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Osnabruck, Germany

The University of Osnabrück is a renowned public research university located in the city of Osnabrück in Lower Saxony, Germany.In 2011 it was attended by 11,034 students; the staff of 1,858 consisted of 209 professors, 936 additional academic personnel and 713 non-academic personnel. The university is known for a large number of interdisciplinary degree programmes, some of them rare or even unique among German universities, including European Studies, Applied Systems Science and Cognitive Science. Notably, the university is well known for its research in cognitive science, peace and conflict studies, democratic governance, European Studies, among many others.In addition, the university, through its Master of Arts in Democratic Governance and Civil Society graduate program, is also part of the highly prestigious DAAD Public Policy and Good Governance Scholarships for Developing Countries, along with other reputable institutions in political science and public policy such as the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin and the Willy Brandt School of Public Policy in Erfurt. The program attracts the best and the brightest young leaders from Asia, Latin America, and Africa to study in selected German universities for a policy-oriented Master's program.Former President of Germany, Christian Wulff, is an alumnus of the university. Wikipedia.

Schreiber G.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Piehler J.,University of Osnabruck
Trends in Immunology | Year: 2015

Type I interferons (IFNs) are best known for their role in innate immunity, but they are also involved in other functions including immunomodulation, restricting proliferation, cancer surveillance, and the regulation of the adaptive immune response. All these responses are mediated through the interaction with a single cell surface receptor, albeit at different ligand and receptor concentrations, ligand subtypes, and time of activation. Here we review the functional plasticity of IFN signaling from a quantitative perspective, showing how variations in different ingredients of the system lead to differential IFN responses and how cells tune the system to maximize efficiency while minimizing detrimental effects. We present a basic model wherein the integrated action of different feedback mechanisms can provide sufficient temporal control to differentially drive cellular decisions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, surface stresses acting on the cell wall or plasma membrane are detected by a group of five membrane sensors: Wsc1, Wsc2, Wsc3, Mid2 and Mtl2. Here we present protocols to measure the mechanical properties of Wsc1 sensors in their native cellular environment, using the combination of genetic manipulations with single-molecule atomic-force microscopy (AFM). We describe procedures (i) for obtaining genetically modified sensors that are fully functional and suitable for AFM analysis, i.e., elongated Wsc1 derivatives terminated with a His-tag, and (ii) for detecting and stretching single Wsc1 sensors on the surface of living S. cerevisiae cells, using AFM tips functionalized with Ni(2+)-NTA groups. These procedures are multidisciplinary to implement and need competent researchers from at least two disciplines: molecular biology and nanotechnology. For experienced researchers in biological AFM, the entire protocol can be completed in approximately 3 weeks. Source

Junge W.,University of Osnabruck | Nelson N.,Tel Aviv University
Annual Review of Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Oxygenic photosynthesis is the principal converter of sunlight into chemical energy. Cyanobacteria and plants provide aerobic life with oxygen, food, fuel, fibers, and platform chemicals. Four multisubunit membrane proteins are involved: photosystem I (PSI), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f), and ATP synthase (FOF1). ATP synthase is likewise a key enzyme of cell respiration. Over three billion years, the basic machinery of oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration has been perfected to minimize wasteful reactions. The proton-driven ATP synthase is embedded in a proton tight-coupling membrane. It is composed of two rotary motors/generators, FO and F1, which do not slip against each other. The proton-driven FO and the ATP-synthesizing F1 are coupled via elastic torque transmission. Elastic transmission decouples the two motors in kinetic detail but keeps them perfectly coupled in thermodynamic equilibrium and (time-averaged) under steady turnover. Elastic transmission enables operation with different gear ratios in different organisms. Copyright © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source

Piehler J.,University of Osnabruck
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014

Quantitative protein interaction analysis in living cells remains highly challenging as concentrations of interactions partners are difficult to quantify and to temporally modulate. In this review, the fundamental concepts for monitoring protein interactions in cells are discussed. Next to already well-established resonance energy transfer-based techniques, recent developments of approaches based on single molecule fluctuation and localization are presented. Moreover, the application of surface micropatterning and functionalized nanoparticles for solid phase type of protein interaction analysis in living cells are introduced. The complementary capabilities and limitations of these techniques and future directions based technological developments are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Keller H.,University of Osnabruck
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2012

Autonomy and relatedness are considered basic human needs that manifest differently in different cultural environments in response to contextual demands. This article conceptualizes 3 types of cultural environments-prototypical Western, urban, middle-class families; prototypical rural, subsistence-based farming families; and a hybrid milieu of urban middle-class families from non-Western environments-and proposes that autonomy and relatedness have different meanings in each type. In contexts in which individuals have a high degree of formal education (Western and non-Western middle-class families), there is an emphasis on inner states and mental representations. Western middle-class families focus on separate individuals; non-Western middle-class families focus on the family as a social unit. In contexts in which individuals have a low degree of formal education, there is a primary emphasis on social responsibilities. Different socialization strategies support adaptive frameworks in each of the 3 types of contexts: individual psychological autonomy in Western middle-class families, communal psychological autonomy in non-Western middle-class families, and action autonomy in subsistence-based farming families. All conceptions of autonomy and relatedness can be considered as universal competencies, yet they are differently emphasized in different cultural milieus due to differing contextual demands. © 2011 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2011 The Society for Research in Child Development. Source

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