saving and pollution reduction. The PRES series, established thirteen years ago, was originally dedicated to energy integration and improving thermal efficiency. Following the new challenges and priorities, the scope of the conferences has been extended to include all energy and pollution prevention related issues. This contribution focuses on the period covered by PRES, reviewing at least some major presentations contributing to the development of process integration and optimisation tools for energy saving and pollution reduction. The development of the mathematical models has been covered as well, since it is closely related to the area. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Klemes J.J.,University of Pannonia
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering | Year: 2012
Water is used in most process industries for a wide range of applications. Industrial processes and systems using water are being subjected to increasingly stringent environmental regulations relating to the discharge of effluents. There is a growing demand for fresh water, which makes it precious in more and more countries very precious and in some parts of the world a crucial commodity. The changes and the pace of these changes have increased the need for improved water management and wastewater minimisation. The adoption of water minimisation techniques can effectively reduce overall fresh water demand in water using processes and subsequently reduce the amount of effluent generated. This can result in reducing the cost incurred in the acquisition of fresh water and the cost of the treatment of effluent streams. This paper provides a brief overview of the recent techniques and methodologies, grouped in several topics: Water footprints and LCA; water/wastewater minimisation - including Water Pinch, Mathematical Programming techniques and combined water-energy minimisation. Case Studies demonstrating the significance of those techniques are briefly mentioned. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miskolczi N.,University of Pannonia
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry | Year: 2013
Waste pyrolysis is widely investigated, but less information is available about their co-pyrolysis. The present paper discloses the waste pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis in batch reactor at 400 °C, 450 °C and 500 °C. The effect of the raw materials and temperature to the product was investigated. Product yield was increased and the quality (composition, contaminants, etc.) improved by co-pyrolysis. Gas and pyrolysis oil yields increased as function of temperature. Higher ratio of organic waste/petroleum based plastic waste resulted in lower yields of volatile hydrocarbons. Concentrations of oxygen containing products and contaminants are significantly changed with temperature or adding of HDPE into raw materials. © 2013 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.