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Oxford, United Kingdom

The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England. While having no known date of foundation, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world, and the world's second-oldest surviving university. It grew rapidly from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled northeast to Cambridge, where they established what became the University of Cambridge. The two "ancient universities" are frequently jointly referred to as "Oxbridge".The University is made up from a variety of institutions, including 38 constituent colleges and a full range of academic departments which are organised into four Divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions as part of the University, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities. Being a city university, it does not have a main campus; instead, all the buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the metropolitan centre.Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the self-governing colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. Oxford is the home of several notable scholarships, including the Clarendon Scholarship which was launched in 2001 and the Rhodes Scholarship which has brought graduate students to read at the university for more than a century. Oxford operates the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system in the United Kingdom.Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 Nobel laureates , 26 British Prime Ministers and many foreign heads of state. Wikipedia.

Harper S.,University of Oxford
Science | Year: 2014

The challenge of global population aging has been brought into sharper focus by the financial crisis of 2008. In particular, growing national debt has drawn government attention to two apparently conflicting priorities: the need to sustain public spending on pensions and health care versus the need to reduce budget deficits. A number of countries are consequently reconsidering their pension and health care provisions, which account for up to 40% of all government spending in advanced economies. Yet population aging is a global phenomenon that will continue to affect all regions of the world. By 2050 there will be the same number of old as young in the world, with 2 billion people aged 60 or over and another 2 billion under age 15, each group accounting for 21% of the world's population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science; all rights reserved.

Little S.,University of Oxford
Annals of neurology | Year: 2013

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) could potentially be used to interact with pathological brain signals to intervene and ameliorate their effects in disease states. Here, we provide proof-of-principle of this approach by using a BCI to interpret pathological brain activity in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) and to use this feedback to control when therapeutic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is delivered. Our goal was to demonstrate that by personalizing and optimizing stimulation in real time, we could improve on both the efficacy and efficiency of conventional continuous DBS. We tested BCI-controlled adaptive DBS (aDBS) of the subthalamic nucleus in 8 PD patients. Feedback was provided by processing of the local field potentials recorded directly from the stimulation electrodes. The results were compared to no stimulation, conventional continuous stimulation (cDBS), and random intermittent stimulation. Both unblinded and blinded clinical assessments of motor effect were performed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Motor scores improved by 66% (unblinded) and 50% (blinded) during aDBS, which were 29% (p = 0.03) and 27% (p = 0.005) better than cDBS, respectively. These improvements were achieved with a 56% reduction in stimulation time compared to cDBS, and a corresponding reduction in energy requirements (p < 0.001). aDBS was also more effective than no stimulation and random intermittent stimulation. BCI-controlled DBS is tractable and can be more efficient and efficacious than conventional continuous neuromodulation for PD. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

Norbury C.J.,University of Oxford
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

The addition of poly(A) tails to eukaryotic nuclear mRNAs promotes their stability, export to the cytoplasm and translation. Subsequently, the balance between exonucleolytic deadenylation and selective re-establishment of translation-competent poly(A) tails by cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerases is essential for the appropriate regulation of gene expression from oocytes to neurons. In recent years, surprising roles for cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase-related enzymes that add uridylyl, rather than adenylyl, residues to RNA 3′ ends have also emerged. These terminal uridylyl transferases promote the turnover of certain mRNAs but also modify microRNAs, their precursors and other small RNAs to modulate their stability or biological functions. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

The three-dimensional structures of large biomolecules important in the function and mechanistic pathways of all living systems and viruses can be determined by x-ray diffraction from crystals of these molecules and their complexes. This area of crystallography is continually expanding and evolving, and the introduction of new methods that use the latest technology is allowing the elucidation of ever larger and more complex biological systems, which are now becoming tractable to structure solution. This review looks back at what has been achieved and forward at how current and future developments may allow technical challenges to be overcome.

Bowness P.,University of Oxford
Annual Review of Immunology | Year: 2015

Possession of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but the pathogenic role of HLA-B27 is unknown. Two broad theories most likely explain the role of HLA-B27 in AS pathogenesis. The first is based on the natural immunological function of HLA-B27 of presenting antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells. Thus, HLA-B27-restricted immune responses to self-antigens, or arthritogenic peptides, might drive immunopathology. B27 can also "behave badly," misfolding during assembly and leading to endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy responses. β2m-free B27 heavy chain structures including homodimers (B272) can also be expressed at the cell surface following endosomal recycling of cell surface heterotrimers. Cell surface free heavy chains and B272 bind to innate immune receptors on T, NK, and myeloid cells with proinflammatory effects. This review describes the natural function of HLA-B27, its disease associations, and the current theories as to its pathogenic role. © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

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