University of Osnabrck


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Hein A.,OFFIS Institute for Information Technology | Winkelbach S.,TU Braunschweig | Martens B.,OFFIS Institute for Information Technology | Wilken O.,OFFIS Institute for Information Technology | And 7 more authors.
Informatics for Health and Social Care | Year: 2010

In this article, the design of a system for the ambient, unobtrusive and automatic monitoring of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) is described. In the context of the growing imbalance between (potentially young) caregivers and (most often older) people receiving care, technical monitoring systems may help to organise care more efficiently and to identify degrading abilities very early to trigger preventive measures. To improve the acceptance of the system described in this article, the selection process of the sensors to be integrated into the flat or to be worn by the older people has been steered by the results of focus group interviews with older people, their relatives and professional caregivers. The interviews revealed that these people would in general accept such systems, but security, mobility and communication aspects have to be clearly and appropriately addressed. In an experimental study the recognition rate of the activity 'preparation and intake of food or beverages' has been measured with two age groups (6 subjects, age between 25 and 40/mean 30 years and 5 subjects, age between 72 and 84/mean 75.3 years). The food preparation was detected with a sensitivity of 74.7 and a specificity of 84.2 using a vision sensor. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Haux R.,Hannover Medical School | Hein A.,OFFIS Institute for Information Technology | Eichelberg M.,OFFIS Institute for Information Technology | Appell J.-E.,Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology | And 47 more authors.
Informatics for Health and Social Care | Year: 2010

Worldwide, ageing societies are bringing challenges for independent living and healthcare. Health-enabling technologies for pervasive healthcare and sensor-enhanced health information systems offer new opportunities for care. In order to identify, implement and assess such new information and communication technologies ICT the 'Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing' GAL has been launched in 2008 as interdisciplinary research project. In this publication, we inform about the goals and structure of GAL, including first outcomes, as well as to discuss the potentials and possible barriers of such highly interdisciplinary research projects in the field of health-enabling technologies for pervasive healthcare. Although GAL's high interdisciplinarity at the beginning slowed down the speed of research progress, we can now work on problems, which can hardly be solved by one or few disciplines alone. Interdisciplinary research projects on ICT in ageing societies are needed and recommended. © 2010 Informa UK, Ltd.

Schaefer A.,University of Bremen | Gevers S.,University of Osnabrck | Zielasek V.,University of Bremen | Schroeder T.,Ihp Microelectronics | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Physics | Year: 2011

A cold radio frequency oxygen plasma treatment is demonstrated as a successful route to prepare clean, well-ordered, and stoichiometric PrO 2 layers on silicon. High structural quality of these layers is shown by x-ray diffraction. So far unobserved spectral characteristics in Pr 3d x-ray photoelectron (XP) spectra of PrO2 are presented as a fingerprint for praseodymia in its highest oxidized state. They provide insight in the electronic ground state and the special role of praseodymia among the rare earth oxides. They also reveal that former XP studies suffered from a significant reduction at the surface. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Bar-Lev S.K.,Haifa University | Schulte-Geers E.,Bundesamt Fr Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik | Stadje W.,University of Osnabrck
Operations Research Letters | Year: 2011

The demand pooling anomaly of inventory theory of type F amounts to a kind of restricted order relation between the individual demands (assumed to be independent) and their average. In this paper, we present some sufficient conditions for the type F anomaly not to occur for two i.i.d. demands; furthermore we provide an asymptotic result showing whether this anomaly occurs for large n for a class of distributions containing all distributions with finite mean. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Finger H.,University of Osnabrck | Liu S.-C.,ETH Zurich
Proceedings - IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems | Year: 2011

A binaural spike-based sound localization system suitable for real-time attention systems of robots is presented in this work. This system uses the output spikes from a 64-channel binaural silicon cochlea. The localization algorithm implements a spike-based correlation of these output spikes that measures the interaural time differences (ITDs) between the arrival of a sound to two microphones. The algorithm continuously updates a possible distribution of ITDs in the auditory scene whenever a spike arrives from either ear of the cochlea. Experimental results show that the system can estimate an azimuth angle to below 1 deg resolution. This algorithm is computationally cheaper than conventional generalized cross-correlation methods and is quicker to respond to changes in the scene. © 2011 IEEE.

Foley J.A.,University of Edinburgh | Kaschel R.,University of Osnabrck | Logie R.H.,University of Edinburgh | Della Sala S.,University of Edinburgh
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology | Year: 2011

Although several studies have shown that dual-tasking ability is impaired in Alzheimers disease (AD), the stage at which this deficit manifests remains unclear. This study investigated if a new paper-and-pencil assessment of dual-tasking ability could distinguish between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal ageing in a sample of 50 people with AD, 49 people with MCI, and 50 healthy age-matched controls. The AD group demonstrated a significant impairment in dual-task ability. There was no effect of either MCI or healthy ageing on dual-task performance, indicating that the dual-task impairment is specific to AD. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Sendzimir J.,International Institute For Applied Systems Analysis | Flachner Z.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Pahl-Wostl C.,University of Osnabrck | Knieper C.,University of Osnabrck
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010

In river basins transformation from traditions of reactive flood defense to more adaptive management regimes is difficult. How regime components reinforce each other to set its development path may induce inertia and path dependency. Transformation may require profound shifts in the institutions, technologies, and personnel as well as the ecological, economic and social processes they influence in setting the basin's trajectory. Regime change has become an issue in Hungary following repeated failures of conventional management policies to handle a series of floods on the Tisza river starting in 1997. Increasing public participation pushed water policy debate toward more experimentation with alternatives, but implementation appears stalled. In this paper we review hypotheses about what factors are bridges or barriers to transformation and then use the Management Transition Framework to examine how the interactions linking action situations, operational outcomes, knowledge and institutions influenced the river management policy debate in Hungary from 1997 to 2009. Specifically we examined which factors characteristic of conventional Control vs. progressive Adaptive management regimes influenced these interactions in ways that contributed to or hindered transformation. We found that governance and social learning issues predominated, with lesser roles played by factors related to integration of sectors and different levels in the science and policy of river management. © 2010.

Von Twickel A.,University of Osnabrck | Hild M.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Siedel T.,Humboldt University of Berlin | Patel V.,University of Osnabrck | Pasemann F.,University of Osnabrck
Robotics and Autonomous Systems | Year: 2012

The modular walking machine Octavio is a bio-inspired robot designed to serve as a testbed for modular neural locomotion control. It consists of up to eight control- and energy-autonomous leg modules, each equipped with 3 active and 2 passive compliant joints and various proprioceptive sensors. Legs may be either used in single leg (treadmill) experiments or can be quickly attached to and detached from bodies with different morphologies. Body morphologies include 4-, 6- and 8-legged machines. Neurocybernetic control is developed and optimized using evolutionary techniques together with a physical simulation of the machine and its environment. This article gives an overview of the machines mechanics, electronics, firmware, configuration and control software. Simple examples demonstrate how the behavior of the simulated and the physical machines are controlled by e.g. neurobiologically motivated modular neural networks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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