Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

University of Ouagadougou

Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Founded in 1974, the University of Ouagadougou is located in the area of Dawn Van Noord in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In 1995 a second campus for professional education known as University Polytechnique of Bobo was opened in the city of Bobo Dioulasso and a third campus for teacher training in Koudougou in 1996 and in 2005 it became the University of Koudougou. The UO consist of seven Training and Research Units and one institute.The UO plays a key role in the economy and offers educational, cultural and economics benefit to the country. The current President of the University of Ouagadougou is Pr. Jean Koulidiati. The goal of the UO is to open new faculties in order to increase the number of students, to intensify the development of new information and communication technologies, to improve the university management, to improve the internal and external efficiency by diversification of the areas in education and to finally introduce a professional education.The University of Ouagadougou had around 40,000 students in 2010 . Wikipedia.

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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.bbc.co.uk

Two scientists and an entrepreneur are crunching the science behind edible caterpillars to help fight malnutrition and food security problems in West Africa. For most people the idea of chewing on a caterpillar or tucking in to a tarantula is pretty unpalatable, to put it mildly. Yet according to the United Nations, some two billion people around the world consume insects regularly. This prompted World Service listener Saman from Pakistan to ask the BBC CrowdScience team "are insects a serious food source?" In order to tackle this question the programme team headed out to Burkina Faso in West Africa, where shea caterpillars are an important part of the local diet in a country where over 30% of children suffer from chronic malnutrition and 2.7 million people are at risk for food insecurity. Caterpillar enthusiast Charlotte Payne is a PhD student at Cambridge University. She is currently conducting research on the caterpillar lifecycle in partnership with entomologists Prof Antoine Sanon and Dr Athanase Badolo of the University of Ouagadougou. "Shea caterpillars have the potential to help people break out of a cycle of poverty," she exclaims when we met her on a farm in the rural village of Soumousso in the West of Burkina Faso. At the moment the caterpillars are only available for a few weeks a year. But with their high levels of protein and micronutrients like iron and zinc, they have the potential to fend off "hidden hunger", as micronutrient deficiency is sometimes called, and change the financial situation of the poorest people in West Africa, especially women and children. Together with her colleague Darja Dobermann, a PhD student at the University of Nottingham and Rothamsted Research, Charlotte is trying to crack the science behind shea caterpillars and make them available all year round. "In the same way they keep chickens in their backyard, the women would be able to keep caterpillars too," Charlotte explains. While in Burkina Faso, Charlotte is collecting as much information as she can about the needs and wants of the local people. Her preliminary results suggest that breeding caterpillars would be very welcome in the region. "It would be great if I could rear the caterpillars all year round because I would have enough to eat and earn a lot of money selling them," one woman in Soumousso told us. To help accomplish this vision there are many hurdles that the researchers must overcome. For starters the caterpillars are fussy customers. They only feed on the leaves of the shea trees. Similar to how scientists have spent years working out what the best feed for livestock is, Darja explains, the same needs to happen for the caterpillars. From an environmental point of view it is of some consequence how these caterpillars are fed. Insects are often touted as a panacea for the environmental problems that come with producing meat, because they emit less greenhouse gasses and take up less space. "The unfortunate thing is that the majority of insects that are commercially farmed are predominantly fed with chicken feed. Chicken feed is made out of soy and this isn't very sustainable. Unless you can get the insects onto a waste product as their food source, they aren't more sustainable than chickens from an environmental perspective," Darja explains. We investigated caterpillar farms after Saman from Pakistan asked us: "Are insects a serious food source?" If you've got a science question you want BBC CrowdScience to look into, get in touch via the form below and we'll investigate a selection. In her lab in England, Darja will be analysing shea tree leaves to uncover why the caterpillars like them so much. This includes figuring out what nutrients the caterpillars are getting from the leaves and discovering whether the leaves send out a special "smell" - volatile aromatic compounds - that the caterpillars are drawn to. "There might be something particularly appealing about these leaves that we could synthesise and spray onto artificial feed to attract the caterpillars," Darja explains. Charlotte and Darja are not alone in their quest to turn caterpillars into a sustainable food source. They work closely with local entrepreneur, Kahitouo Hien, who is betting all on the success of these nutritious critters. Outside Kahitouo's factory in the capital Ouagadougou a huge caldron filled with thousands of caterpillars is bubbling and filling the air with a pungent aroma. With his business, FasoPro, Kahitouo is trying to create an industry for shea caterpillars. Something that no-one else has dared do before. Today he sells 10 tonnes of caterpillars every year to markets and shops around the country. But it has not been easy to get to this point. "A lot of people laugh when they hear about my business," Kahitouo explains as he leads us into a room filled from top to bottom with tightly packed boxes of dried caterpillars. Even though caterpillars are traditionally eaten in Burkina Faso, Kahitouo has had a hard time convincing the community that they should eat more of them. "In the beginning it was very difficult for me to find even one shop that would sell the product, but now I don't even have to leave my office. The shops call me up. When I think about that I feel really proud of myself and the business." Kahitouo hopes to spread the business model to other countries but using the local insects found in each place. With nine billion people in the world by 2050 and food production needing to increase by 70% according to the UN, we may all have to get used to the taste of bugs like many people in Burkina Faso already have. Indeed, there is scope for edible insects to play a serious role in food culture beyond being a fashionable snack. However working out how to farm them in an environmentally friendly way is a question that continues to bug. BBC CrowdScience, Should We Eat Insects? airs on the World Service at 19:32 GMT on the 7th of April 2017. After this you can listen online or download the podcast.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2010.2.1.5-1 | Award Amount: 4.40M | Year: 2010

The social and economic impact of natural disasters in emerging economies and developing countries is growing. Many African countries have fragile economies unable to absorb the shocks caused by natural disasters enhanced by the increasing vulnerability of rapidly expanding urban areas. Climate change is likely to rapidly exacerbate this situation. The overall objective of CLUVA is to develop methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to manage climate risks, to reduce vulnerabilities and to improve coping capacity and resilience towards climate changes. CLUVA will explore these issues in selected African cities (Addis Ababa, Dar es Salaam, Douala, Ougadougou, St.Louis). The project aims at improving the capacity of scientific institutions, local councils and civil society to cope with climate change. CLUVA will assess the environmental, social and economic impacts and the risks of climate change induced hazards expected to affect urban areas (floods, sea-level rise, storm surges, droughts, heat waves, desertification, storms and fires) at various time frames. The project will develop innovative climate change risk adaptation strategies based on strong interdisciplinary components. CLUVA will be conducted by a balanced partnership of European and African partners. The 7 European partners will bring together some of EUs leading experts in climate, quantitative hazard and risk assessment, risk management, urban planners and social scientists. The 6 African partners from South Africa and from the Universities of the selected cities cover a similar range of expertises, making possible an effective integrated research effort. The project is structured in 6 WorkPackages dealing with climate change and impact models (WP1), multiple vulnerability (WP2), urban planning and governance as key issues to increase the resilience (WP3), capacity building and dissemination (WP4), coordination of the activities in the selected cities (WP5) and project management (WP6).

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.3.4-3 | Award Amount: 2.23M | Year: 2011

The APARET fellowship programme will catalyse independent research activities of graduates of Field Epidemiology Training Programmes (FETP) and Field Epidemiology Laboratory Training programmes (FELTP) in Africa. APARET fellows will be employed as research associates by African APARET partners for 2 years (salary provided by host institute). During the first year of their contract they will be embedded in the EU-supported APARET programme. A core part of the fellowship will be the application for a major research grant. The APARET programme will consist of: - Workshops: a two-week initiation workshop with face-to face contact between fellow and mentor and workshops on topics such as research funding, project management, ethical issues; a one-week proposal writing and project-planning workshop; a one-week final seminar, where fellows will present their result. - A mentoring programme linking each fellow with a local supervisor and an external mentor providing support for scientific and grant writing activities - Small research grants enabling the fellows to perform independent scientific activities at their host institutes. - Embedding the fellows in a network of African and European epidemiologists APARET can be credited towards a PhD degree of the respective university. EU-funding covers 3 successive cohorts of fellows. APARET will support the fellows in meeting the following objectives: I) Main objective: Prepare, write and submit a proposal for a major research grant. II) Additional objectives: 1. Plan, develop and conduct an epidemiological research project. 2. Perform epidemiological analyses 3. Submit a scientific manuscript to a peer-reviewed journal. 4. Critically review and provide feedback on a scientific paper. 5. Participate in the training of other epidemiologists. APARET supports well-trained epidemiologists in establishing a career in Africa.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 4.53M | Year: 2010

UNDESERT aims at combatting desertification and land degradation in order to mitigate their impacts on ecosystem services, and following on human livelihoods. The West African region is central for understanding desertification and degradation processes, which are already severe and widespread as a consequence of climate change and human impact. An improved understanding of the effects of desertification and degradation processes is obtained on a local to regional scale by integrating remote sensing information with sound field data on biodiversity and soil as well as socioeconomic and climate data. On this basis decision support models and tools will be developed and introduced to natural resource managers. UNDESERT also includes two very practical aspects, 1) restoration through tree plantations, which will be certified for CO2 marketing as the first restoration site in West Africa, 2) ecosystem management based on scientific data and best practices developed in close collaboration between scientists and local communities. As a demand driven project, UNDESERT activities will be implemented by employing 17 young PhD students, who will receive training to enhance future capacities to manage risks and uncertainties in the frame of future demographic and climatic changes. The scientific results will be used to combat desertification and degradation directly and will be transferred to international programs in order to contribute to the implementation of relevant international strategies, initiatives and commitments of the EU and African countries.

Bassole I.H.N.,University of Ouagadougou | Juliani H.R.,Rutgers University
Molecules | Year: 2012

Essential oils (EOs) have been long recognized for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. They are widely used in medicine and the food industry for these purposes. The increased interest in alternative natural substances is driving the research community to find new uses and applications of these substances. EOs and their components show promising activities against many food-borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms when tested in vitro. In food systems, higher concentrations of EOs are needed to exert similar antibacterial effects as those obtained in in vitro assays. The use of combinations of EOs and their isolated components are thus new approaches to increase the efficacy of EOs in foods, taking advantage of their synergistic and additive effects. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview on the antimicrobial efficacy of these combinations. A survey of the methods used for the determination of the interactions and mechanisms involved in the antimicrobial activities of these combinations are also reported. © 2012 by the authors.

Dos Santos S.,University of Ouagadougou | LeGrand T.,University of Montréal
Urban Studies | Year: 2013

In many respects, easy access to water of good quality and in adequate quantity can be regarded as a basic social service that is central to both health and socioeconomic development. Having piped water in the dwelling or in the yard remains the best way of having low cost and easily accessible water, compared with water vendors or standpipes. However, international data estimate that only 35 per cent of urban population in sub-Saharan Africa have piped water access. This research uses event history analysis methods to study the factors affecting sustained piped water access in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso, where only 23 per cent of the urban population had piped water in 2010. The analysis demonstrates the relationship between aspects of one's life history-particularly residential status-and access to piped water. These results are discussed from the perspective of social and health issues. © 2012 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Ouedraogo I.M.,University of Ouagadougou
Energy Economics | Year: 2010

This study empirically establishes the direction of causality between electricity consumption and economic growth in Burkina Faso for the period 1968-2003. The bounds test yields evidence of cointegration between electricity consumption, GDP, and capital formation when electricity consumption and GDP are used as dependent variable. Causality results indicate that there is no significant causal relationship between electricity consumption and investment. Estimates, however, detect in the long-run a bidirectional causal relationship between electricity use and real GDP. There is also evidence of a positive feedback causal relationship between GDP and capital formation. Burkina Faso is therefore an energy dependent country. It is also a country in which electricity consumption is growing with the level of income. All of this shows that electricity is a significant factor in socio-economic development in Burkina Faso; as such, energy policy must be implemented to ensure that electricity generates fewer potential negative impacts. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

In the Man-Leo Shield, Paleoproterozoic (Birimian) belts crop out in nine countries of West Africa. Dominant domains include: (i) greenstone belts composed of plutono-volcanic, volcano-clastic and sedimentary rocks, deformed and weakly metamorphosed under regional greenschist facies conditions; (ii) widespread granitoid batholiths. The domains display a basin and dome-like architecture, and are overprinted by partitioned structures from successively shallower crustal depth.Analyses of key ductile and brittle structures has shown that the structural evolution of Man-Leo Shield is characterized by early vertical magmato-tectonics and subsequently, horizontal transcurrent tectonics with progression from ductile to brittle behavior. Basin and dome-like architectures, and the formation of an ubiquitous vertical foliation (MF) formed during emplacement of early amphibole-bearing (PAG) granite plutons at ca. 2.2Ga by diapirism during NW-SE crustal shortening. Subsequent to a late stage of predominantly NW-SE shortening that created steeply-dipping mylonite zones (Mz1), transcurrent faults became predominant. The formation of transcurrent faults began transpressively, with development of N-S trending regional-scale mylonite zones (Mz1), and a steeply-plunging stretching lineation that probably formed during emplacement of PAG-type granitoids ca. 2.15Ga. NNE-SSW transpressive sinistral horsetail faults and many NW-SE trending tension veins are interpreted to have formed at this stage. After cooling of the upper crust ca. 2.1Ga, transcurrent faults became strike-slip in character with formation of dominantly NE-SW dextral faults (Mz2) and the passive emplacement of biotite (PBG) granitoids. Clockwise rotation of the extensional stress axis (σ3) from NNE-SSW trending to ENE-SSW trending assisted the propagation of dextral NE-SW and sinistral NW-SE extensional en echelon horsetail faults. WNW-ESE trending extension jogs (Egz) are interpreted to have been initiated under the same stress conditions. Displacements on strike-slip/transcurrent faults are interpreted as the product of rotation of rigid nuclei blocks producing faults' re-activation.On the Man-Leo Shield Paleoproterozoic rocks are poorly exposed, but the tectonic model proposed in this study can help to shed light on the structural setting in areas of the shield which are poorly exposed, and in particular, why regional-scale structures do not display significant horizontal displacements. For practical use, key structural criteria can help to identify mylonite zones and transcurrent faults at different scales of investigation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Noufou O.,University of Ouagadougou
Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine | Year: 2012

To screen methanol and dichloromethane extracts of stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in vitro antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined by using carrageenan induced-edema of mice paw and croton oil-induced edema of mice ear; analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing. Phytochemical screening of extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography. The chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of main active components as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin. The structures were established by TLC and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Both methanol and dichloromethane extracts, friedelin, lupeol and epicatechin showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect using croton oil induced-ear edema. Furthermore, the action of dichloromethane extract was more important. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the methanol extract was able to reduce the carrageenan induced-hind paw edema, while at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, it showed an important analgesic effect against writhing induced by acetic acid injection of 38.8%, 68.0% and 74.3%, respectively. Antioxidative properties of methanol extract and its dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were assessed by using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The methanol extract showed the stronger radical scavenging activity than dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, with an antiradical power of 5, 3.5 and 2 respectively. The main components isolated from these extracts as friedelin, lupeol and epicathechin were responsible of these activities. The results suggest that the stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed important anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and strong antioxidant properties, therefore, they could be used as potential natural ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Late D.J.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Doneux T.,Free University of Colombia | Bougouma M.,University of Ouagadougou
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2014

High performance chemical sensor is highly desirable to detect traces of toxic gas molecules. Two dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) semiconducting materials has attracted as high performance gas sensor device applications due to unique properties such as high surface to volume ratio. Here, we describe the utilization of single-layer MoSe2 as high-performance room temperature NH3 gas sensors. Our single-layer MoSe2 based gas sensor device shows comprehensible detection of NH3 gas down to 50 ppm. We also confirmed gas sensing measurement by recording the Raman spectra before and after exposing the device to NH3 gas, which subsequently shows the shift due to charger transfer and analyte gas molecule adsorption on surface of single-layer MoSe2 nanosheet. Our investigations show the potential use of single-layer and few layer thick MoSe2 and other TMDC as high-performance gas sensors. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

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