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Oulu, Finland

The University of Oulu is one of the largest universities in Finland, located in the city of Oulu. It was founded on July 8, 1958. The university has around 16,000 students and 3,000 staff. Along with the University of Turku, it is ranked in the Academic Ranking of World Universities as the second best university in Finland and between 303 and 401 worldwide. Wikipedia.

Usoskin I.G.,University of Oulu
Living Reviews in Solar Physics | Year: 2013

Presented here is a review of present knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity on a multi-millennial timescale, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method. The concept of solar activity is discussed along with an overview of the special indices used to quantify different aspects of variable solar activity, with special emphasis upon sunspot number. Over long timescales, quantitative information about past solar activity can only be obtained using a method based upon indirect proxies, such as the cosmogenic isotopes 14C and 10Be in natural stratified archives (e.g., tree rings or ice cores). We give an historical overview of the development of the proxy-based method for past solar-activity reconstruction over millennia, as well as a description of the modern state. Special attention is paid to the verification and cross-calibration of reconstructions. It is argued that this method of cosmogenic isotopes makes a solid basis for studies of solar variability in the past on a long timescale (centuries to millennia) during the Holocene. A separate section is devoted to reconstructions of strong solar energetic-particle (SEP) events in the past, that suggest that the present-day average SEP flux is broadly consistent with estimates on longer timescales, and that the occurrence of extra-strong events is unlikely. Finally, the main features of the long-term evolution of solar magnetic activity, including the statistics of grand minima and maxima occurrence, are summarized and their possible implications, especially for solar/stellar dynamo theory, are discussed. Source

University of Oulu | Date: 2014-08-29

The present invention provides improvements on latency on highest priority messaging and channel utilization in a time-slotted access channel structure. New superframe structures are presented where scheduled, but unused access slots can be utilized by secondary nodes.

University of Oulu | Date: 2012-03-21

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Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus Vtt and University of Oulu | Date: 2014-02-13

An apparatus comprises a semiconductor single-photon avalanche detector, and a counter. The detector performs detections of photons of optical radiation caused by an optical excitation pulse to the object. The counter measures timing of each detection made in the detector with respect to the excitation pulse causing the detected photons, and performs at least one of the following: forming a number of Raman detections, forming a number of fluorescence detections. Forming the number of the Raman detections is performed by eliminating an estimate of a number of fluorescence photons in the measurement. Forming the number of the fluorescence detections is performed by eliminating an estimate of a number of Raman photons in the measurement. The estimates are formed in a predetermined manner from the number and timing of the detections.

University of York and University of Oulu | Date: 2013-12-12

A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) configured to operate in a gain switching regime includes a cavity that is terminated by reflectors at both ends for enabling a standing wave of optical radiation therebetween. The cavity comprises at least one quantum well, each of the quantum wells located at a position where a value of a standing wave factor for each quantum well is between zero and one, 0<<1.

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