The University of Ostrava is situated in the city of Ostrava, Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. Founded in 1991, it is the youngest public university in Ostrava. It consists of six faculties and two institutes providing university education. Wikipedia.
News Article | May 18, 2017
By deploying green clay caterpillars across six continents, researchers unmasked an important global pattern. Their study will be published in Science on May 19. Their discovery that predation is most intense near sea level in the tropics--in places like their study sites at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in Panama--provides a foundation for understanding biological processes from crop protection and carbon storage to the effects of climate change on biodiversity. Insects drove the trend, not mammals or birds. "As someone who has studied insect biodiversity in the tropics for most of my life, I wasn't surprised that insects were responsible for most of the predation observed," said Yves Basset, leader of the ForestGEO Arthropod Initiative at STRI. The team put out almost 3,000 model caterpillars for four to 18 days at 31 different sites from Australia to Greenland at different altitudes, from zero to 2,100 meters above sea level. Based on characteristic marks left by predators in the clay, they could tell whether the models were attacked by birds, mammals or insects. Tropical sites were the most dangerous. In Greenland, the daily chances of a caterpillar model being attacked by a predator were only 13 percent of the odds at the equator. And for every 100 meters of increase in altitude, the chance of being attacked fell by almost 6.6 percent. At the highest forested site, the daily odds of a predator attack was only 24 percent of the odds of attack at sea level. "Most previous studies that didn't support the conclusion that predation is more intense in the tropics were pieced together from evidence gathered in different ways by different groups of people," Basset said. "My colleagues and I were part of a team of people from around the world who all used the same method at different sites, including a few of the ForestGEO sites. We deployed many replicates of fake caterpillars, modeled after a geometrid moth, and analyzed our results together." "This seems like a very simple experiment but the results are relevant to the way we understand some of the important processes in nature, like the innovation of defenses and how temperature changes may affect biodiversity," Basset said. "The results further emphasize the power of citizen science for simple, yet significant experiments." "Caterpillars eat plants, therefore causing crop damage and forcing plants to create new chemicals in their leaves to defend themselves," Basset said. "Caterpillars also defend themselves from predators. Our finding that predation pressure is stronger in the tropics also suggests that insects in the tropics have to be more innovative in order to defend themselves." The authors of this study represented 35 research centers and universities, including STRI; the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; the University of Helsinki, Finland; the Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences; the University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; the New Guinea Binatang Research Center; the University of California-Irvine; Eidgenossische Technische Hochshule, Zurich; the University of Texas-Arlington; the University of New England, Australia; the University of Alberta, Edmonton; the University of Iceland; the University of Sao Paolo; the University of Hong Kong; the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen; Instituto de Ecología, Xalapa, Mexico; Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador; the University of Ostrava, Czech Republic; Zoological Society of London, the University of Oxford; the University of Turku, Finland; Chinese Academy of Sciences; the University of Aberdeen; Makerere University, Uganda; Swarthmore College, U.S.; the State Institution of Education, Zditovo, Belarus; Aarhus University, Demark; the University of Tartu, Estonia; the University of Bergen, Norway; the University of Beyruth, Germany; and the University of Lancaster, UK. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, headquartered in Panama City, Panama, is a part of the Smithsonian Institution. The Institute furthers the understanding of tropical nature and its importance to human welfare, trains students to conduct research in the tropics and promotes conservation by increasing public awareness of the beauty and importance of tropical ecosystems. STRI website: http://www. . Roslin. T., Hardwick, B., Novotny, et al. 2017. Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations. Science.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-18-2015 | Award Amount: 6.31M | Year: 2016
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of death or long-term disability in infants born at term in the western world, affecting about 1-4 per 1.000 life births and consequently about 5-20.000 infants per year in Europe. Hypothermic treatment became the only established therapy to improve outcome after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insults. Despite hypothermia and neonatal intensive care, 45-50% of affected children die or suffer from long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. Additional neuroprotective interventions, beside hypothermia, are warranted to further improve their outcome. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and reduces the production of oxygen radicals and brain damage in experimental, animal, and early human studies of ischemia and reperfusion. This project aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of allopurinol administered immediately after birth to near-term infants with HIE in addition to hypothermic treatment. Beyond this primary objective, the project will provide information on the effect of hypothermia on pharmacokinetics of drugs with a similar metabolism as allopurinol in neonates. Furthermore it will give the opportunity to further develop and validate biomarkers for neonatal brain injury using advanced magnetic resonance imaging, biochemistry, and electroencephalogramms, which will then be available for future studies testing neuroprotective interventions. Finally, this trial will extend our knowledge about incidence of and risk factors for perinatal asphyxia and HIE possibly enabling generation of more preventive strategies for the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2014-ETN | Award Amount: 3.79M | Year: 2015
Algal aquaculture is developing exponentially worldwide, with multiple applications in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Current research in algal biotechnology mostly focuses on metabolite discovery, aquaculture yield improvement and engineering bottlenecks. However, agronomical experience shows that controlling the interaction of land crops with mutualistic or pathogenic microbes is most critical to successful production. Likewise, controlling the microbial flora associated with algae (the algal microbiome) is emerging as the biggest biological challenge for their increased usage. Bacteria can control the morphogenesis of algae, while others are indispensable to algal survival. Pathogens are causing devastating diseases, the impact of which worsens with the intensification of aquaculture practices. Thus, the overarching aim of ALFF is to train 15 ESRs (researchers and technologists) within a multinational consortium, whilst bringing a scientific step-change in our understanding of these interactions, leading to the development of superior mass algal cultivation and biocontrol strategies. ALFF tackles: 1) the identification, taxonomy and utilisation of naturally-occurring algal symbionts and pathogens; 2) inter- and intra-species signalling and chemical ecology in aquaculture, natural environment and simplified systems (i.e. axenic cultures \/- symbionts); 3) and harnesses state of the art genomics, molecular, and biochemical techniques to characterise these interactions. A highly interdisciplinary team underpins an ambitious theoretical, field, hands-on training and research program. With the support of high profile institutions, ALFF foresees an exceptionally broad range of dissemination and outreach initiatives to help policy makers and the general public better understand the opportunities and issues relating to the sustainable use of our aquatic freshwater and marine resources, within and beyond the EU.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IRSES | Award Amount: 415.00K | Year: 2014
Nowadays, we can observe a rapid transition of the knowledge society to the society of global competence, in which both the global economy and the education systems are undergoing changes. It is evident, that without an active implementation of innovative forms and methods of education, and above all, distance learning at all levels of education these objectives cannot be successfully achieved. At the same time we should identify an existing problem - the fact that e-learning methodology is not yet fully developed and specified, both within the EU and in Ukraine. Developing and implementation of the system designed to develop IT competences of contemporary specialist, in particularly the future teachers, current teacher, leadership, based on the systematic use of selected Internet technologies, such as some LCMS systems (as Moodle), Massive Open Online Courses, virtual classroom technology, social media, other selected Web 2.0 and Web 3.0. technology positively contributes to the development of skills in the area of IT and intercultural competences. The IRNet project aims to set up a thematic multidisciplinary joint exchange programme dedicated to research and development of new tools for advanced pedagogical science in the field of ICT instruments, distance learning and intercultural competences in EU (Poland, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Slovakia) and Third Countries (Australia, Russia, Ukraine. The programme will strenghteen existing collaboration and establish new scientific contacts through mutual secondments of researchers. The main objectives of the project are: 1.to exchange expertise and knowledge in the field of the innovative techniques of education between EU and Third Countries and suggest effective strategies of implementing new tools in their profession; 2.to analyze and evaluate social, economic, legal conditions, as well as methodologies and e-learning techniques being developed in the European and Third Countries involved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-TP | Phase: KBBE.2012.3.5-02 | Award Amount: 3.93M | Year: 2012
In BIOCLEAN project, novel and robust microorganisms (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi) able to extensively degrade polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrol (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and plastics will be isolated from actual-site aged plastic wastes obtained from several European marine and terrestrial sites, composting facilities and landfills, and obtained via tailored screenings from existing European collections of microbes. Robust enzymes able to fragment the target plastics with the production of valuable chemicals and building blocks will be obtained from the selected microbes and enzyme collections. Untreated and physically/chemically pre-treated PE, PS, PP and PVC polymers and plastics will be employed in such isolation/ screening activities, and an integrated methodology, relying on advanced analytical methods (determining plastics physicochemical changes and breakdown products resulting from biological attack), and tailored enzymatic, microbiological and ecotoxicological methods, will be adopted for the characterization of actual industrial relevance of the obtained microbes and enzymes. Physical and chemical pretreatments improving biodegradability of target plastics will be identified and transferred on the pilot scale. The most promising microbial cultures and enzymes will be exploited in the development of pilot scale, slurry or solid-phase bioprocesses for the bioremediation and controlled depolymerization, respectively, of target pretreated plastics and in the set up of tailored bioaugmentation protocols for enhancing plastic waste biodegradation in marine water systems, composting and anaerobic digestor facilities. The processes developed will be assessed for their economical and environmental sustainability. Field scale validation of the most promising bioaugmentation protocols in a composting and a marine site and attempts to develop a plastic pollution reduction strategy for the Aegean Sea have been planned too
Novak V.,University of Ostrava
Fuzzy Sets and Systems | Year: 2012
This paper is devoted to reasoning about fuzzy logic which is based on various personal observations of the author. Our goal is to think of the state of the art in mathematical fuzzy logic (MFL) and to outline some of the tasks on which, in the author's opinion, MFL should focus in the future. In our discussion, we will mention not only the basic theory, but also its extension called fuzzy logic in broader sense (FLb). The paradigm of the latter is to be the logic of natural human reasoning, whose most essential characteristic is the use of natural language. Besides brief description of FLb, we will also mention some of its applications. On the basis of that, we will ponder on other possible directions for research, namely the possibility of using FLn as a metatheory of fuzzy mathematics, as a proper tool for modeling of the main manifestations of the phenomenon of vagueness, and as a reasonable tool for developing models of linguistic semantics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Silhan K.,University of Ostrava
Geomorphology | Year: 2014
High-gradient channels are the locations of the greatest geomorphological activity in medium-high mountains. The channels' frequency and character influence the contemporary morphology and morphometry of alluvial fans. There is currently no detailed information regarding the frequency of these processes in high-gradient channels and the evolution of alluvial fans in medium-high mountains in Central Europe. This study in the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. analysed 22 alluvial fans (10 debris flow fans and 12 fluvial fans). The processes occurring on the fans were dated using dendrogeomorphological methods. A total of 748 increment cores were taken from 374 trees to reconstruct 153 geomorphological process events (60 debris flow and 93 floods). The frequency of the processes has been considerably increasing in the last four decades, which can be related to extensive tree cutting since the 1970s. Processes in high-gradient channels in the region (affecting the alluvial fans across the mountain range) are predominantly controlled by cyclonal activity during the warm periods of the year. Probable triggers of local events are heavy downpours in the summer. In addition, spring snowmelt has been identified as occasionally important. This study of the relations affecting the type and frequency of the processes and their effect on the properties of alluvial fans led to the creation of a universal framework for the medium-high flysch mountains of Central Europe. The framework particularly reflects the influence of the character of hydrometeorological extremes on the frequency and type of processes and their reflection in the properties of alluvial fans. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Perfilieva I.,University of Ostrava
Information Sciences | Year: 2013
In this paper, we consider the problem of solving systems of fuzzy relation equations. Two types of these systems with different compositions are considered and processed simultaneously. A new sufficient condition and new solvability criteria are proposed for systems of both types. All these conditions are finitary and thus can be easily verified. The sufficient condition and criteria of solvability characterize a relationship between a skeleton n × n matrix (n is a number of equations) and a vector of the right-hand side. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lata J.,University of Ostrava
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension. This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys, where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration, which ultimately results in uraemia. The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites. Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output. Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure, but refractory ascites, and its impact on prognosis is less negative. Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method, nevertheless, only a few patients can receive it. The most suitable "bridge treatments" or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response. Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IRSES | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES | Award Amount: 240.90K | Year: 2013
The main objective of the proposal is the creation, and development of a cooperative research network which utilizes the strengths and synergies of the knowledge of the member research groups. This new cooperation symbolizes the coercive power of two branches of mathematics, namely those of ALGEBRA and GEOMETRY, which had been unified first in the creation Decartesian coordinate geometry. 3 of 6 research groups are on the edge of algebraic research, while the others gained essential results and knowledge in geometry. With different backgrounds, new synergies and methodologies will arise and accelerate the research activities. Besides the traditional mobility schemes and distributing ideas on conferences and publications, new methodology of continuous reaction is planned to put in practice by the usage of world wide web, creating the platform of online web workshops at regular times. This will ensure sustainability of the network for long time. We plan to achieve new scientific results on the following topics: imprimitive transformation groups, affine geometries over paradual near rings; fundamental theorem of geometric algebra, Novikovs conjecture and the properties of skew-symmetric and symmetric elements for general involutions in group algebras. multiplication loops of locally compact topological translation planes; Lie groups which are the groups topologically generated by all left and right translations of topological loops; the inverse problem of the calculus of variations for second order ordinary differential equations: existence of variational multipliers, in particular, of multipliers satisfying the Finsler homogeneity conditions, and Riemannian and Finsler metrizability; metric structures associated with Lagrangians and Finsler functions variational structures in Finsler geometry and applications in physics (general relativity, Feynmam integral); Hamiltonian structures for homogeneous Lagrangians.